<<

. 2
( 2 .)



21. Wolfe F, Preundlich B, Straus WL. Increase in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease prevalence in rheumatoid
iea eioeeeneiaaa i?eaiaeo e nie?aie? ?acenoaioiinoe e einoeeio o iaoeaioia n ?A e AN [88]. Oaeei arthritis. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 36–40

22. Watson DJ, Rhodes T, Guess HA. All–cause mortality and vascular events among patients with rheumatoid arthritis,
ia?acii, i?e ?A eioeeeneiaa ia oieuei iiaaaeyao ainiaeaiey nonoaaia, ii e i?eaiaeo e oeo?oaie?
osteoarthritis, or no arthritis in the UK general practice research database. J Rheumatol 2003; 50: 1196–1202.
ooieoee yiaioaeey, ?oi ii?ao a ia?niaeoeaa i?eaiaeou e nie?aie? ?enea ea?aeiaaneoey?iie eaoaeu-
23. Fischer LM, Schlienger RG, Matter C, et al. Effects of rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus on the risk
iinoe [81]. Iaiaei o iaoeaioia ?A n na?aa?iie iaainoaoi?iinou? eioeeeneiaa aie?ai i?eiaiyouny n
of first–time acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 2004; 93: 198–200.
iniaie inoi?i?iinou?, iineieueo o iaoeaioia n canoieiie na?aa?iie iaainoaoi?iinou? aai i?eiaia-
24. Maradit–Kremers H, Crowson CS, Nicola PJ, et al. Increased unrecognized coronary heart disease and sudden deaths in
iea ii?ao i?eaiaeou e aaeiiiainaoee [82]. rheumatoid arthritis. A population–based controlled study. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52: 402–411

25. Silman AJ, Newman J, MacGregor AJ. Cigarette smoking increases the risk of rheumatoid arthritis: results from a nation-
Aey caiaaeaiey i?ia?anne?iaaiey aoa?ineea?ioe?aneiai ii?a?aiey ninoaia e nie?aiey ?enea
wide study of disease discordant twins. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39: 732–735.
ea?aeiaaneoey?iuo eaoano?io eniieucoaony oe?ieee niaeo? aeiieeieaaie?aneeo i?aia?aoia, n?aae
26. Goodson NJ, Silman AJ, Pattison DJ, et al. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors measured prior to the onset of inflam-
eioi?uo iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuie, ianiiiaiii, yaeyaony noaoeiu [83]. Ooiaaiaioaeuiue iaoaieci,
matory polyarthritis. Rheumatology 2004; 43: 731–736.
ii?aaaey?uee aeiieeieaaie?aneia aaenoaea noaoeiia – ia?aoeiay eiaeaeoey aeoeaiinoe oa?iaioa
27. Situnayake RD, Kitas G. Dislipidemia and rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1997; 56: 341–342.
3–aea?iene–3–iaoeeae?oa?ee eiyicei A (AIA–EiA) ?aaoeoacu, o?anoao?uaai a aeio?ainoi?iaoee 28. Park YB, Lee SK, Lee WK. Lipid profiles in untreated patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1999; 26:

1701–1704
AI–EiA a L–iaaaeiiiao? eeneioo. A ?acoeuoaoa yoiai i?ienoiaeo ia?ooaiea aeineioaca oieanoa?eia
29. Munro R, Morrison E, McDonald AG, et al. Effect of disease modifying agents on the lipid profiles of patients with
(ON) a ia?aie. Iaiaei a iineaaiea aiau aieuoie eioa?an i?eaeaea?o oae iacuaaaiua «ON–iacaaene-
rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1997; 56: 374–377.
iua» (eee ieaeio?iiiua) yooaeou noaoeiia, a eiaiii – aioeainiaeeoaeuiua yooaeou, ?oi iicaieyao
30. Mikuls TR, Saag KG. Comorbidity in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2001; 27:283–303.
iano?aaou ia?niaeoeau i?eiaiaiey noaoeiia a ea?aiee ?A [84]. Iieo?aiu aaiiua i i?ioeaiainiaee-
31. Pope JE, Anderson JJ, Felson DT. A meta–analysis of the effects of non–steroidal anti–inflammatory drugs on blood pres-
oaeuiii aaenoaee noaoeiia ia iiaaee eieeaaaiiaiai a?o?eoa (yenia?eiaioaeuiue aiaeia ?A o ?aeiaa- sure. Arch Intern Med 1993; 153:477–84.

32. Dessein PH, Joffe BI, Stamwix AE. Inflammation, insulin resistence, and aberrant lipid metabolism as cardiovascular risk
ea) [85]. Ii aaiiui enneaaiaaiey TARA (Trial of Atorvastatin in Rheumatoid Arthritis), ea?aiea aoi?aanoa-
factors in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 1403–1405.
oeiii iaoeaioia n ?A (a oa?aiea 6 ian.) i?eaiaeo e ainoiaa?iiio nie?aie? aeoeaiinoe caaieaaaiey
33. Fetnandez–Real JM, Ricart W. Insulin resistence and chronic cardiovascular inflammatory syndrome. Endocrinol Rev
(eiaaen DAS), eiioaio?aoee N?A e NIY [86]. Ii aaiiui a?oaeo enneaaiaaoaeae, oioy i?e ?A ia oiia
2003; 24: 278–301
ea?aiey aoi?aanoaoeiii e iaae?aaaony ainoiaa?iay iiei?eoaeuiay aeiaieea iieacaoaey a?oa?eaeu-
34. Auer J, Berent R, Eber B. Homocysteine and risk of cardiovascular disease. J Clin Basic Cardiol 2001; 4: 261–264
iie ?acenoaioiinoe, o?iaiy ON e ON EIII, ii yoi ia nii?iai?aaaony ainoiaa?iie aeiaieeie eiioai- 35. Hernanz A,. Platza A, Mrtin–Mola E, de Miguel E et al. Increased plasma levels of homocysteine and other thiol com-

pounds in rheumatoid arthritis women. Clin Biochem 1999; 32: 65–70
o?aoee N?A [63]. Ii?ii iieaaaou, ?oi noaoeiu – aanuia yooaeoeaiua iaoiaaiaoe?anee iainiiaaiiua
36. Morgan SL, Baggott JE, Lee JY, Alarcon GS et al. Folic acid supplementation prevents deficient blood folate levels and
eaea?noaaiiua n?aanoaa i?e ?A. Aa?iyoii, eo i?eiaiaiea iniaaiii iieacaii o iaoeaioia, eia?ueo
hyperhomocysteinemia during longterm, low dose methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: implications for cardiovas-
ea?aeiaaneoey?iua oaeoi?u ?enea eee inei?iaiey aoa?ineea?ioe?aneiai ii?a?aiey ninoaia.
cular disease prevention. J Rheumatology 1998; 25: 859–863
Oaeei ia?acii, i?e ?A oaaee?aiea ?enea aoa?ineea?ioe?aneiai ii?a?aiey ninoaia ii?aaaey-
37. Wallberg–Jonsson S, Cederfelt M, Rantapaa–Dahlqvist S. Hemostatic factors and cardiovascular disease in active
aony iaoiaaiaoe?aneeie iaoaieciaie ?acaeoey caaieaaaiey. Nia?aiaiiay i?ioeaiainiaeeoaeuiay rheumatoid arthritis: an 8 year follow–up study. J Rheumatol 2000; 27:71.

38. cOOIO‚ O.a. aIIUIOIO„E?AOIEA I?IA?? UA?OOIIA?OA. iA?OA‚U. A??E‚ 2002; 5: 80–85
oa?aiey, oioy e iicaieyao ai iiiaeo neo?ayo eiio?iee?iaaou aano?oeoe? nonoaaia, ana ?a iaainoa-
39. Szmitko PE, Wang CH, Weisel RD, et al. New markers of inflammation and endothelial cell activation, part I. Circulation
oi?ii iiaaaeyao nenoaiiue ainiaeeoaeuiue i?ioann, oaaee?eaa?uee ?ene onei?aiiiai aoa?ineea-
2003; 108; 1917–1923
?ioe?aneiai ii?a?aiey ninoaia. Neaaiaaoaeuii, o iaoeaioia n ?A aie?ia i?iaiaeouny oaeay ?a «aa-
40. Szmitko PE, Wang CH, Weisel RD, et al. New markers of inflammation and endothelial cell activation, part II Circulation
?anneaiay» i?ioeeaeoeea e ea?aiea ea?aeiaaneoey?iuo inei?iaiee, eae e i?e a?oaeo caaieaaaieyo,
2003; 108; 2041–2048
oaaee?eaa?ueo ?ene ea?aeiaaneoey?iie eaoaeuiinoe (naoa?iue aeaaao 2 oeia e a?.). 41. cOOIO‚ O.a. aIIUIOIO„E?AOIEA I?IA?? UA?OOIIA?OA. C II: AIUEUOOUOIEOEI?E OEI?OI. aOOI‚, aAUAI?-

OU‚O «aEUUA?», 2004; 278–298.

42. Braumvald E. Shattuck lecture – cardiovascular medicine at the turn of millennium: triumph, concerns, and opportuni-
aEUA?UU?
ties. N. Engl. J Med. 1997; 337:1360–1369.
1. Gabriel SE. Epidemiology of the rheumatic diseases. In: Harris ED, Ruddy S, Sledge XB, editors. Kelley`s textbook of
43. Nielen MJ, van Halm VP, Nurmohamed MT, et al. Rheumatoid arthritis is preceded by a preclinical phase, characterized
rheumatology. Vol 1 6 th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company; 2000. p. 321–333
by increased C–reactive protein levels and a more atherogenic lipid profile. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: S344.
2. Goodson N. Coronary artery disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2002; 14; 115–120
44. Solomon DH, Curhan GC, Rimm EB, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors in women with and without rheumatoid arthritis.
3. Pincus T, Sokka T, Wolfe F. Premature mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: evolving concepts. Arthritis Rheum
Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 3444–3449.
2001; 44: 1234–1236
45. de Groot E, Hovingh K, Wiegman A, et al. Measurement of arterial wall thickness as a surrogate marker for atheroscle-
4. Wasko MCM. Comorbid conditions in patients with rheumatic diseases: an update. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2004; 16:
rosis. Circulation 2004; 109 (suppl III);III–33–III–38
109–113
46. Del Rincon I, Williams K, Stern MP, et al. Association between carotid atherosclerosis and markers of inflammation in
5. Gabriel SE, Crowson CS, O`Fallon WM. Comorbidity in arthritis. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 24745–2479.
rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy subjects. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 1833–1840
6. Solomon DH, Karlson EW, Cuthan GS. Cardiovascular care and cancer screening in female nurses with and without
47. Park Y–B, Ahn C–W, Choi HK, et al. Atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis. Morphologic evidence obtained by carotid
rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 51: 429–432.
ultrasound. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 1714–1719
7. Ward MM. Recent improvements in survival in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: better outcomes or different study
48. Kumeda Y, Inaba M, Goto H, et al. Increased thickness of the arterial intima–medis detected by ultrasonography in
design? Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44:1467–1469.
patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 1489–1497
8. Boers M, Dijkmans B, Gabriel S, et al. Making an impact on mortality in rheumatoid arthritis. Targeting cardiovascular
49. Johsson SW, Backman C, Johnson O, Karp K, et al. Increased prevalence of atherosclerosis in patients with medium term
comotbidity. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 1734–1739




511

13, 8, 2005
eOCaAieaeEau
rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatology 2001; 28: 2597–2602 52: 722–732

50. Nagata–Sakurai M, Inaba M, Goto H, et al. Inflammation and bone resorbtion as independent factors of accelerated arte- 88. Kiortsis D, Mavridis AK, Vasakos S et al. Effect of infliximab treatment on insulin resistance in patients with rheumatoid

rial wall thicening in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 3061–3067. arthritis and ankylosing spondilitis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005.
51. Alkaabi JK, Ho M, Levinson R, et al. Rheumatoid arthritis and macrovascular disease. Rheumatology 2003; 42: 292–297

52. Bonetti PO, Lerman LO. Lerman A. Endothelial dysfunction. A marker of atherosclerotic risk. Arteriol Thromb Vasc Biol

2003; 23: 168–175

53. Wildansky ME, Gokce N, Keaney JF, et al. The clinical implications of endothelial dysfunction. J Amer Coll Cardiol 2003;

42: 1149–1160

54. Bergholm R, Leirisalo–Repo M, Vehkavaara S, et al. Impaired responsiveness to NO in newly diagnosed patients with

rheumatoid arthritis. Arteriol Thromb Vasc Biol 2002; 22: 1637–1641
55. Vaudo G, Marchesi S, Gerli R, et al. Endothelial dysfunction in young patients with rheumatoid arthritis and low disease

activity. Ann Rheum Dis 2004; 63: 31–35.

56. Hansel S, Lasing G, Pistrosch F, Passauer J. Endothelial dysfunction in young patients with long–term rheumatoid arthri-

tis and low disease activity Atherosclerosis 2003; 17: 177–180
57. Gonzalez–Juanatey C, Testa A, Garcia–Castelo A, et al. HLA–DRB1 status affects endothelial function in treated patients

with rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Med 2003; 114: 647–652.

58. Hurlimann D, Forster A, Noll G, et al. Antitumor necrosis factor–alpha treatment improves endothelial function in patients

with rheumatoid arthritis. Circulation 2002; 106: 2184–2187.
59. Gonzalez–Juanatey C, Testa A, Garcia–Castelo A, et al. Active but transient imorovement of endothelial function in

rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing long–term treatment with anti–tumor necrosis factor alpha antibody. Arthritis Care

& Res 2004; 51: 447–450.

60. Van Doornum S, McCo G, Jenkins A, Green DJ, Wicks IP. Screening for atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid

arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 72–80.
61. Wong M. Toh L, Wilson A, et al. Reduced arterial elasticity in rheumatoid arthritis and the relationship to vascular dis-

ease risk factors and inflammation. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 81–89

62. Klocke R, Cockcroft JR, Taylor GJ, et al. Arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, as determined by pulse wave analy-

sis, in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2003; 62: 414–418.
63. van Dorum S, McColl G, Wicks IP. Atorvastatin reduces arterial stiffness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum

Dis 2004; 63: 1571–1575.

64. Banks M, Flint J, Bacon PA, Kitas GD. Rheumatoid arthritis is an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease.

Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43 (Suppl 9): S385

65. Wislowska M, Sypula S, Kowalick I. Echocardiographic findings. 24 hour electrocardiographic Holter monitoring in
patients with rheumatoid arthritis associating to Steinbrocker`s criteria, functional index, value of Waaler–Rose titer and

duration of disease. Clin Rheumatol 1998; 17: 369–377.

66. cOOIO‚ O.a. nEIIOOIOE„AIA 2 E I?EO‚OIUI??I? OUOIO„E?. eA??A 2004; 4: 209–212

67. Bresalier R, Sandler RS, Quan H, et al. for the Adenomatous Polyp Prevention on Vioxx (APPROVEe) Trial Investigators.
Cardiovascular events associated with rofecoxib in a colorectal adenoma chemoprevention trial. New Engl J Med 2005; 352

68. Solomon SD, McMurray JJV, Pfeffer MA, et al., for the Adenoma Prevention with Celecoxib (APC) Study Group. New Engl

J Med 2005; 352

69. Ott E, Nussmeier NA, Duke PC, et al. Efficacy and safety of the cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors parecoxib and valdecoxib in
patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003; 125: 1881–1492.

70. Nussmeier NA, Whelton AA, Brown MT, et al. Complications of the COX–2 inhibitors parecoxib and valdecoxib after car-

diac surgery. New Engl J Med 2005; 352

71. Souverein PC, Berard A, van Staa TP, et al. Use of oral glucocorticoids and risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular

disease in a population based–control study. Heart 2004; 90: 859–865.

72. Moreland LW, O`Dell JR. Glucocorticoids and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 2553–2563
73. cOOIO‚ O.a., oE?OO‚ c.C., eUOOIE?I? O.C. EI?IOIO?UEIOE? O?E ?A‚IUOEIOI ?U?EUA: A E O?OUE‚. eaU;

2004; 12(4):408–413
74. Wolfe F, Michaud K. Prednisolone but not biologics or DMARD is associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction

in persons with RA. OP0039.

75. del Rincon I, O`Leary DH, Haas RW, Escalante A. Effect of glucocorticoid on thearteries in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis

Rheum 2004; 50: 3813–3822.

76. Dessein P, Joffe BI, Stanwix AE, et al. Glucocorticoids and insulin sensitivity in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2004;

31: 867–874.

77. Boers M, Nurmohamed MT, Doelman CJA, Lard LR, et al. Influence glucocorticoids and disease activity on total anf high
density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2003; 62: 842–845.

78. Choi K, Hernan MA, Seeger JD, et al. Methotrexate and mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 2002; 359:
1745–1750.

79. cOOIO‚ Oa. e?EIAIAIEA EIUIEIOEI· (IOIOIIOII?I?A IUEUAI I UIUO?U IAI?OA OOU?OIE) ‚ ?A‚IUOIO„EE:

IO‚?A II?A. eaU 2004; 20: 1123–1127

80. Jacobsson LTN, Tueresson C, Gulfe A, et al. Low incidence of first cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis patients

treated TNF–blockers. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: (Supl): S241

81. Warrington KJ. Anti–tumor necrosis factor ? therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: hitting two birds with one stone? Arthritis
Care&Res 2004; 51: 3–9–310.

82. Khanna D, McMahon M, Furst DE. Anti–tumor necrosis factor ? therapy and heart failure. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50:

1040–1050
83. oA‚?AIIO e.e., oA‚?AIIO A.e. eUUEI?. aI„E·EUO?? EaE–aOA ?AUIUA?. eAU?I, aOOI‚, 2002, 112 OU?.

84. cOOIO‚ O.a. eA?OOAIUE‚? O?EIAIAIE? OUUEIO‚ ‚ ?A‚IUOIO„EE. eaU 2003; 11 (23): 1273–1276

85. Leung BP, Sattar N, Crilly A, Prach M, McCarey DW, Payne H, Madhok R, Campbel C, Gracie JA, Liew FY, McInnes IB. A

novel anti–inflammatory role for simvastatin in inflammatory atthritis. J Immunol 2003; 170: 1524–1530

86. McCarey DW, McInnes IB, Madhok R, et al. Trial of atorvastatin in rheumatoid arthritis (TARA): double–blind, random-

ized placebo–controlled trial. Lancet 2004; 363: 2015–2021

87. Maradit–Kremers H, Nicola PJ, Crowsoon CS, et al. Cardiovascular death in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2005;




512 13, 8, 2005

<<

. 2
( 2 .)