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14) stock market
14) міжнародний євро-доларовий ринок

15) bond market
15) ринок сільськогосподарської продукції
B.
1) advance advertising
1) газетно-журнальна реклама

2) bank advertising
2) пряма споживча реклама

3) billboard advertising
3) банківська реклама

4) consumer advertising
4) попередня реклама

5) direct advertising
5) Ам. реклама на стендах

6) direct-mail advertising
6) рекламування в комерційній пресі

7) display advertising
7) реклама, вибірково спрямована на певного споживача

8) media advertising
8) рекламування в транспорті

9) reminder advertising
9) пряма поштова реклама

10) selective advertising
10) споживча реклама

11) trade advertising
11) ілюстративна реклама

12) transit advertising
12) повторна реклама
VIII. Fill in the blanks from the words below. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:
identify (2); define (2); definition; determine (2); accomplish; impact; implement; design, n. (2); design, v.; benefit (3); execution; executive; appreciate (2); appreciation (2); product.
He _____ to start his own business.
The _____ refused to become _____ with the new political party.
If the marketer does a good job of _____ consumer needs, developing good products, pricing, distributing and promoting them effectively, these goods will sell very easily.
The _____ of marketing on society is more than economic.
The powers of a judge are _____ by law.
What _____ this businessman to accept the offer?
This course of study is _____ to help those wishing to study abroad.
When boundaries between countries are not clearly _____ there is usually trouble.
The money is to be used for the _____ of the poor.
A key point about this _____ of marketing is that it views marketing as an exchange process.
He is the person who will never _____ anything.
Write an _____ of a new textbook.
The agreement was soon _____.
This product has a number of _____.
The land has _____ greatly since the new railway was built.
_____ of faulty _____ will not sell well.
Whether by accident or _____ he came too late to the meeting.
Members of this insurance society get medical _____.
His intention was good, but his _____ of the plan was unsatisfactory.
You can’t _____ this book unless you read it with attention.
IX. Adjectives versus adverbs. Look at the following sentences:
Marketing is too important to be left to the marketing department.
Most people mistakenly think of marketing as selling and promotion.
Now complete the sentences below with a word chosen from the following list:
hard
heavily
late
slightly
well
successful
normally
lately
generous
rapidly
Our product is so _____ that we are _____ running out of stock.
_____, we invest _____ at this time of year.
Profit has only _____ increased and therefore we have had to cut back on further investment.
_____, he has been arriving _____ at every meeting.
The sales department performed _____ last year so we have given all the sales people a _____ bonus.
He worked so _____ that he fell ill.
X. Adjective modification. Look at the following sentence:
In a truly great marketing organization …
Now complete the sentences below by combining two adjectives from the following list:
oriented
complex
tremendous
different
good
radical
sufficient
unusual
qualified
commercial
technical
difficult
She is very _____. I think she should get the job.
The computer program is _____. I can’t understand it.
Normally the work is easy. This time it has proved _____.
He’s _____ but not _____, so he’d make a good engineer but not a salesman.
The policy is not _____ from last year. Basically we will try to increase market share.
XI. Read the following statements about the role of marketing and give answers to the questions below:
«Marketing is too important to be left to the marketing department». (David Packard).
«In a truly great marketing organization, you can’t tell who is in the marketing department. Everyone in the organization has to make decisions based on the impact on the consumer». (Professor Stephen Burnett).
«The aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous. The aim is to know and understand the customers so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself». (Peter Drucker).
«Marketing is the performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer».
«Marketing is getting the right goods and services to the right place at the right time at the right price with the right communication and promotion».
«Marketing is the creation and delivery of a standard of living».
Questions:
Which statement suggests that everybody in а company is a marketer?
Which statement completely discounts the importance of selling?
Which statement emphasizes the role of the four P’s (product, price, place, promotion)?
Which statement sees marketing more in a sociological role?
What could be your definition of marketing?
XII. Translate the following text. Compare your translation with the original given in Text A.
ЩО ТАКЕ МАРКЕТИНГ?
Що ж криється під поняттям «маркетинг»? Більшість помилково ототожнює маркетинг зі збутом і стимулюванням. І не дивно! Адже американцям постійно дошкуляють телевізійні рекламні ролики, газетні оголошення, візити комівояжерів. Хтось увесь час намагається щось продати.
Тому багато хто дивується, дізнавшись, що збут — зовсім не найважливіший елемент маркетингу. Збут — лише верхівка маркетингового айсбергу, одна з багатьох його функцій, причому най-
частіше не першорядна.
Якщо суб’єкт ринку добре попрацював, щоб виявити знадоби споживачів, розробити якісні товари, установити на них відповідну ціну, налагодити систему розподілу товарів і ефективного стимулювання, то такі товари, безсумнівно, продаватимуться легко.
Один із провідних теоретиків із проблем управління, Пітер Друкер, каже про це так:
«Ціль маркетингу — зробити зусилля щодо збуту непотрібними. Його мета — настільки добре пізнати і зрозуміти клієнта, що товар чи послуга будуть точно пасувати останньому і продаватимуть себе самі».
Це зовсім не означає, що зусилля зі збуту і його стимулювання втрачають своє значення. Скоріше йдеться про те, що вони стають частиною більш масштабного комплексу маркетингу, тобто набору маркетингових засобів, які необхідно зв’язати один з одним, щоб домогтися максимального впливу.
Ось наше визначення маркетингу. Маркетинг — вид людської діяльності, спрямований на задоволення знадоб і потреб за допомогою обміну.
Ф. Котлер
Основи маркетингу
XIII. Read and translate the following definitions:
«Маркетинг є настільки основоположним поняттям, що не може розглядатися як окрема функція... Ідеться про розгляд усієї діяльнос-
ті підприємства з перспективою його кінцевого результату, а це означає — з погляду споживача. Тому компетенція та відповідальність за маркетинг мають проникнути в усі сфери підприємства».
П. Друкер
«Маркетинг — людська діяльність, спрямована на те, щоб за допомогою процесів обміну задовольняти потреби та бажання».
Ф. Котлер
«Концепція маркетингу вбачає головне завдання організації в з’ясуванні потреб і побажань цільових ринків та прагне до того, щоб організація, яка це виявляє, задовольняла потреби цільових ринків дієвіше та ефективніше ніж конкуренти».
Ф. Котлер
«Маркетинг — це свідоме, орієнтоване на ринок управління підприємством у цілому або орієнтований на ринок спосіб прийняття всіх рішень на підприємстві».
Мефферт
«Маркетинг означає ...планування, координування та контроль усіх орієнтованих на актуальні і потенційні ринки дій підприємства. Завдяки тривалому задоволенню потреб споживачів мають бути втілені в життя цілі підприємства в загальноекономічному процесі постачання товарів».
Мефферт
XIV. Act as an interpreter for A and B:
A:
As far as I understand the marketing definition is not a simple one at present time.
B:
Я вважаю, що ви маєте рацію. Зараз можна було б казати про два його значення: традиційне — як функція збуту і сучасне — як «філософія бізнесу».
A:
That’s true. Moreover «the philosophy of business» concept is developing too.
B:
Що ви маєте на увазі? Те, що раніше вона в основному означала зростання виробництва товару і його збут?
A:
Of course. But now you can see a different approach to the sales problem.
B:
Так, правильно, більш широкий. Збут — це не тільки продаж товару. Потрібний комплексний підхід, вивчення ринку, попиту, інтересів споживача.
A:
And a lot of other things.
B:
Так, маркетинг — це ціла система заходів.
XV. Read and summarize the following text:
MARKETER PROFILE
Lee A. Iacocca of Chrysler Corporation
Lee A. Iacocca began his career in the automobile industry in 1946 with Ford Motor Company. Iacocca rose rapidly to the top at Ford and became president in 1970; however, in 1978 he was fired. Iacocca could have received up to $ 1.1 million in deferred bonuses from Ford if he had not gone to work for another automobile company. Instead, he accepted an offer to be president at the almost bankrupt Chrysler Corporation. In 1978, when Chrysler was close to bankruptcy, Iacocca faced the almost impossible challenge of making the company profitable again. He immediately responded to this challenge by attempting to transform Chrysler into a marketing oriented firm. Chrysler was still a production-oriented company, and its rationale for existence was superior engineering. Former Chrysler president Townsend said it best, «What this company had in all of its products was more engineering differences that any other products being offered to the American people». Iacocca decided to change his orientation by giving the American car-buying public what they wanted instead of what Chrysler engineers liked to design. He began to give them smaller cars with fuel economy, good styling, better quality, low cost maintenance, and lower prices. He also brought back the convertible, which was an instant success, and introduced a minivan geared toward today’s smaller families.
One successful strategy that Iacocca introduced at Chrysler was production of several cars from interchangeable parts. Iacocca took two successful K-cars-the Plymouth Reliant and the Dodge Aries — and created the Chrysler LeBaron, Dodge 400, Chrysler B class and Chrysler New Yorker. The cost of these transformations and other new product development ran about $ 6 to $ 7 billion between 1980 and 1985.
Iacocca also realized that Chrysler needed more than the consumer’s patronage to succeed, so he also developed good exchange relationships with other key public including the Federal government. He obtained major wage and salary reductions from the United Auto Workers, received $ 1,2 billion in guaranteed government loans, obtained discounts from key suppliers, and borrowed money from its dealers. Under the direction of Iacocca, Chrysler succeeded not only in becoming highly profitable, but also in paying back all of its government-guaranteed loans by early 1984.
Source: Chrysler Corporation annual reports
and selected news releases
XVI. Role-play.
You are taking part in a seminar on the problems of marketing conducted by European and American marketers. It’s a question and answer session. Ask the lecturers a number of questions about the role of marketing in the independent societies of the twenty-first century. Ask your fellow-students to answer them. Make use of the following helpful phrases:
To ask questions:
Do you mind if I ask you a few questions?
Would you be kind enough …
Could you spare me a minute and …
Could I possibly ask you …
There must have been times when …
I hope you don’t mind my asking, but I’d like to know …
To ask for clarification:
Sorry, I don’t quite understand why (where) …
Could you tell me a bit more about …
Does that mean that …
I don’t quite catch the full implication of …
Am I to take it that …
To express willingness:
Yes, certainly
Yes, with pleasure
Yes, by all means
XVII. Action problem.
One of your friends who is a sociology major, has asked why you are studying marketing. Write a 100-word essay describing the benefits you expect to receive from studying marketing.
Before writing the essay read the following information:
TYPES OF WRITING EXPECTED
AT THE UNIVERSITY
The most frequently assigned forms of writing at the univer-
sity are the paragraph, the essay, the essay test, and the research paper. Almost all students, whatever their majors, will find themselves writing at least one of each of these forms during their
university years. Each form of prose can be specifically described and defined. Each is made up of certain elements put together in certain ways, and the forms have some characteristics in common. Because these forms build on each other, learning how to write one form means that you will be able to handle the next more easily. The following information will help you learn how to write these forms.
Paragraph
The paragraph consists of two kinds of sentences. It is made up of one topic sentence and a number of support sentences. The topic sentence states the point that the writer wants to prove to the readers. Support sentences provide explanation and evidence for the topic sentence. In other words, the topic sentence states the writer’s argument and the support sentences provide proof that the writer has reasons for believing that the argument is valid. The topic sentence is often, but not necessarily, the first sentence in the paragraph. The support sentences, all of which must relate to the topic sentence, then follow.
The Essay (Theme, Paper, Composition)
The University essay is a unit of writing composed of several paragraphs. The structure of an essay is in some ways similar to that of the single paragraph. Just as the paragraph has a topic sentence, the essay has a thesis statement. This statement gives the argument of the essay: It states the point that the writer wants to make to the reader. Just as the paragraph has support sentences, so the essay has support paragraphs to explain and prove the argument. In many ways, then, a University essay may be viewed as an expanded paragraph.


Introductory paragraph




First support paragraph




Second support paragraph




Third support paragraph




Concluding paragraph
The essay consists of three kinds of paragraphs. The support paragraphs form the middle or body of the essay, offering points of proof that the thesis statement is valid. Each support paragraph begins with a topic sentence that relates the point to be made in that paragraph to the thesis of the essay. The topic sentence is, of course, followed by support sentences that explain and develop the topic sentence. An essay usually has as many support paragraphs as the writer has points
of proof.
The essay also has two other kinds of paragraphs, the introductory paragraph and the concluding paragraph. The introductory paragraph acquaints readers with the subject of the essay and grabs their attention. One or more of its concluding sentences presents the thesis. The concluding paragraph gives readers a sense of an ending. It sums up what has gone before and reminds readers for the last time of the thesis, the essay’s main point.
The diagram illustrates an essay that has three major points of proof for the argument stated in the thesis; therefore, it has five paragraphs.
TEXT B
THE CORE MARKETING CONCEPTS
The core marketing concepts are needs, wants, demands, products, exchange, transactions, markets.
The most basic concept underlying marketing is that of human needs. A human need is a state of felt deprivation. Human beings have many complex needs. They include basic physical needs for food, clothing, warmth, and safety; social needs for belonging and affection; and individual needs for knowledge and self-expression. These needs are not invented. They are a basic part of the human makeup.
When a need is not satisfied, a person will do one of two things- look for an object that will satisfy it or try to reduce the need. People in industrial societies may try to find or develop objects that will satisfy their desires. People in less-developed societies may try to reduce their desires and satisfy them with what is available.
A second basic concept in marketing is that of human wants — the form taken by human needs as they are shaped by culture and individual personality. A hungry person in Bah may want mangoes, suckling pig, and beans. A hungry person in the United States may want a hamburger, French fries, and a Coke. Wants are described in terms of objects that will satisfy needs. As a society evolves, the wants of its members expand. As people are exposed to more objects that arouse their interest and desire, producers try to provide more want-satisfying products and services.
But people have almost unlimited wants and limited resources. Thus, they want to choose products that provide the most satisfaction for their money. When backed by buying power, wants become demands.
Human needs, wants, and demands suggest that there are products available to satisfy them. A product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption and might satisfy a need or want. The concept of product is not limited to physical objects. Anything capable of satisfying a need can be called a product. In addition to goods and services, products include persons, places, organizations, activities, and ideas. A consumer decides which entertainers to watch on television, which places to go on a vacation, which organizations to contribute to, and which ideas to support.
To the consumer, these are all products. If at times the term product does not seem to fit, we could substitute such terms as satisfier, resource, or offer. All describe something of value to someone.
Consumers view products as bundles of benefits and choose products that give them the best bundle for their money. Thus, a Ford Festiva means basic transportation, a low price, and fuel economy. A Mercedes means comfort, luxury, and status. Given their wants and resources, people choose the product whose benefits add up to the most satisfaction.
Exchange is the act of obtaining a desired object from someone by offering something in return. Exchange is only one of many ways people can obtain a desired object
Exchange is also the core concept of marketing. For an exchange to take place, several conditions must be satisfied. Of course, there must be at least two parties, and each must have something of value to the other. Each party must also want to deal with the other party; each must be free to accept or reject the other’s offer. Finally, each party must be able to communicate and deliver.
These conditions simply make exchange possible. Whether exchange actually takes place depends on the parties’ coming to an agreement.
If they agree, we must conclude that the act of exchange has left both of them better off (or at least not worse off): After all, each was free to reject or accept the offer. In this sense, just as production creates value, exchange creates value. It gives people more consumption possibilities.
Whereas exchange is the core concept of marketing, a transaction is marketing’s unit of measurement. A transaction consists of a trade of values between two parties. In a transaction, we must be able to say that A gives X to В and gets У in return. For example, you pay Sears $ 400 for a television set. This is a classic monetary transaction.
But not all transactions involve money. In a barter transaction, you might trade your old refrigerator in return for a neighbor’s secondhand television set. A barter transaction can also involve services as well as goods—for example, when a lawyer writes a will for a doctor in return for a medical exam. A transaction involves at least two things of value, conditions that are agreed upon, a time of agreement, and a place of agreement.
In the broadest sense, the marketer tries to bring about a response to some offer. And the response may be more than simply «buying» or «trading» goods and services in the narrow sense. A political candidate, for instance, wants a response called «votes,» a church wants «membership,» a social-action group wants «idea acceptance.» Marketing consists of actions taken to obtain a desired response from a target audience toward some product, service, idea, or other object.
The concept of transactions leads to the concept of a market.
A market is the set of actual and potential buyers of a product.
As the number of persons and transactions increases in a society, the number of merchants and marketplaces also increases. In advanced societies, markets need not be physical locations where buyers and sellers interact. With modern communications and transportation, a merchant can easily advertise a product on late evening television, take orders from hundreds of customers over the phone, and mail the goods to buyers on the following day without having had any physical contact with them.
A market can grow up around a product, a service, or anything else of value. For example, a labor market consists of people who are willing to offer their work in return for wages or products. In fact, various institutions, such as employment agencies and job-counseling firms, will grow up around a labor market to help it function better. The money market is another important market that emerges to meet the needs of people so that they can borrow, lend, save, and protect money. The donor market has emerged to meet the financial needs of nonprofit organizations.
Marketing means working with markets to bring about exchanges for the purpose of satisfying human needs and wants. Thus, we return to our definition of marketing as a process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want by creating and exchanging products and value with others.
Exchange processes involve work. Sellers must search for buyers, identify their needs, design good products, promote them, store and deliver them, and set prices for them. Such activities as product development, research, communication, distribution, pricing, and service are core marketing activities.
Although we normally think of marketing as being performed
by sellers, buyers also perform marketing activities. Consumers do «marketing» when they search for the goods they need at prices they can afford. Company purchasing agents do «marketing» when they track down sellers and bargain for good terms. A seller’s market is one in which sellers have more power and buyers must be the more active «marketers.» In a buyer’s market, buyers have more power and sellers have to be more active «marketers.» In the early 1950s, the supply of goods began to grow faster than the demand. Most markets became buyer’s markets, and marketing became identified with sellers trying to find buyers.
І. Key terms:
Need — знадоба, потреба — that which occurs when a person feels deprived of food, clothing, or shelter; the basic force that motivate a person to do something.
Want — потреба — a need that is shaped by a person’s knowledge, culture, and individual characteristics.
Demand — попит — human wants that are backed by buying power.
Transaction — угода, ділова операція — a trade between two parties that involves at least two things of value, agreed-upon conditions, a time of agreement, and a place of agreement.
Exchange — обмін — the trade of things of value between buyer and seller so that each is better off after the trade.
Market — ринок — a group of potential customers with similar needs and sellers offering various products (that is, ways of satisfying those needs) or a group of sellers and buyers who are willing to exchange goods and/or services for something of value.
ІІ. Vocabulary notes:
evolve, v.
1) (cause to) unfold; develop — розвивати(ся), розгортати;
2) be developed, and (usu) gradually — розвиватися, еволюціонувати; виділяти (газ тощо), випускати, видихати; розкривати, виявляти;
evolution, n.
1) evolving; process of opening out or developing — еволюція, поступ;
2) development of more complicated forms of life from earlier and simpler forms — розвиток, процес заміни;
3) movement according to plan — розгортання (сюжету, думки); пересування, маневр.
reduce, v.
1) (to) make less; make smaller in size, number, degree, price, etc. — знижувати, зменшувати; скорочувати; послабляти, полегшувати; to reduce speed — зменшувати швидкість; to reduce pressure — знижувати тиск; to reduce prices — знижувати ціни; to reduce staff — скорочувати штат; to reduce taxes — знижувати податки; to reduce temperature — знижувати (збивати) температуру; to reduce expenses — скорочувати видатки; to reduce pain — полегшувати біль;
2) bring or get to a certain condition, way of living, etc. — перетворювати, обертати (на щось); to reduce to ashes — спалити дощенту; to reduce to order — навести порядок, упорядкувати; to reduce to tears — довести до сліз; to reduce to nothing — звести нанівець; to reduce to silence — примусити замовкнути;
3) change (to another form) — спрощувати, скорочувати, доводити (до певного стану); to reduce equation/argument/statement to its simplest form; to reduce to an absurdity — довести до абсурду;
reduction, n.
1) reducing or being reduced; instance of this — знижка, зменшення, скорочення; reduction of wages — скорочення заробітної плати; a reduction in/of numbers — скорочення кількості; reductions in prices; price reductions — зниження ціни; a reduction of punishment — юр. пом’якшення покарання;

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