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ence are both reasonable estimates. In total, our net adjustments are 10%

CHAPTER 9 Sample Appraisal Report 343
(D36). Adding D32 and D36, the total discount for the LLC interest is
47.5% (D37).

Benchmarks for Net Effect of the Adjustments. The x-coef¬cients
for the dummy variables can give us a feel for how the discount might
vary if Partnership Pro¬les had data available on trades of LLCs with
assets more similar to our subject. The coef¬cient for the triple-net lease
dummy variable is 7.2%. In earlier years, typical coef¬cients for other
dummy variables have ranged from 5“12%. Therefore, the net adjust-
ment for no public registration and increased in¬‚uence of 10% appears
There is another way to benchmark the net adjustments. According
to Jay Abrams™ conversations with brokers who sell LP interests, shifting
from selling a publicly registered LP interest to a private LP interest adds
approximately 7“10 months in the selling time, which is 58“83% of one
year. If we multiply that by the ˜˜Average Years to Sell™™ x-coef¬cient of
0.1368 in Abrams™ book20, we get an increase in discount of 8“11%. In the
book, there was another regression21, and the ˜˜Average Years to Sell™™ x-
coef¬cient for that one was 0.1722. Using that instead of the 0.1368 leads
to estimates of the net adjustment of 10“14%. Furthermore, it is reason-
able to assume that the decrease in discount from the ˜˜increased in¬‚u-
ence™™ factor in the private LP is offset by the increase in the discount for
the additional monopsony power to the buyer of the private LP interest.
Thus, 8% to 14% is a reasonable range for net adjustments.

Commentary to Table 9-7: Private Fractional Interest Sales
Robert Jones, a real estate appraiser with the ¬rm Jones, Roach & Car-
ingella in San Diego, provided us with actual transaction data for illiquid
fractional interests in real estate. Table 9-7 shows the detail and our anal-
ysis of the interests and their related discounts.

Comparability to the Subject Interest
The member interests are very comparable to the fractional interests in
Table 9-7. The main difference is that the subject member interest repre-
sents ownership in several properties, not just one.

Statistical Methodology
We performed simple and multiple regression analysis of the database.
As independent variables, we tested the transaction amount (Price), the
percentage interest (Size), the FMV of the entire property, and dummy
variables for the time period of the transaction (pre-1990) and whether
the interest was a GP interest in a general partnership. We did not have
yield data.

20. Table 7-5, p. 240, cell B54. In other words, the regression in the book shows that for each year
of inability to sell, restricted stocks experience a discount of 13.68%.
21. Applicable when the subject company has been publicly traded for at least six months, and
thus historical stock prices are available to calculate the ˜˜Price Stability™™ variable. See Table
7-5, p. 239, cell B26.

PART 3 Adjusting for Control and Marketability
Regression Results of Partnership Pro¬les Database
The bottom of Table 9-7 shows the overall regression results. R2 and ad-
justed R 2 are 49.0% (C37) and 41.7% (C38), respectively.22 This means that
the regression model explains 41.7% of the variation in the discounts.
The standard error of the y-estimate is 10.07% (B10). We can form an
approximate 95% con¬dence interval around the regression estimate by
adding and subtracting two standard errors, or approximately 20.1%.
The dummy variable for whether the transaction was pre-1990 or not
is the only variable in the ¬nal regression:
The regression equation is:
Average Discount 0.4679 0.1846 pre-1990
The y-intercept and the x-coef¬cient appear in cells B43 to B44. The
y-intercept of 0.4679 means that when all the independent variables have
a zero value, or in this case when the transaction occurs after the end of
the 1980s, then the average discount from net asset value is 46.79%, or
46.8% rounded.
One should not place great weight on the regression equation above.
It was derived from a small data set, and the explanatory variable for
yield is missing. It is nevertheless relevant evidence of the fractional in-
terest discount in real-world transactions.

Commentary to Table 9-8: Final Calculation of Fractional
Interest Discounts
2.80% Member Interest
To calculate the ¬nal discount, we weight the ¬rst two valuation ap-
proaches equally at 45% each, as both approaches appear equally impor-
tant, valid, and reliable. The third approach we weight only 10% because
of the small and incomplete data set from which its regression model was
derived. The 49.2% (C8) discount calculated using the economic compo-
nents approach comes from Table 9-5, B12, the 47.5% (C9) discount using
the Partnership Pro¬les Regression comes from Table 9-6, D37, and the
46.8% (C10) discount comes from Table 9-6, C43.23 The weighted average
of the three discounts is 48.2% (E11), which we round to 48% in E12.

Final Calculation of FMV of Fractional Interests
Gifts Transferred on December 25, 1999. To calculate the FMV of
the 2.80% fractional interests gifted on December 25, 1999, we calculate
the dollar value of a 100% fractional interest discount, $1,389,185 48%
$666,809 (B18 B19 B20). Note that B18 is the FMV of the equity
before discounts, which comes from Table 9-2, C22.
Next we subtract this discount from the FMV of equity to determine
the FMV of a 100% Fractional Interest, $1,389,185 $666,809 $722,376

22. The adjusted R2 is a downward adjustment to remove the effects of irrelevant variables
randomly increasing R2.
23. As this is not a pre-1990 valuation, the regression estimate for the discount is equal to the
intercept coef¬cient.

CHAPTER 9 Sample Appraisal Report 345
T A B L E 9-7

Private Fractional Interest Sales [1]


4 Pro-Rata
5 Date Size FMV-100% Value Price Discount Pre 1990 GP
6 1 Linda Vista Rd., S Diego [2] [3] GP 1/1/1984 6.7% NA NA NA 20.0% 1 1
7 2 Eighth Ave., S. Diego TIC 9/1/1985 66.7% 60,000 40,000 27,000 32.5% 1 0
8 3 Fifth Ave., S. Diego [2] [4] GP 4/1/1988 33.3% 3,000,000 1,000,000 675,000 32.5% 1 1
9 4 West 61st St., Los Angeles TIC 10/1/1996 33.3% 90,000 30,000 10,000 66.7% 0 0
10 5 Garden Grove Ave., Reseda TIC 10/1/1996 25.0% 145,000 36,250 22,000 39.3% 0 0
11 6 K St., S. Diego TIC 2/1/1998 20.0% 325,000 65,000 36,000 44.6% 0 0
12 7 So. Calif. [5] LP 7/1/1998 2.5% 5,460,000 136,500 75,000 45.1% 0 0
13 8 So. Calif. [5] LP 7/1/1998 0.5% 14,800,000 74,000 37,000 50.0% 0 0
14 9 Brant St., S. Diego TIC 6/1/1999 50.0% 1,680,000 840,000 545,000 35.1% 0 0

[1] Source of data: Jones, Roach & Caringella, Real Estate Appraisers, S. Diego.
[2] These are interests in General Partnerships, not GP interests in Limited Partnerships.
[3] The seller reportedly would not hypothecate her interest for a required construction loan and offered to sell her interest to another partner who would. This indicates that the seller may have had unusual leverage, which may have
reduced the discount.
[4] We have reduced the nominal selling price of $750,000 by 10% to account for the ˜˜very bene¬cial ¬nancing™™ provided to the buyer by the seller. Exact details of the ¬nancing agreement are unknown.
[5] The seller had tried to sell his interest on the open market and had offers at a 75% discount from pro rata value. He then sold his interest to the GP, who had tried to discourage the sale. It is quite possible that the GP did not extract
the full market discount and that the full discount was actually 75%. This is because the GP is in the business of forming partnerships, not taking advantage of limited partners.

35 Regression Statistics

36 Multiple R 0.7000
37 R square 0.4900
38 Adjusted R square 0.4171
39 Standard error 0.1007
40 Observations 9

42 Coeff Std Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper

43 Intercept 0.4679 0.0411 11.3857 0.0000 0.3708 0.5651
44 Pre 1990 0.1846 0.0712 2.5933 0.0358 0.3529 0.0163

[6] We found that with the constraints of the available data, the best explanatory variable for discounts was the time of the transaction, where the time is categorized pre-1990 or post-1990.
This might best be explained by investors™ increased perception of risk due to the real estate crash in 1990. Had it been available, we would expect that using yield as a second independent
variable would have signi¬cantly increased the explanatory power of the regression.
T A B L E 9-8

Final Calculation of Fractional Interest Discount


4 2.80% Member Interest
6 Indication Wtd Avg
7 Table of Discount Weight Discount
8 Economic components approach 9-5, B12 49.2% 45.0% 22.1%
9 Regression of partnership pro¬les database 9-6, D37 47.5% 45.0% 21.4%
10 Regression of private fractional interest data [1] V-3, C43 46.8% 10.0% 4.7%
11 Total 100.0% 48.2%
12 Round to 48%
14 Final Calculation of FMV of Fractional Interests
16 Date of gift 12/25/99 1/3/00
17 Fractional interest 2.80% 2.25%
18 FMV of equity (Table 9-2, C22) $1,389,185 $1,389,185
19 Fractional interest discount-% (E11) 48% 48%
20 Fractional interest account-$ $ 666,809 $ 666,809
21 100% fractional interest FMV of equity $ 722,376 $ 722,376
22 FMV of 2.80% and 2.25% member interests $ 20,227 $ 16,253
23 Rounded FMV of 2.80% and 2.25% member interests $ 20,000 $ 16,250

Note: Mrs. Smith intends to make four gifts of $16,250 on approximately 1/3/2000. We have ignored second-order effects of gifting a smaller interest (2.25% vs. 2.80%) in Table 9-5A,
B15, as it has no impact on the ¬nal calculation. Thus, in our opinion, a 2.25% interest gifted on 1/3/2000 has a FMV of $16,250.
[1] As this is not a pre-1990 valuation, the regression estimate for the discount is equal to the intercept coef¬cient. We do not weight this valuation method heavily, due to the relatively
little data that were available for the regression.

(B18 B20 B21). Finally, we multiply the FMV of a 100% fractional
interest by the 2.80% interest to calculate the FMV of the 2.80% member
interest, $722,376 2.80% $20,227 (B21 B17 B22), which we round
to $20,000 in B23.

Gifts Transferred on January 3, 2000. Mrs. Smith also made four
gifts of 2.25% LP interests on January 3, 2000, which we value in column
C. We multiply the $722,376 (C21 B21) 100% fractional interest fair
market value of the equity by a 2.25% member interest in C17 to arrive
at a fair market value of $16,253 (C22), which we round to $16,250 (C23).
The calculations in Table 9-5A depend on the size of the interests in
cell B15. However, the change from a 2.80% member interest to a 2.25%
member interest is so small that it actually has no impact. Thus, we use
the same fractional interest discount of 48% for the January 3, 2000 gifts.

In our opinion, subject to this report and the Statement of Limiting Con-
ditions, the appropriate fractional interest discount for a 2.80% and 2.25%
member interests in the LLC as of December 25, 1999 through January 3,
2000 is 48%, which amounts to fair market values of $20,000 and $16,250,

CHAPTER 9 Sample Appraisal Report 347
In accordance with recognized professional ethics, the fee for this service
is not contingent upon our conclusion of fractional interest discount, and
neither Abrams Valuation Group nor any of its employees has a present
or intended interest in the subject interest.
We have relied upon ¬nancial information provided by Bradley Jones
and David Sofer, CPA, and have accepted it as correct without further
veri¬cation. We assume there are no material transactions between De-
cember 14, 1999, the date of the LLC™s ¬nancial statements, and December
25, 1999, and January 3, 2000, the dates of the gifts. For use of this report
in the year 2000, we assume there are no material changes in property
values and that there are no material changes in the equity of the LLC or
its member interests.
All other information used in this report is from sources we deem
reliable. We have accurately re¬‚ected such information in this report;
however, we make no representation as to our sources™ accuracy or com-
pleteness and have accepted their information without further veri¬ca-
We have not made a physical visit to the properties. We assume that
the present owners would continue to maintain the character and integ-
rity of the property through any sale, reorganization, or diminution of
the owners™ participation or equity interest. We also assume there are no
present or future ˜˜skeletons in the closet,™™ e.g., environmental problems
with the property, litigation, and so on.
Our opinion of the fractional interest discount in this report is valid
only for the stated purpose and only for the effective dates of the ap-
praisal. It is our understanding that this opinion will be used for gift tax
purposes. The fractional interest discount shall not be used for other pur-
poses and cannot even be used for the same purposes and time frame for
different size member interests, as they could be misleading and danger-
ous. Though some similarities exist between the fractional interest dis-
count for this purpose and others, it would be incorrect to use the dis-
count as determined in our report for any other purposes. Speci¬c timing,
performance, and marketability issues that arise in evaluating the fair
market value of the properties and related ownership interests could
change the results. Accordingly, any such use of the fractional interest
discount as determined in this report for other purposes or effective dates
may be inaccurate and misleading, and no such use shall be made with-
out our written consent.
Our determination of the fractional interest discount does not rep-
resent investment advice of any kind to any person and does not consti-
tute a recommendation as to the purchase or sale of shares of the property
or related interests or regarding any other course of action.
Future services regarding the subject matter of this report, including,


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