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заявлена вартість
real value

вартість витрат
mortgage value

вартість кожної окремої партії
original value

курсова вартість
customs (dutiable) value

загальна вартість
unit value

первинна вартість
market value

вартість продукції
order value (cost)

вартість робочої сили
declared value

митна вартість
value of labour
В.
умови оренди
regular terms

взаємовигідні умови
test conditions

взаємоприйнятні умови
prevailing conditions

умови замовлення
terms of lease

умови інкасо
financial terms

умови випробувань
mutually acceptable terms

несприятливі умови
stipulated conditions

загальноприйнятні умови
finance terms

звичайні умови
mutually advantageous terms

відстрочені умови платежу
unfavourable (adverse) conditions

умови підвищення цін
settlement terms

попередні умови
collection terms

передбачені умови
terms of escalation

умови розрахунку
specifications of an order

умови фінансування
deferred terms of payment

фінансові умови
preliminary conditions
VIII. Fill in the blanks from the words below. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
allowance (3); persuade (3); promote; promotion (2); warranty (2); incentive (2); inventory (2).
The equipment is still under _____.
It is the responsibility of the marketing department to _____ and organize the sale of products to the purchaser.
Retailers in this country usually get tax and trade _____ from the government.
This newly–formed company managed to _____ everybody of their reliability.
Four characteristics of pure market system — economic freedom — economic _____, competitive markets, and private property — are very much in evidence in the American economy today.
Can the company give a _____ for these goods?
This company might offer you several kinds of promotional _____ on the first order.
They must make _____ for his youth.
Broadly speaking, activities such as sales _____, advertising and market research are covered by the marketing department.
In retailing _____ is tangible property either held for sale or to be consumed in the sale of goods.
We could _____ the manager out of signing this unfair contract.
Without private property there would be little _____ for an individual to save and accumulate capital and without capital there would be no business enterprise.
Advertising is aimed at conveying information to potential customers and clients, but it is also used to _____ the public to buy.
Large ______ lying idle in warehouses drain the resources of a retail establishment.
_____ includes all forms of marketing communication.
IX. Synonyms and antonyms. Complete the following table:
Word
Synonym
Antonym
motivate (Verb)


promotion (Noun)


usually (Adverb)


satisfying (Participle I)


Ability (Noun)


select (Verb)


agree (Verb)


frequently (Adverb)


personal (Adjective)


persuasive (Adjective)


modern (Adjective)


customer (Noun)


X. Complete the following sentences:
The marketing mix consists of …
An effective marketing programme blends all …
In addition to developing the right Product, Place, and Promotion, marketing managers must …
You can see that price is …
We develop a Product …
The four Ps are arranged around …
In setting a price, marketing managers must consider …
It’s important to stress that selecting a target market and developing a marketing mix …
A price is set after …
XI. Translate the following text and summarize it in about 120 words.
BRITISH AIRWAYS CATERS TO SENIORS;
AGE HAS ITS PRIVILEGES, EVEN IN THE AIR
British Airways is offering a full special traveler’s program geared to the over-60 passenger. The airline says it is the first such program for Canadians.
BA’s Privileged Traveller Programme, which began in April 1999, offers a Privileged Traveller Card. Holders of the card are entitled to waivers of all penalties for pre-trip cancellation or changes of airfare reservations; 10 percent discount on most BA fares from Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver to Britain; special savings on land arrangements and on selected tours; a toll-free line; and a personal reservations record. With the latter, a record is kept of the traveler’s preferences so that when a call is made for reservations, the airline already knows such things as seat preferences, special meal requirements, and needs for medical assistance.
In addition, one companion over age 50 can accompany the Privileged Card holder. Until May 31, 1999, cards were free upon request. Afterwards, there was a handling fee of $ 15 for applications and renewals.
«It’s one of our new offerings this spring that is helping to keep us in position as industry leader,» said Ian Reid, vice president sales, Canada.
The airline has also relaunched its first-class product after an investment of $ 60 million with the aim of winning a bigger share of the prestige market. Particular emphasis is being placed on freedom of individual choice in such areas as mealtimes. The airline has redesigned its first-class cabin interiors, improved its sleeper seats and menus, offers a new wine cellar, and has introduced the world’s first individually controlled passenger videos.
Just over a year ago, BA relaunched its business class following a $ 60 million investment. It has paid off, with a 20 percent growth in Club traffic (international routes) and 9 percent increase in Club Europe (in-Europe routes).
The airline intends to spend about the same amount in advertising as last year, according to Reid, and intends to emphasize its flights to Paris for North American travelers.
Among its new spring and summer offerings are Bed and Breakfast Fly-Drive holidays for exploration of England, Scotland, and Wales with a car and choice of stops; and Deluxe Country Hotels holidays offering the pleasures of English country living at four of a choice of nine elegant country hotels. In addition, it has expanded and varied special offerings of its show tours, London exploration holidays, Town and Country programs, and its London-Plus holidays that include London and another European city.
XII. Translate into English.
З кінця 50-х рр. система засобів маркетингу визначається як «маркетинговий комплекс». Наприкінці 70-х рр. можливі елементи цього комплексу було об’єднано в чотири групи (концепція «4Р» — від початкової букви англійської назви кожного елементу, зокрема: товар, місце, просування і ціна).
Головний елемент цієї суміші — товар. Тут основними інструментами маркетингової діяльності фірми є якість товару, його різноманітність, зовнішній вигляд, властивості, товарні знаки, упаковка, габарити, сервіс, гарантії, можливості повернення покупцем та ін. Найважливішим у створенні товару є знаходження й реалізація переваг для споживачів у широкому діапазоні — від упаковки до екологічної безпеки. В ідеалі товар фірми має бути унікальним на ринку.

Розподіл — це насамперед вибір раціональних каналів збуту продукції фірми. Саме вони мають зв’язувати фірму з ринком, надавати можливість реалізовувати її продукцію. Крім того, цей блок системи засобів маркетингу потребує належних прийомів та методів створення збутового апарату, підготовки торговельних працівників, розміщення товарів у відповідних торговельних закладах, формування в кожному з них оптимального асортименту та номенклатури продукції, нагромадження необхідних і достатніх її запасів, організації транспортування і зберігання тощо.
Просування має на меті створення інформаційного взаємозв’язку фірми зі своїм цільовим ринком. Тут головними інструментами маркетингу є реклама, пропагування, стимулювання збуту та персональний продаж.
Ціноутворення полягає в підходах та методах визначення прейскурантних цін, знижок, умов платежів та кредитування покупців, управління ними.
XIII. Act as an interpreter for A and B.
A:
Why do you think companies should develop the marketing mix?
B:
Підприємства мають розвивати маркетинговий комплекс для впливу на споживачів у такий спосіб, щоб вони купували їхні вироби.
A:
How can the marketing mix be described?
B:
Маркетинговий комплекс часто подається як «4Р»: продукт, просування (включаючи рекламу, особистий продаж і сприяння продажу); місце (розподіл); ціна.
A:
Can you tell me whether all four Ps are equally important and whether they should all be tied together?
B:
Так, усі ці елементи важливі і мають взаємодіяти в єдиному маркетинговому плані. Так, скажімо, фірма «Проктер и Гембл», коли було прийнято рішення розширити збут кави, розробила ретельно виважений маркетинговий комплекс, передбачивши таке:
для досягнення популярності марки здійснювалася інтенсивна реклама;
за допомогою купонів і «особливої» ціни було запропоновано цінове стимулювання, щоб споживачі випробували, перевірили продукцію;
після запровадження продукт був підтриманий засобами широкої поточної реклами і за нагоди — заходами, що сприяли продажу (купони і ціни, що діяли протягом компанії).
A:
Thank you very much. You have been very helpful and informative.
XIV. Action problems.
Choose a local TV channel and describe what its apparent mission, objectives and the marketing mix are. What other things can the channel do accomplish its mission?
Assume you want to start a business after graduation. What, for example, is the opportunity for a new music store selling records, tapes and compact discs in your city. Write a 250-word essay describing your target market or markets and the marketing mix you would develop for your store.
XV. Case Study.
TRAP-EASE AMERICA:
THE BIG CHEESE OF MOUSETRAPS
One April morning, Martha House, president of Trap-Ease America, entered her office in Costa Mesa, California. She paused for a moment to contemplate the Ralph Waldo Emerson quote which she had framed and hung near her desk.
If a man [can] ... make a better mousetrap than his neighbor... the world will make a beaten path to his door.
Perhaps, she mused, Emerson knew something that she didn’t. She had the better mousetrap—Trap-Ease—but the world didn’t seem all that excited about it.
Martha had just returned from the National Hardware Show in Chicago. Standing in the trade show display booth for long hours and answering the same questions hundreds of times had been tiring. Yet, this show had excited her. Each year, National Hardware Show officials held a contest to select the best new product introduced at the show. Of the more than 300 new products introduced at that year’s show, her mousetrap had won first place. Such notoriety was not new for the Trap-Ease mousetrap. People magazine had written about the mousetrap in an article, and numerous talk shows and trade publications had featured it. Despite all of this attention, however, the expected demand for the trap had not materialized. Martha hoped that this award might stimulate increased interest and sales.
A group of investors who had obtained worldwide rights to market the innovative mousetrap had formed Trap-Ease America in January. In return for marketing rights, the group agreed to pay the inventor and patent holder, a retired rancher, a royalty fee for each trap sold. The group then hired Martha to serve as president and to develop and manage the Trap-Ease America organization.
The Trap-Ease, a simple yet clever device, is manufactured by a plastics firm under contract with Trap-Ease America. It consists of a square, plastic tube measuring about 6 inches long and 11/2 inches square. The tube bends in the middle at a 30-degree angle, so that when the front part of the tube rests on a flat surface, the other end is elevated. The elevated ends holds a removable cap into which the user places bait (cheese, dog food, or some other tidbit). A hinged door is attached to the front end of the tube. When the trap is «open,» this door rests on two narrow «stilts» attached to the two bottom corners of the door.
The trap works with simple efficiency. A mouse, smelling the bait, enters the tube through the open end. As it walks up the angled bottom toward the bait, its weight makes the elevated end of the trap drop downward. This elevates the open end, allowing the hinged door to swing closed, trapping the mouse. Small teeth on the ends of the stilts catch in a groove on the bottom of the trap, locking the door closed. The mouse can be disposed of live, or it can be left alone for a few hours to suffocate in the trap.
Martha felt the trap had many advantages for the consumer when compared with traditional spring-loaded traps or poisons. Consumers can use it safely and easily with no risk of catching their fingers while loading it. It poses no injury or poisoning threat to children or pets. Furthermore, with Trap-Ease, consumers can avoid the unpleasant «mess» they encounter with the violent spring-loaded traps—it creates no «clean-up» problem. Finally, the consumer can reuse the trap or simply throw it away.
Martha’s early research suggested that women are the best target market for the Trap-Ease. Men, it seems, are more willing to buy and use the traditional, spring-loaded trap. The targeted women, however, do not like the traditional trap. They often stay at home and take care of their children. Thus, they want a means of dealing with the mouse problem that avoids the unpleasantness and risks that the standard trap creates in the home.
To reach this target market, Martha decided to distribute Trap-Ease through national grocery, hardware, and drug chains such as Safeway, Kmart, Hechingers, and CB Drug. She sold the trap directly to these large retailers, avoiding any wholesalers or other middlemen.
The traps sold in packages of two, with a suggested retail price of $ 2.49. Although this price made the Trap-Ease about five to ten times more expensive than smaller, standard traps, consumers appeared to offer little initial price resistance. The manufacturing cost for the Trap-Ease, including freight and packaging costs, was about 31 cents per unit. The company paid an additional 8.2 cents per unit in royalty fees. Martha priced the traps to retailers at 99 cents per unit and estimated that, after sales and volume discounts, Trap-Ease would realize net revenues from retailers of 75 cents per unit.
To promote the product, Martha had budgeted approximately $ 60,000 for the first year. She planned to use $ 50,000 of this amount for travel costs to visit trade shows and to make sales calls on retailers. She would use the remaining $ 10,000 for advertising. So far, however, because the mousetrap had generated so much publicity, she had not felt that she needed to do much advertising. Still, she had placed advertising in Good Housekeeping and in other «home and shelter» magazines. Martha was the company’s only «salesperson,» but she intended to hire more salespeople soon.
Martha had initially forecasted Trap-Ease’s first-year sales at five million units. Through April, however, the company had sold only several hundred thousand units. Martha wondered if most new products got off to such a slow start, or if she was doing something wrong. She had detected some problems, although none seemed overly serious. For one, there had not been enough repeat buying. For another, she had noted that many of the retailers on whom she called kept their sample mousetraps on their desks as conversation pieces—she wanted the traps to be used and demonstrated. Martha wondered if consumers were also buying the traps as novelties rather than as solutions to their mouse problems.
Martha knew that the investor group believed that Trap-Ease America had a «once-in-a-lifetime chance» with its innovative mousetrap. She sensed the group’s impatience. She had budgeted approximately $ 250,000 in administrative and fixed costs for the first year (not including marketing costs). To keep the investors happy, the company needed to sell enough traps to cover those costs and make a reasonable profit.
In these first few months, Martha had learned that marketing a new product is not an easy task. For example, one national retailer had placed a large order with instructions that the order was to be delivered to the loading dock at one of its warehouses between 1:00 and 3:00 PM on a specified day. When the truck delivering the order had arrived late, the retailer had refused to accept the shipment. The retailer had told Martha it would be a year before she got another chance. Perhaps, Martha thought, she should send the retailer and other customers a copy of Emerson’s famous quote.
Questions:
Martha and the Trap-Ease America Investors feel they face a «once-in-a-lifetime» opportunity. What information do they need to evaluate this opportunity? How do you think the group would write its mission statement? How would you write it?
Has Martha identified the best target market for Trap-Ease? What other market segments might the firm target?
How has the company positioned the Trap-Ease relative to the chosen target market? Could it position the product in other ways?
Describe the current marketing mix for Trap-Ease. Do you see any problems with this mix?
Who is Trap-Ease America’s competition?

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