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i?iaaaaiiue Roman M.J. e niaao., iieacae, ?oi ia?yao n aieaa ii?eeui aic?anoii, aee- eaoiei) ia?eiaii iaae?aaiey. A ?yaa neo?aaa iieacaoaee nia?oiinoe io?a?a?o ea-

oaeuiinou? aieacie e aeia?oieanoa?eiaieae, iniiaiui oaeoi?ii ?acaeoey aoa?ineea- oaeuiua enoiau, iaoneiaeaiiua eae naiei caaieaaaieai, oae e a?oaeie i?e?eiaie.
?aaiou ii «io?neie» NEA aaiiino?e?o?o ieceea iieacaoaee au?eaaaii-
?ica i?e NEA yaeyeinu naii caaieaaaiea [49]. ?acaeoea aoa?ineea?ioe?aneeo aeyoae
noe o io??ei ii n?aaiaie? n ?aiueiaie (oaae. 6). N?eoaaony, ?oi io?neie iie e
ei??aee?iaaei n eiaaenii iia?a?aaiey, io?a?a?uei iaia?aoeiia ii?a?aiea aioo?ai-

ieo i?aaiia, iaoneiaeaiiia NEA e i?iaiaeiui ea?aieai. Aa?iyoii, eiaiii oaeoi?u, aieaa noa?oee aic?ano aaa?oa iaoneiaeeaa?o iaaeaaii?eyoiue i?iaiic o aieuiuo
naycaiiua n naiei caaieaaaieai, ea?a?o aaaouo? ?ieu a ?acaeoee ?aiiaai aoa?ineea- NEA [22,40,56,57]. Iaiaei iieacaoaee nia?oiinoe a oaeii oaaee?eaa?ony n aic?an-
?ioe?aneiai ii?a?aiey ninoaia i?e NEA. oii e auoa o ?aiuei, iiyoiio i?e auaaeaiee aic?anoa e iiea, eae aa?iuo i?iaii-

I?e ianeaaiaaiee 37 io??ei iieiaiai aic?anoa (a n?aaiai 36,9 eao) n ainoiaa?- noe?aneeo oaeoi?ia, oaeaniia?acii ioaieaaou ia iauo? (ii e?aui i?e?eiai), a
iui aeaaiicii NEA eeeie?aneea i?iyaeaiey aoa?ineea?ica iaie auee auyaeaiu o 13 iaiin?aanoaaiii NEA–iiin?aaiaaiio? nia?oiinou. I?e eco?aiee enoiaia NEA i?e
(35%) aieuiuo, a oii ?enea noaiiea?aey – o 11 (30%), eioa?eo ieiea?aa – o 2, einoeuo – o aeeoaeuiii iaae?aaiee Ward M. e niaao. onoaiiaeee, ?oi au?eaaaiinou io??ei ii

2 iaoeaioia [54]. Aoa?ineea?ioe?aneia ii?a?aiea niiiuo a?oa?ee ii aaiiui oeuo?acao- n?aaiaie? n ?aiueiaie ieacaeanu ie?a, iaiaei iaoneiaeaiiay NEA eaoaeuiinou a
eiaiai neaie?iaaiey (aoa?ineea?ioe?aneea aeyoee e ooieuaiea eiiieaena eioeia–ia- caaeneiinoe io iiea ia ?acee?aeanu. Auneacaii i?aaiiei?aiea, ?oi aieaa aunieie
aea (EEI) aieaa 0,9 ii) ca?aaeno?e?iaaii o 21 aieuiiai. I?e n?aaiaiee aaoo a?oii (n e nia?oiinoe io??ei n NEA niinianoao?o a ia?ao? i?a?aau niioonoao?uea caaieaaa-

aac aoa?ineea?ioe?aneiai ii?a?aiey ninoaia) ionoonoaiaaee noaoenoe?anee ainoiaa?iua iey [58].
?acee?ey ii ?anoioa o?aaeoeiiiuo ea?aeiaaneoey?iuo oaeoi?ia ?enea (a?oa?eaeuiay ae- ?aaeinou NEA o io??ei ia?aaei noaiiaeony eaiiai i?aoeiiaaiey aey eeeieoenoia.
ia?oiiey, eo?aiea, aeia?oieanoa?eiaiey, aeia?aeeeaiey, ianeaanoaaiiinou ii na?aa?- O?aaeoeiiiia ioiioaiea a?a?ae e aaiiiio caaieaaaie? eae e ?aineiio, iniaaiiinoe

ii–ninoaenoui caaieaaaieyi), aeoeaiinoe NEA, eiaaeno iia?a?aaiey e eoioeyoeaiie ai- eeeieee «io?neie» NEA cao?oaiy?o aa?eoeeaoe? aeaaiica o io??ei. Iaeucy ia aniii-
ca ae?eiei?oeeieaia. Iaiaei n?aaiee aic?ano ia iiiaio ianeaaiaaiey, aic?ano ia?aea ieou e i aunieie ?anoioa n?aae io??ei n NEA oae iacuaaaiuo o?iie?aneeo aa?eaioia oa-
caaieaaaiey e eiaaen iannu oaea ieacaeny auoa o iaoeaioia n aoa?ineea?ioe?aneei ii- ?aiey aieacie, eiaaa ia i?ioy?aiee ?yaa eao iaei eee aaa eeeie?aneeo i?iyaeaiey (no-

?a?aieai niiiuo a?oa?ee. E?iia oiai, a yoie a?oiia ioia?aeanu oaiaaioey e oaaee?aie? ai?i?iua i?eiaaee, o?iiaioeoiiaiey, aaiiciua o?iiaicu, n–i ?aeii) nouanoao?o eci-
?anoiou aoi?e?iiai AON, eioi?ue ano?a?aeny o 33% i?ioea 19% o aieuiuo aac aoa?ineea- ee?iaaiii e i?aaoanoao?o iiyaeaie? ?acaa?iooie eeeie?aneie ea?oeiu NEA. Eiaaony
?ioe?aneiai ii?a?aiey. Yoi iicaieyao i?aaiiei?eou, ?oi aieuiua io?neiai iiea, no?a- ?aciiaeaiinou NEA (iiaino?ay ei?iay e?aniay aie?aiea), aey eioi?ie oa?aeoa?ii i?aia-

aa?uea NEA (iniaaiii i?e iaee?ee i?eciaeia aoi?e?iiai AON), i?aanoaaey?o niaie eaaaiea io??ei e iniaue aea ei?iie iaoieiaee i?e ionoonoaee oy?aeiai ii?a?aiey ii-
a?oiio aunieiai ?enea a ioiioaiee ?acaeoey aoa?ineea?ica e naycaiiuo n iei inei?ia- ?ae e oaio?aeuiie ia?aiie nenoaiu. Ana aianoa acyoia i?eaiaeo e ianaiaa?aiaiiie ii-
iee. noaiiaea aeaaiica e, eae neaanoaea – e iicaiaio iacia?aie? aaaeaaoiie eiioiinoi?an-

Iaiaiicia?iu aaiiua, eana?ueany iieiauo ?acee?ee a au?eaaaiinoe aieu- neaiie oa?aiee.
iuo NEA. I?iaiic aieuiuo ca iineaaiea ianeieuei aanyoeeaoee cia?eoaeuii oeo?- A oi ?a a?aiy aieaa oy?aeia oa?aiea caaieaaaiey, aunieay ?anoioa i?iaii-
oeeny ca n?ao ?aiiae iinoaiiaee aeaaiica, ?acoiiiai eniieuciaaiey eiioiino- noe?anee iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oaeoi?ia (iao?eo, na?aa?ii–ninoaenoay iaoieiaey e i?.)
i?anneaiuo i?aia?aoia e ainooiiinoe iiauo iaoiaia ea?aiey i?e i?aaiiii iia?a- e niioonoao?uae iaoieiaee iaoneiaeeaa?o a oaeii aieaa iaaeaaii?eyoiue i?iaiic

?aaiee. Iaiaei NEA i?iaie?aao nio?aiyou ?aiooaoe? iai?aaneacoaiiai e ia?aaei ii n?aaiaie? n ?aiueiaie.

aEUA?UU?
oaoaeuiiai caaieaaaiey. Oa?aeoa?iay aeiiaaeuiay e?eaay eaoaeuiinoe i?e NEA
1. Hochberg M.C. Updating the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for the classification
aaoaeuii eco?aia aua a ia?aea 70–o aiaia i?ioeiai aaea [46]. ?aiiea eaoaeuiua en-
of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthr. Rheum., 1997, 40, 1725.
oiau i?aeiouanoaaiii iaoneiaeaiu aunieie, ieioi eiio?iee?oaiie aeoeaiinou?
2. cOOIO‚ C.A., AOUOAIIO a.E./aIEIE?AOI? ?A‚IUOIO„E?//a., «aAE?EI», 1989
caaieaaaiey (iniaaiii i?e iicaiae aeaaiinoeea). Ia aieaa iicaieo yoaiao iaii ec
3. Harvey A.M., Schulman L.E., Tumulty P.A. et al./ Systemic lupus erythematosus: review of the litera-
aaaoueo iano caieiaao aoa?ineea?ic. Oaaaeoaeuii iieacaii iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea ture and analysis of 138 cases.// Medicine, 1954, 33, 291–437.
4. Walker S.E./ The importance of sex hormones in lupus//. Dubois’Lupus Erythematosus. Ed. By
aoi?e?iiai AON ia iieacaoaee au?eaaaiinoe aieuiuo NEA [55]. Eioaeoee yaey?o-
Wallace D.J., Hahn B.N. – Baltimore, 5–th edition: Williams&Wilkins, 1997, 311–322.
Oaaeeoa 4. ?anoioa iniiaiuo 5. Goeckerman W.H./ Lupus erythematosus as a systemic disease//JAMA, 1923, 80, 542–547.
6. Dubois E.L., Tuffanelli D.L./Clinical manifestations of SLE. Compute analysis of 520 cases//JAMA,
e aiiieieoaeuiuo i?eciaeia AON o io??ei
1964. 190. 104–11.
n NEA (ii Hughes G.R.V., 1986)
7. Hochberg M.C./ Epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus////. Dubois’Lupus Erythematosus. Ed.
(n=75) By Wallace D.J., Hahn B.N. – Baltimore, 5–th edition: Williams&Wilkins, 1997, 49–68.

. % 8. ehang D.–M., Chang C.–C., Kuo S.–Y., Chu S.–J., Chang M.–L./ Hormonal profiles and immunologi-
Aaiiciua o?iiaicu 14 18,7% cal studies of male lupus in Taiwan//Clin. Rheum., 1999, 18, 158–162.
A?oa?eaeuiua o?iiaicu 7 9,3% 9. Cervera R., Khamashta M.A., Font J. et al./ Morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus
O?iiaioeoiiaiey 12 16,0%
Oaaeeoa 5. Oaeoi?u ?enea ?acaeoey
• iea?aiu 20 26,7%
Ii?a?aiea aoa?ineea?ica i?e NEA
• yieeainey 8 10,7%
oaio?aeuiie

• oi?ay 3 4,0%
ia?aiie
• A?oa?eaeuiay aeia?oaicey • Eiioiiua eiiieaenu
• ieaeeo 1 1,3%
nenoaiu
• Ecauoi?iue aan • Aeeoaeuiinou caaieaaaiey
• aaiaioey 14 18,7%
• Aeia?eeieaaiey, • Aeoeaiinou caaieaaaiey
Ii?a?aiea eeaiaiiiai
13/51 25,5%
naoa?iue aeaaao • Iao?ioe?aneee neia?ii
aiia?aoa na?aoa
• Aic?ano, iaeiiiaae?iue • Oy?anou iia?a?aaiey
Eaai?iay aeia?oaicey 5 6,7%
ia?ac ?ecie, eo?aiea aioo?aiieo i?aaiia
Nao?aoia eeaaai 15 20,0%
• I?a?aaa?aiaiiay iaiiiaoca • Eoioeyoeaiay aica
O?iie?aneea ycau iia 8 10,7%
• Aeia?aiiioenoaeiaiey ae?eiei?oeeieaia
Anaioe?aneea iae?icu einoae 10 13,3%


516 13, 8, 2005
eOCaAieaeEau
during a 5–year period a multicenter prospective of 1.000 patients//Medicine, 1999, 78, 167–175. ‚OI?IIE U IUE?EI.// iA?. A??E‚, 1981, 7, 30–33.
10. Grossman C.I./ Interactions between the gonadal steroids and the immune system// Science, 1985, 38. Folomeev M., Afanasjev W., Alekberova Z./ Survival prognostic factors revealed from initial features
227, 257–261. of systemic lupus erythematosus in male patients//Abstr. Of III Intern. Conference on SLE, London
11. Kaslow R.A., Masi A.T./ Age, sex and race effects on mortality from systemicn lupus erythematosus (1992). Lupus, 1992, 1, 122.
in the United States// Arthr. Rheum., 1978, 21, 473–479. 39. Sato E.I., Andrade L., Trevisoni V./ Study of prognostic factors in patients with systemic lupus ery-
12. Lavalle C., Loyo E., Paniaqua R. et al./ Correlation study between prolactin and androgens in male thematosus// Abstr. Of IY Interrn. Conf. On SLE, Israel, 1995. Lupus, 1995, 4 (2), 31.
patients with SLE// J.Rheum., 1987, 14, 268–272. 40. Wallace D.J., Podell T., Weiner J. et al./ Systemic lupus erythematosus survival patterns: experience
13. Jungers P., Dougados M., Pelissier G. et al./ Influence of oral contraceptive therapy on the activity with 609 patients//JAMA, 1981, 245, 934–938.
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Rheum., 1978, 21, 480–484. 42. Cervera R., Piette J.C., Font I. Et al./Antiphospholipid syndrome: clinical and immunologic manifes-
15. Stern R., Fishman J., Brusman H. et al./ Systemic lupus erythematosus associated with Klinefelter’s tations and patterns of disease expression in a cohort of 1000 patients//Arthr. Rheum., 2002, 46, 1019.
syndrome//Arthr.Rheum., 1977, 20, 18–22. 43. Alarcon–Segovia D./ Antiphospholipid syndrome in SLE// Abstr. Of III Intern. Conference on SLE,
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tract////. Dubois’Lupus Erythematosus. Ed. By Wallace D.J., Hahn B.N. – Baltimore, 5–th edition: 44. aI?I‚EI c.E./ AIUEUOOUOIEOEI?E OEI?OI U IUE?EI O OEOUAIIOE I?OIOE ‚OI?IIOE// A‚-
Williams&Wilkins, 1997, 817–834. UO?. EOOO.IIEU IA. IUI, aOOI‚, 1995.
17. Huong D.L.T., Wechsler B., Vauthier–Brouzes D. et al./ Outcome of planned pregnancies in systemic 45. cOOIO‚ O.a., AIAI·A?O‚ a.e., aI?I‚EI c.E. E OO‚U./AIUEUOOUOIEOEI?E OEI?OI O?E OE-
lupus erythematosus: a prospective study on 62 pregnancies// Br.J.Rheum., 1997, 36, 772–777. OUAIIOE I?OIOE ‚OI?IIA U IUE?EI/// aIEI. aAE?EI, 1996· 4· 18–22.
18. Robinson D.R./ Eicosanoids in systemic lupus erythematosus////. Dubois’Lupus Erythematosus. Ed. 46. Urowitz M.B., Bookman A., Koehler B./The bimodal mortality pattern of systemic lupus erythemato-
By Wallace D.J., Hahn B.N. – Baltimore, 5–th edition: Williams&Wilkins, 1997, 279–291.. sus// Am.J.Med., 1976, 60, 221–225.
19. Miller M.H., Urowitz M.B., Gladman D.D., Killinger D.W./ Systemicn lupus erythematosus in males// 47. Abu–Shakra M., Urowitz M.B., Gladman D.D. et al./Mortality studies in systemic lupus erythemato-
Medicine (Baltimore), 1983, 62 (5), 327–334. sus: results from a single center.I. Causes of death//J.Rheum., 1995, 22, 1259–1264.
20. iOIOIAA‚ a.u./eEOUAII? I?OI? ‚OI?II U IUE?EI// A‚UO?AUA?U EOO. O II. IA. IUI, 48. Svenungsson E., Jensen–Urstad K., Heimburger M. et al./Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in
aOOI‚, 1984. systemic lupus erythematosus//Circulation, 2001, 16, 1887–1893.
21. Sthoeger Z.M., Geltner D., Rider A., Bentwich Z.// Systemic lupus erythematosus in 49 Israel males: 49. Roman M.J., Shanker B.–A., Davis A. et al./Prevalence and correlates of accelerated atherosclerosis
a retrospective study// Cl.Exp. Rheum., 1987, 5, 233–240. in systemic lupus erythematosus//New Engl. J.Med., 2003, 349, 2399–2406.
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the clinical and laboratoty features of 52 patients, with review of the literature// Sem. Arthr. Rheum., lupus erythematosus//New Engl. J. Med., 2003, 349, 2407–2415.
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23. Ward M.M., Studenski S./ SLE in men: a multivariate analysis of gander differences in clinical man- UEUOOUOIEOEIOI OEI?OIA//. C II. «AIUEUOOUOIEOEI?E OEI?OI», a., aEUUA??, 2004,
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113–124. 53. Esdale J.M., Abrahamowicz M., Grodzicky T. et al./Traditional Framingham risk factor fail to fully
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doentes do sexo masculine e do sexo feminimo//Acta Reum. Portug., 1994, XIX (1), 5–22. 2331–2337.
26. Koh W.H., Fong K.Y., Boey M.L., Feng P.H./Systemic lupus erythematosus in 61 oriental males. A 54. aI?EI A.O., aI?I‚EI c.E., AIAIOI?O‚ O.c., cOOIO‚ O.a. /AUA?OOIIA?OUE?AOIOA OO?EAIEA
study of clinical and laboratory manifestations//Br.J.Rheum., 1994, 33, 339–342. OOOUO‚ O?E eaC U IUE?EI//. iAAEO? IU?IO–O?IUE?AOIOE IOIUA?AI?EE «e?O·IAI U?OI·OAO‚ ‚
27. Pande I., Malaviya A.N., Sekharan N.G. et al. /SLE in Indian men: analysis of the clinical and labora- ?A‚IUOIO„EE», 24–26 IO?·?? 2004 „., cU?IO–O?IUE?AOI? ?A‚IUOIO„E?, 2004, 4 (O?EIOEAIEA),
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28. Molina J.F., Drencard C., Molina J. et al./Systemic lupus erythematosusin males. A study of 107 55. Drenkard C., Villa A.R., Alarcon–Segovia D., Perez–Vazquez M.E./Influence of the antiophospholipid
Latin American patients//Medicine (Baltimore), 1996, 75, 124–130. syndrome in the survival of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus//J.Rheum., 1994, 21,
29. Chang D.–M., Chang C.–C., Kuo S.–Y. et al./ The clinical features and prognosis of male lupus in 1067–1072.
Taiwan// Lupus, 1998, 7, 462–468. 56. Hashimoto H., Tsuda H., Hirano T. et al./ Differences in clinical and immunological findings of sys-
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males with systemic lupus erythematosus//Lupus, 1999, 8, 188–196. 57. Reveille J.D., Bartolucci A., Alarcon G.S./Prognosis in systemic lupus erythematosus: negative
31. Debeyre N., Rytenwart A., Kahn M.F., De Seze S./ Le lupus erythematux dissemine de impact of increasing age at onset, black race, and thrombocytopenia, as well as causes of
l’homme//Sem. Hop. Paris, 1966, 42, 2493. death//Arthr.Rheum., 1990, 33, 37–48.
32. Blum A., Rubinow A., Galun E./ Predominance of renal involvement in male patients with systemic 58. Ward M., Pyun E., Studenski S./Long–term survival in systemic lupus
lupus erythematosus//Clin.Exp.Rheum., 1991, 9 (2), 206–207. erythematosus//Arthr.Rheum., 1995, 38 (2), 274–283.
33. i?AA‚ a.O., uIU?IA‚E? i.c./ iA?AIEA I?OUO–IAU?EU U IUE?EI E EAI?EI// iAAEO? i O‚?O- 59. Folomeev M., Alekberova Z./Survival pattern of 120 males with systemic lupus
OAEOIO„O IOI„?AOO ?A‚IUOIO„O‚, aOOI‚, 1983, 34. erythematosus//J.Rheum., 1990, 17 (6), 855–856.
34. Celermajer D.S., Thorner P.S., Baumal R./Sex differences in a childhood lupus nephritis//Am.J.Child,
1984, 138, 586–588.
35. Drosos A., Dimou G., Tzioufas A. et al./Abstr. Of III Intern. Conf. On SLE (1992). Lupus, 1992, 1,
122.
36. Hochberg M., Boyd R.E., Ahearn J.N./ Systemic lupus erythematosus: a review of clinicopatological
features and immunogenetic markers in 150 patients with emphasis on demographic subsets//Medicine
(Baltimore), 1985, 64 (5), 285–295.
37. iOIOIAA‚ a.u., aE?O?IE?IEE e.c., AIAI·A?O‚ a.e./eOO·AIIOOUE UA?AIE? OEOUAIIOE I?OIOE

Oaaeeoa 6. Iieacaoaee au?eaaaiinoe aieuiuo NEA
– 5– 10– 15–
Oieiiaaa I.?. [59] 120 io??ei 90% 78% 62% OII (63%), ii?a?aiea OIN (15%)
Eioaeoey – 40%, 13,5% – EAN,
Kaufman L. [22] 52 io??eiu 91% 71% 59%
ii?a?aiea OIN, OII – 6,7%
63 io??eiu 77% 75% 58%
Wallace A. [40] Eiie?aoiua aaiiua ionoonoao?o
546 ?aiuei 89% 80% 75%
Sthoeger Z.M. [21] 49 io??ei 85% 79% 68% OII – 37,5%, eioaeoeiiiua inei?iaiey – 37,5%
33% – eioaeoey, 20% – ii?a?aiea OIN,
72 io??ei 76% 75% –
Chang D.–M. [29] 20% – OII
519 ?aiuei 81% 78% – Eiie?aoiua aaiiua ionoonoao?o


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