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3) зовнішній попит

3) primary demand

4) вторинний попит

4) unpopular goods

5) жорсткий попит

5) heavy (great, stray, keen) demand

6) невеликий попит

6) thin (narrow, restrictive) market limited demand

7) обмежений попит

7) home (domestic) demand

8) підвищений попит

8) demand for consumer goods

9) попит, що знижується

9) marketable goods

10) попит на товари широкого

10) external demand

11) попит на товари першої

11) after-market demand

12) товари, що користуються

12) poor (slight) demand

13) товари, що не користуються попитом

13) keen demand
1) взаємовигідна угода

1) collateral loan business

2) зовнішньоторговельна угода

2) Dutch bargain

3) вигідна угода

3) cash business (transaction); spot business (transaction)

4) угода, вигідна для однієї сторони

4) mutually beneficial transaction

5) двостороння угода

5) bilateral transaction, two-way business

6) довгострокова угода

6) contract (transaction) on a mutually advantageous basis

7) інкасова угода

7) foreign trade transaction

8) касова угода

8) long-term agreement

9) комплексна угода

9) profitable transaction, remunerative business, good bargain

10) ломбардна угода

10) collection business

11) угода на взаємовигідній

11) package deal
VIII. Fill in the blanks from the words below. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:
demand, n.; affection; evolve; reduce; provide (3); acquisition; consumption; consuming; involve; bargain, v. (2); support.
The manager _____ with the farmer for a supply of milk and butter.
The American Constitution was planned, the British Constitution _____.
This young businessman has gained _____ of his colleagues.
A clause in this agreement _____ that the tenant shall bear the coast of all repairs to the building.
Production costs have been _____ by 10 percent.
Mr. Smith will be a valuable _____ to the staff of their company.
The _____ of gas didn’t go down when the tax was raised.
The employee _____ that they shouldn’t have to work on Saturday afternoons.
Have you _____ against an oil shortage next winter?
This is time — _____ work, it would be difficult for you to cope with it alone.
The judge rejected the accusation against the defendant as it was not _____ by proofs.
The company is deeply _____ in debt.
The _____ for fuel this month exceeds the supply.
A modern business enterprise is often a complex system requiring a lot of capital, which is _____ by public when they buy shares in the company.
IX. Synonyms and antonyms. Complete the following table:
satisfying (Adjective)

efficiency (Noun)

obtain (Verb)

satisfy (Verb)

reduce (Verb)

core (Adjective)

accept (Verb)

occur (Verb)

profit (Noun)

expand (Verb)

agent (Noun)

encourage (Verb)

popular (Adjective)

demand (Noun)

buy (Verb)

emerge (Verb)

manage (Verb)

stable (Adjective)

X. Join the halves.
On the left of the page there are the first halves of sentences. On the right there are second halves of the sentences, though not in the same order. Pair the halves and then write your own list of the completed sentences.
The first objective of marketing ...
has caused massive restructuring of many American industries and businesses, and the trend continues.
Since the organization obviously can’t satisfy all consumer needs, ...
provides important input for designing marketing strategies.
Today American firms are spending millions of dollars in both advertising and court cases ...
to distinguish between phy-
sical products and intangible ones
Outstanding marketing companies conduct consumer research, focus groups ...
it must concentrate its efforts on certain needs of a specific group of potential customers.
The intensity of competition in both domestic and global markets ...
is critical to the success of every organization — whether large or small, for-profit or non-profit, domestic or global.
Understanding customer needs, wants and demands in detail ...
their perceptions of the value that various products and services deliver.
Marketers often use the expressions «goods» and «services» ...
is discovering the needs of prospective consumers.
Consumers make buying choices based on ...
to protect their important brand names.
Exchange allows a society ...
the abundance of products that line the store shelves in your nearby shopping mall.
Some people think that only large business organizations operating in highly developed economies use marketing, but sound marketing ...
the principle of division of labor, where each person specializes in producing something, receives payment, and buys needed things with this money.
Modern economies operate on ...
to produce much more than it would with any alternative system.
You see the results of marketing in ...
to learn about and understand their customers’ needs, wants and demands.
XI. Translate the following text and summarize it in about 50 words:
Bill Gates was only technically a dropout when he left Harvard University in his second year. He left because, together with Paul Allen, he had developed the software language for the first personal computer, the Altair. Some of the experts at Intel, who produced the 8080 microchip for the Altair, said it was impossible to develop BASIC language for it, but Microsoft Basic was written in eight weeks, without even the benefit of an Altair computer for reference. Indeed Gates and Allen only saw a working Altair for the first time when Microsoft Word was (successfully) run on it, in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
In a turbulent industry with over 75,000 competitors worldwide, and for two difficult decades, Microsoft has consistently grown sales and profits at a dramatic rate. It overtook IBM in market capitalization after only seventeen years in business.

Why has Microsoft been so successful?
Here are some reasons:
The company has a clear and easily understood vision — «Microsoft software on every desktop PC.»
It hires a very specific type of person with strong technical background, high intelligence, a drive to succeed and ability to handle pressure.
It has a distinctive management style, built around informality, speed, hard challenges and stock options — directed towards making better products quickly and winning.
Microsoft always wants to be ahead of competition in every way. It competes both in the market-place and the law courts. The drive to win is very strong.
The company invests heavily in its vision of the future. R & D costs are 14 per cent of sales, sales/marketing investment is 32 per cent, while cost of goods is only 15 per cent of sales.
Deal-making has always been a strength. The agreement of IBM, to use MS-DOS as the operating system in its PCs, established MS-DOS as the industry standard and enabled Microsoft to build dominance in this critical strategic area.
Microsoft takes controlled risks and places high priority on speed to market-place.
XII. Translate the following text:
Маркетинг як наука і практична підприємницька діяльність оперує низкою понять.
Потреби — це специфічний стан людини (групи людей чи суспільства в цілому), який виникає в результаті того, що, по-перше, людина існує сама по собі як біологічна істота, по-друге, вона є частиною суспільної системи і, по-третє, взаємодіє з навколишнім середовищем, тобто суспільством, живою і неживою природою. Потреби — це суб’єктивне відчуття, спрямоване на зменшення чи позбавлення незадоволення. Це рушійна сила споживання, яка визначає поведінку індивіда. Потреби існують не-
залежно від підприємця, який намагається їх пізнати і задовольнити.
Бажання — це зовнішня форма вияву потреб. Це потреби, які набули специфічної, конкретної форми відповідно до культурного рівня і особистості індивіда. При цьому вони неоднакові в різних вікових категоріях.
Попит — це бажання з урахуванням купівельної спроможності, тобто забезпечена грошима потреба в товарах (послугах), які реалізуються на ринку.
Товар — це все, що може задовольнити потребу або бажання, і пропонується ринку з метою привертання уваги, придбання, використання чи споживання (вироби, послуги, особистості, місця, організації, види діяльності, ідеї тощо).
Обмін — це акт отримання чогось від певного бажаного об’єкта з пропонуванням чогось натомість. Розрізняють бартерний (товар — товар) і товарно-грошовий (гроші — товар чи товар — гроші) обмін.
Комерційний обмін цінностями між двома сторонами називається угодою. Угода має місце тоді, коли кожен з її учасників визнає, що вона є вигідною для нього, тобто дає певний позитивний результат.
Ринок — це інститут чи механізм, який об’єднує покупців і продавців товарів чи послуг, сукупність покупців і продавців, які з одного боку, намагаються і здатні купити, а з іншого — заінтересовані в продажу товарів і схильні до обміну.
Залежно від співвідношення попиту і пропонування розрізняють ринки продавців (попит на товари перевищує їх пропонування) і покупців (пропонування перевищує попит).
XIII. Act as an interpreter for A and B:
It is quite clear that exchange is core marketing concepts.
Ви маєте рацію. Маркетинг існує тоді, коли люди вирі-
шують задовольнити свої запити і потреби за допомогою
обміну. Які ж умови необхідно створити, щоб здійснити обмін?
For exchange to occur five conditions are necessary. First of all, there must be at least two parties and each party must have something that could be of value to the other.
Це правильно. Разом з тим кожна сторона повинна бути здатною здійснити комунікацію і доставку свого товару. Вона також має бути вільною у прийнятті чи відхиленні пропозиції іншої сторони. Необхідно також пам’ятати, що кожна сторона має бути впевненою в доцільності та бажаності ділових стосунків з іншою стороною.
But when these five conditions are met, only a potential exchange relationship has been established.
Так, здійснення цього обміну залежить від угоди між сторонами про його умови. Якщо угоду укладено, можна висновувати, що в результаті обміну всі його учасники матимуть вигоду, оскільки кожний з них був вільним у своєму рішенні — відхилити чи прийняти пропозицію.
XIV. Round-table discussion:
Economist John Kenneth Galbraith argues that the desires stimulated by marketing activities are not «genuine»: «A man who is hungry need never be told of his need for food.» Do you agree with this criticism? Why or why not?
Describe how the notions of products, exchanges, and transactions apply when you buy a soft drink from a vending machine. Do they also apply when you vote for a political candidate?

Unit 2

Most people think of a marketing manager as someone who finds enough customers for the company’s current output. But this view is too limited. Every organization has a desired level of demand for its products. At any point in time, there may be no demand, adequate demand, irregular demand, or too much demand. Marketing managers, therefore, can be concerned not only with finding and increasing demand but also with changing or even reducing it.
We define marketing management as the analysis, planning, implementation, and control of programs designed to create, build, and maintain beneficial exchanges with target buyers for the purpose of achieving organizational objectives.
What philosophy should guide marketing efforts? What weight should be given to the interests of the organization, customers, and society? Very often these interests conflict.
There are five alternative concepts under which organizations conduct their marketing activities: the production, product, selling, marketing, and societal marketing concepts.
The production concept holds that consumers will favor products that are available and highly affordable and that management should therefore focus on improving production and distribution efficiency. This concept is one of the oldest philosophies guiding sellers.
The production concept is a useful philosophy in two types of situations. The first occurs when the demand for a product exceeds the supply. Here, management should look for ways to increase production. The second situation occurs when the product’s cost is too high and improved productivity is needed to bring it down. For example, Henry Ford’s whole philosophy was to perfect the production of the Model T so that its cost could be reduced and more people could afford it. He joked about offering people a car of any color as long as it was black. Today, Texas Instruments (ТІ) follows this philosophy of increased production and lower costs in order to bring down prices.
It won a major share of the American hand-calculator market with this philosophy. But when ТІ used the same strategy in the digital watch market, it failed. Although they were priced low, customers did not find TI’s watches very attractive. In its drive to bring down prices,
ТІ lost sight of something else that its customers wanted— namely, attractive, affordable digital watches.
Another major concept guiding sellers, the product concept, holds that consumers will favor products that offer the most quality, performance, and features, and that an organization should thus devote energy to making continuous product improvements. Some manufacturers believe that if they can build a better mousetrap, the world will beat a path to their door. But they are often rudely shocked. Buyers may well be looking for a solution to a mouse problem, but not necessarily for a better mousetrap. The solution might be a chemical spray, an exterminating service, or something that works better than a mousetrap. Furthermore, a better mousetrap will not sell unless the manufacturer designs, packages, and prices it attractively, places it in convenient distribution channels, brings it to the attention of people who need it, and convinces them that it is a better product.
The product concept can also lead to «marketing myopia.» For instance, railroad management once thought that users wanted trains rather than transportation and overlooked the growing challenge of airlines, buses, trucks, and automobiles. Many colleges have assumed that high school graduates want a liberal arts education and have thus overlooked the increasing challenge of vocational schools.
Many organizations follow the selling concept, which holds that consumers will not buy enough of the organization’s products unless it undertakes a large selling and promotion effort. The concept is typically practiced with unsought goods—those that buyers do not normally think of buying (say, encyclopedias and funeral plots). These industries must be good at tracking down prospects and selling them on product benefits.
The selling concept is also practiced in the nonprofit area. A political party, for example, will vigorously sell its candidate to voters as a fantastic person for the job. The candidate works in voting precincts from dawn to dusk, shaking hands, kissing babies, meeting donors, making speeches. Much money is spent on radio and television advertising, posters, and mailings. Candidate flaws are hidden from the public because the aim is to get the sale, not worry about consumer satisfaction afterward.
The marketing concept holds that achieving organizational goals depends on determining the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors. Surprisingly, this concept is a relatively recent business philosophy. It emerged only during the 1950-s. The marketing concept has been stated in such colorful ways as «Find a need and fill it» (Kaiser Sand & Gravel); «We do it like you’d do it» (Burger King); and «We’re not satisfied until you are» (GE). J. C. Penney’s motto also summarizes the marketing concept: «To do all in our power to pack the customer’s dollar full of value, quality, and satisfaction».
The marketing concept viewes the consumer as the focal point of all marketing activities. Organizations that practice the marketing concept study the consumer to determine consumer’s needs and wants and then organize and integrate all activities within the firm toward helping the consumer fulfill these needs and wants while simultaneously achieving organizational goals. There are three pillars to the marketing concept) (1) consumer orientation, (2) integrated or total company effort, and (3) achievement of organization goals.
The consumer orientation dimension of the marketing concept argues that a firm can be more successful if it determines what the consumer needs and wants before it decides what product to produce and/or sell.
To successfully practice the principle of consumer orientation firms need to regularly conduct marketing research. Marketing research is the systematic collection, recording, and analyzing of data that deal with the marketing of goods and services The tools of marketing research allow the firm to assess consumers’ needs-wants.
Regardless of how much marketing research is conducted, no organization can be certain of consumers’ wants and needs. This is especially true with new product development or anticipatory manufacturing. For instance, Firestone Tire Company must produce snow tires in the summer for the coming fall and winter season. No matter how much research Firestone conducts it will still face some uncertainty about the weather and therefore may overproduce or underproduce snow fires for the coming season. Consequently, the role of good executive judgement in marketing decision-making cannot be ignored. Since marketing is not a precise science, good subjective judgement resulting from years of «hands on» experience is also a key to successfully implementing the marketing concept.
A second pillar of the marketing concept is the principle of integrated effort, in which departments within the organization work together toward the common goal of satisfying the customer. Integrated effort is a systems point of view, in which all departments recognize they are interdependent parts of an organization. Because they are interdependent, they must cooperate to enable the firm to achieve its objectives. Cooperation is often difficult because one department’s goals may conflict with those of another department and with the organization’s overall objectives.
Several types of conflicts can develop between departments within an organization. One type is the inherent conflict between low unit production costs and high consumer satisfaction. For instance, if Sony were to standardize all its television production processes to produce
8 single-size black and white television in a single style than it could achieve significantly lower costs per television produced. However, this would hurt Sony’s marketing efforts because most consumers want variety and selection when purchasing a new television.
Organizational goals. The final pillar of the marketing concept states that the organization should engage in exchanges based on their potential for helping the organization achieve its goals. Organizations do not participate without expecting something in return, and what they receive should help them achieve their objectives.
The societal marketing concept holds that the organization should determine the needs, wants, and interests of target markets.
It should then deliver the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors in a way that maintains or improves the consumer’s and the society’s well-being. The societal marketing concept is the newest of the five marketing management philosophies.
The societal marketing concept questions whether the pure marketing concept is adequate in an age of environmental problems, resource shortages, rapid population growth, worldwide inflation, and neglected social services. It asks if the firm that senses, serves, and satisfies individual wants is always doing what is best for consumers and society in the long run. According to the societal marketing concept, the pure marketing concept overlooks possible conflicts between short-run consumer wants and long-run consumer welfare.

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