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aiooeeie?aneiai oieneia a cia?eoaeuiie ia?a ia?aie?a- Yenia?eiaioaeuiua aaiiua naeaaoaeunoao?o i aicii?-
ii ec–ca eo aunieie noieiinoe. iii i?ioeaiyieeaioe?aneii yooaeoa aunieeo aic i?a-
A i?aeoe?aneie aayoaeuiinoe iaeaieaa oe?iei en- ia?aoa, iaoaieci eioi?iai inoaaony iayniui [16]. Ia-
iieuco?ony iei?aeaenaiou – aaeeioai, oecaieaei iaei a ea?anoaa nianoaaiii i?ioeaiyieeaioe?aneiai
(Ne?aaeoa), aeacaiai, aaio?ieai, oieia?ecii [3–5,7,8]. i?aia?aoa Ne?aaeoa ia eniieucoaony.
N?aae i?aia?aoia yoie a?oiiu Ne?aaeoa caieiaao ini- Aioenianoe?aneee yooaeo Ne?aaeoaa i?eia?ii ni-
aia ianoi, ?oi naycaii n iaoaieciii aai aaenoaey e iinoaaei n yooaeoii aaeeioaia e aeacaiaia. Iaiaei
eeeie?aneei yooaeoii. ?aeyynu oaio?aeuiui ?2–aa?a- Ne?aaeoa eiaao ii n?aaiaie? n yoeie i?aia?aoaie ia-
iaeiaa?iua i?aeiouanoaa – eo?oo? ia?aiineiinou
ia?ae?aneei aaiienoii, Ne?aaeoa iaeaaaao noeioee?o-
e ionoonoaea nouanoaaiiiai nie?aiey iuoa?iie
?uei aaenoaeai ia iiiiaieia?ae?aneea ya?a noaiea
neeu [30,41]. Iineaaiaa ianoiyoaeunoai nouanoaaiii
aieiaiiai iicaa. Yoi i?eaiaeo e oi?ii?aie? nieiaeu-
iuo iioiiae?iiia, naycaiiuo aooa?aioiuie aieieia- ia?aie?eaaao eniieuciaaiea aaeeioaia e aeacaiaia,
ie II oeia ni noaieiauie oaio?aie, e niioaaonoaaiii – e iineieueo nie?aiea iuoa?iie neeu ii?ao ioia?aouny
nie?aie? iuoa?iiai oiiona. I?e yoii oiaiuoaaony eae a ia?aoe?iuo, oae e a eioaeoiuo eiia?iinoyo. Neaao-
aua?in aicao?aa?ueo aieiieeneio ec anoaai?iuo nie- ao caiaoeou, ?oi aieaa 10% aieuiuo, ia?aaoeo i?eie-
iaeuiuo iae?iiia. Ienoiayuea aa?aia?ae?aneea noi- iaou aaeeioai, auio?aaiu a iineaao?uai ioeacaouny
?anieiaeuiua iooe ea?a?o cia?eoaeuio? ?ieu a ?aaoey- io aai i?eaia ec–ca ia?anoaiey iuoa?iie neaainoe.
oee iuoa?iiai oiiona [15,16,22]. Aiaoiie?anee yoe io- Ne?aaeoa oe?iei eniieucoaony aey ea?aiey nia-
oe oanii naycaiu ni nieiaeuiuie no?oeoo?aie, iniaai- noe?iinoe ?acee?iiai aaiaca [2,4,5,7,9,29]. Iiei?eoaeu-
ii n ia?aaieie ?iaaie, ?acoeuoaou oeceieiae?aneeo iue aioenianoe?aneee yooaeo i?aia?aoa iineo aicica-
enneaaiaaiee naeaaoaeunoao?o ia eo o?anoee a ?aaoee- aeneiue oa?aeoa?, ?oi iiaoaa??aaaony ia?aeeaeuiui
?iaaiee ?aoeaeoi?iuo nieiaeuiuo ioaaoia [15]. A niei- ii?aaaeaieai o?iaiy i?aia?aoa a ieacia e?iae [37].
iii iicaa aieuoay ?anou ?2–?aoaioi?ia ?aniieaaaaony Iiaai? eiaeaeaoaeuii yooaeoeaiie aicu (io 2 ia ai
ia anoaai?iuo iae?iiao, a ia ia iioiiae?iiao. ?aeyynu iaeneiaeuiie aicu 36 ia/noo.) iau?ii inouanoaeyaony a
i?iecaiaiui eeiieaeia, Ne?aaeoa iaeaaaao aunieei oa?aiea 2–4 iaaaeu. Iinea ia?i?aeuiiai i?eaia aaeno-
n?ianoaii e ?2– e i?aeoe?anee ia aaenoaoao ia ?1–aa?a- aea i?aia?aoa i?iyaeyaony o?a ?a?ac 30–45 ieioo, ia-
ia?ae?aneea ?aoaioi?u [15]. Iia aaenoaeai Ne?aaeoaa eneiaeuiue yooaeo ianooiaao a oa?aiea 1–2 ?ania [41].
i?ienoiaeo oi?ii?aiea aunaiai?aaiey ec nieiaeuiuo Oeo?oaiea ioia?aaony o 60–82% aieuiuo (aey n?aaia-
iae?iiia ania?oaoa [18]. Yoio i?aia?ao naeaeoeaii ei- iey: ia oiia i?eaia aaeeioaia – o 60–65%, aeacaiaia
aeae?oao ?a?ac ?2–aa?aii?aoaioi?u anoaai?iua iae?i- – o 60–83%), i?e yoii nianoe?iinou nie?aaony a n?aaiai
iu caaieo ?iaia nieiiiai iicaa, ?oi ea?eo a iniiaa aai ia 21–37% (ia oiia i?eaia ieaoaai – ia 4–9%) [41].
aiaeuaace?o?uaai yooaeoa [19,20]. Aa?ii caiaoeou, ?oi iaoaieci aaenoaey Ne?aaeoaa
Auneacuaaaony i?aaiiei?aiea i oii, ?oi aiiieie- nouanoaaiii ioee?ai io iaoaieciia aaenoaey a?oaeo i?a-
oaeuiue aioenianoe?aneee yooaeo Ne?aaeoaa iaoneia- ia?aoia, eniieucoaiuo aey nie?aiey iiauoaiiiai iu-
eai aai aeeyieai ia ?2–?aoaioi?u ii?aa?aia?ae?aneeo oa?iiai oiiona. Iiyoiio Ne?aaeoa i?eiaiyaony a neooa-
iae?iiia, ?aniieaaa?ueony a iaeanoe aieoaiai iyoia e oeyo, eiaaa ionoonoaoao aioenianoe?aneee yooaeo a?oaeo
ieacuaa?ueo aeeyiea ia nieiaeuiua no?oeoo?u [42,43]. aioenianoe?aneeo n?aanoa (i?e oae iacuaaaiuo «ia ioaa-
Auei auyaeaii, ?oi aaenoaea Ne?aaeoaa, oae?a eae e ?a?ueo ia ea?aiea» neo?ayo). E?iia oiai, o?eouaay ?ac-
ii?aa?aiaeeia, ia aa?aii?aoaioi?u ia iaiyaony ia ee?ey a iaoaieciao aaenoaey, Ne?aaeoa e aaeeioai iiaoo
oiia aaaaaiey ?1– e ?–aa?aia?ae?aneeo aioaaiienoia eniieuciaaouny aey ea?aiey nianoe?iinoe a eiiaeiaoee.
Aey Ne?aaeoaa oa?aeoa?ai aano?ii?ioaeoeaiue yo-
eee aioaaiienoa iieaoiuo ?aoaioi?ia iaeieniia. A yen-
oaeo, i?ienoi?aaiea eioi?iai inoaaony ai eiioa ia au-
ia?eiaioa ia auei auyaeaii aaenoaey Ne?aaeoaa ia
yniaiiui. Aaiiua yenia?eiaioaeuiuo e eeeie?aneeo
eeaoee ?yioio [17]. D. Coward [16], aiaeece?oy ?acoeu-
enneaaiaaiee naeaaoaeunoao?o i aai niiniaiinoe i?a-
oaou yenia?eiaioaeuiuo e eeeie?aneeo enneaaiaaiee,
aio?aiyou neecenoo? ?aeoaea io aaenoaey ianoa?ieaiuo
iia?a?eeaaao, ?oi aioeiioeoaioeaiue yooaeo Ne?aa-
i?ioeaiainiaeeoaeuiuo i?aia?aoia. Iaoaieci yoiai
eoaa iineo naiinoiyoaeuiue oa?aeoa? e ia naycai n aai
yooaeoa naycuaa?o n aa?aia?ae?aneie aeoeaiinou?,
iei?aeaene?o?uei aaenoaeai.
oi?ii?aieai au?aaioee ?aeoai?iiai nae?aoa e niinia-
Ia oiia aaenoaey Ne?aaeoaa nie?aaony eeou oiie-
iinou? i?aaioa?auaou eciaiaiey aeeeii?ioaeiia, iao-
?aneee eiiiiiaio iuoa?iiai nie?auaiey i?e nio?ai-
neiaeaiiua aeeyieai anie?eia eee eiaiiaoaoeia.
iinoe oace?aneie ?aaeoee [15]. Yoi ioee?ii io aaenoaey

504 13, 7, 2005
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