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The societal marketing concept calls upon marketers to balance three considerations in setting their marketing policies: company profits, consumer wants, and society’s interests. Originally, most companies based their marketing decisions largely on short-run company profit. Eventually, they began to recognize the long-run importance of satisfying consumer wants, and the marketing concept emerged. Now many companies are beginning to think of society’s interests when making their marketing decisions. Many of them have made large sales and profit gains by practicing the societal marketing concept.
І. Key terms:
Production concept — концепція вдосконалення виробництва — the philosophy that consumers will favour products that are available and highly affordable and that management should therefore focus on improving production and distribution efficiently.
Product concept — концепція вдосконалення товару — the idea that consumers will favour products that offer the most quality, performance, and features and that the organization should therefore devote its energy to making continuous product improvements. A detailed version of the new-product idea stated in meaningful consumer terms.
Selling concept — концепція інтенсифікації комерційних зусиль — the idea that consumer will not buy enough of the organization’s product unless the organization undertakes a large-scale selling and promotion effort.
Marketing concept — концепція маркетингу — the marketing management philosophy that holds that achieving organizational goals depends on determining the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors do.
Societal marketing concept — концепція соціального маркетингу — the idea that the organization should determine the needs, wants, and interests of target markets and deliver the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors in a way that maintains or improves the consumer’s and society’s well-being.
ІІ. Vocabulary notes:
hold, v.
have or keep in one’s possession; keep fast or steady, in or with the hand(s), arm(s) or other part of the body e.g. teeth, or with a tool — тримати, держати, утримувати; hold the line — keep a telephone connection — не класти телефонну трубку;
restrain; keep back; control — утримувати; стримувати, затримувати, зупиняти, спиняти; зберігати контроль (над чимось); hold one’s breath — затамувати подих; hold one’s tongue — тримати язик за зубами;
keep or maintain sb/sth in a specified position, manner, attitude or relationship — тривати, триматися, стояти.
be filled by; have the capacity to contain or accommodate — вміщувати, містити в собі; hold sth in one’s head — retain, not to forget — утримувати в пам’яті; (not) hold water — (not) be sound, valid, logical — (не) бути обґрунтованим, (не) витримувати критики; your argument doesn’t hold water.
keep interest or attention of — заволодівати (увагою);
consider, regard, believe, affirm — гадати, вважати;
be the legal owner or possessor of sth — володіти, мати, бути власником; hold shares/stock/land (share holder, stock holder, land holder) — бути власником акцій (цінних паперів, землі);
occupy; have the position of — посідати, обіймати (посаду);
have, conduct, cause to take place, hold a meeting/debate/examination — влаштовувати, організовувати, проводити (збори, обговорення, іспити);
mark, celebrate — відзначати, святкувати.
favour, n. (US = favor)
a friendly regard, willingness — прихильність, доброзичливість;
aid, support — підтримка, допомога, сприяння; in favour of — a) in sympathy with; on the side of — на захист; за; на чиємусь боці; b) on behalf of; to the advantage or account of — на користь;
treatment that is generous, lenient; partiality — заступництво;
act of kindness — послуга, ласка, люб’язність, ласкавість; do sb a favour; do a favour for sb — зробити послугу.
favour, v.
show favour to; support — ставитися прихильно, доброзичливо, підтримувати; допомагати;
treat with partiality; show more favour to one person, group, etc. than to another — вступатися, підтримувати, віддавати перевагу;
(of circumstances) make possible or easy — сприяти, бути сприятливим; most favoured nation clause — режим найбільшого сприяння (наприклад у торгівлі) для країни — clause (in a commercial treaty) agreeing that a nation shall be accorded the lowest scale of import duties;
resemble in features — нагадувати, бути схожим; The child favours its father — дитина схожа на батька.
challenge, n.
invitation or call to play a game, run a race, have a fight, etc. to see who is better, stronger, etc. — виклик (на змагання, дуель тощо);
doubt — сумнів;
claim — претензія;
problem — проблема, складне завдання; face the challenge — натрапляти на проблему; meet the challenge — розв’язувати проблеми, вирішувати завдання, відповідати на виклик (напр. конкурентів); offer the challenge — відкривати перспективи.
challenge, n.
(to) give, send, be a challenge to — кидати виклик, викликати; заперечувати, оспорювати, піддавати сумніву;
challenge a juryman (leg.) — object to being a member of the jury — відхиляти присяжних, відводити присяжних;
object to; to argue — заперечувати, оспорювати, піддавати сумніву.
deliver, v.
take (letters, parcels, goods, etc) to places to which they are addressed, to the buyer(s) — розносити, доставляти, передавати, вручати;
give forth in words, deliver a speech; deliver a course of lectures — виголошувати (промову), читати курс лекцій;
(up/over) (to); hand over, give up, surrender — офіційно передавати (щось комусь); відмовлятися від чогось на чиюсь користь;
launch, send against — завдавати; deliver a blow — завдавати удару.
delivery, n.
delivery (uncountable) of letters, goods, etc.; (countable) deliveries — periodical performance of this — доставляння, рознесення, видача, вручення, передача, постачання; express delivery — термінове постачання (доставка); recorded delivery — доставка рекомендованої кореспонденції; take delivery — отримувати доставлений товар; одержувати виконане замовлення; delivery note — накладна;
(sing. only) manner of speaking (in lectures, etc.) — виголошення (промови), манера розмовляти, дикція;
guide, v.
act as a guide ( a person who shows others the way) — вести, бути провідником, гідом;
direct — керувати, управляти;
influence — стимулювати, надихати; guide-line (usu pl.) advice from sb. in authority on policy — головні напрямки; guidelines on prices and income.
assess, v.
decide or fix the amount of (e.g. a tax or a fine) — визначати розмір (податку, штрафу); визначати розмір шкоди;
appraise; fix or decide the value of (e.g. property), the amount of (e.g. income), for purposes of taxation — оцінювати майно для оподаткування;
test the value of — оцінювати.
assessment, n.
(uncountable) assessing; (countable) amount assessed — оцінювання майна для оподаткування, оподаткування; розмір по-
датку;
testing the value of — оцінка, думка, судження.
neglect, v.
pay no attention to; give no or not enough care to — нехтувати, зневажати; не дбати (про щось); не звертати уваги, не турбуватися (про щось);
omit or fail (to do sth.); leave undone (what one ought to do) — занедбувати, забувати, не виконувати (обов’язків), не помічати, ігнорувати.
implement, v.
carry an undertaking, agreement, promise into effect — виконувати, здійснювати; забезпечувати виконання, утілення в життя.
ІIІ. Answer the following questions:
What is marketing manager concerned with?
How can marketing management be defined?
What are the concepts under which organizations conduct their marketing activities?
In what types of situations is the production concept a useful philosophy?
What two concepts hold that consumers will favour products? Is there any difference between them?
Which concept emphasizes the role of selling and promotion?
What philosophy for the practice of marketing emerged during the 1950s?
How does the marketing concept view the consumer?
Why do organizations that practice the marketing concept study the consumer?
Define the three pillars of the marketing concept.
Is it necessary for a firm to determine consumer needs and wants before it decides what to produce or sell?
Why do firms conduct marketing research?
Can organizations be absolutely certain of consumers’ wants and needs? Why?
What do you know about the principle of integrated effort?
Is it easy for all departments of a firm to cooperate?
What conflicts can develop between departments within an organization?
What is the final pillar of the marketing concept?
Why have some organizations adopted the societal marketing concept?
ІV. Find in the text the following words and word combinations and translate the sentences in which they are used:
adequate demand; highly affordable products; improving production and distribution efficiency; to beat a path to sb.’s door; marketing myopia; liberal arts education; unsought goods; to sell vigorously; focal point; pillar; to conduct marketing research; regardless of; anticipatory manufacturing; snow tires; executive judgment; inherent conflict; single size black and white television; to hurt marketing efforts; to be profit oriented; intense advertising; resource shortages; neglected social services; short-run consumer wants and long-run consumer welfare.
V. Find English equivalents:
поточна продукція; попит перевищує пропонування; собівартість продукції; підвищена продуктивність; удосконалювати виробництво; скорочення витрат; упустити; відповідні канали розподілу; не звернути уваги; здійснювати; від світанку до заходу сонця; недолік; ефективно та продуктивно; гасло; проводити маркетингову діяльність; випускати продукцію; застосовувати принцип; оцінювати потреби споживача; створення нових видів продукції; точна наука; тверде судження; загальна мета; прийняття рішень; спільні зусилля; взаємозалежний; різноманітність; покращувати добробут; у достроковому періоді.
VІ. Memorize the following terms and their Ukrainian equivalents:
А. Concept
концепція;

market concept
концепція ринку;

marketing concept
концепція маркетингу;

positioning concept
концепція вибору позиції фірми;

communication concept
концепція організації контактів зі споживачами;

sales concept
концепція збуту;

management concept
концепція управління;

present a concept
репрензувати концепцію;

practise a concept
застосовувати концепцію;

implement a concept
утілювати концепцію в життя.
В. Marketing
маркетинг;

marketing activities
заходи з маркетингу, маркетингова діяльність;

marketing research
дослідження маркетингу;

marketing methods/techniques
методи (засоби) маркетингу;

marketing intermediaries
посередники в маркетингу;

marketing practices
практика маркетингу;

marketing audit
маркетинговий аудит;

marketing intelligence
відомості про маркетинг;

marketing strategy
стратегія маркетингу;

marketing management
управління маркетингом;

marketing manager
керівник у галузі маркетингу, маркетинговий менеджер;

marketing-related functions
функції, пов’язані з маркетингом;

marketing mix
маркетинговий комплекс, загальна система маркетингової діяльності.
С. Efforts (activities)
заходи, зусилля, діяльність;

communication efforts (communication mix)
заходи з установлення контактів зі споживачами;

marketing efforts
маркетингові заходи;

sales efforts
заходи зі збуту;

integrated efforts
загальні заходи, система заходів;

conduct/carry out activities
проводити заходи.
VII. Match the Ukrainian and English equivalents:
межі маркетингу
marketing structure (mix)
маркетингові заходи
stabilization efforts
служба маркетингу
marketing department
угода про маркетинг
selling efforts
вартість маркетингових заходів
marketing efforts
структура маркетингу
marketing management
управління маркетингом
scope of marketing
маркетингові послуги
do marketing research
здійснювати маркетинг
marketing agreement
проводити маркетингові дослідження
deal with marketing
заходи з організації та стимулювання збуту
marketing expenditures (costs)
заходи зі стабілізації економіки
marketing services
VIII. Read and analyze the following discussion about the direction a certain company should take and give answers to the questions below:
As I see the problem, the major focus of investment must be in improving productivity. We’ve also got to make sure there are no delays in deliveries. In this way we can aim to bring down the price and make our products more readily available. We’re in a mass market, where price and availability are what matter most to our customers.
I think we’d all agree with you as far as you go. But I feel what we are still failing to do is to establish a strong enough brand. The only way we can do this in an increasingly competitive market is to increase our budgets in advertising and make one sales force even more, effective.
I’m not sure I agree with either of you. You are both taking a too restricted view, looking at it from the inside-out. What we need is to take an outside-in approach. What I mean by this is we’ve got to get to know our customers better, what their needs and wants are. If we are just production-or sales-oriented, that’ll keep the turnover going in the short term but we’ve got to stay ahead of the competition in the long term. No, I feel we must certainly ensure quality and price for our existing products
and of course promote them well, but above all we need to look to the future — a strategy for the next twenty years in terms of growth. This means better market research generally a more Integrated approach.
Geoff takes the longer-term view but I feel he misses an important dimension. It’s not enough to focus just on our customers’ present rind future needs. We have to take a wider view-there are strong pressures in society now which have little to do with individual needs and wants. — I’m thinking of the environment in particular. I feel we need to look at what type of world we are.
Oh, come on Julie. Let’s get back down to earth. This company has made its name and its money by being first in the field in new areas, you only have to look at the Japanese to see, what they’re spending on RD (Research and Development) product innovation is where the future is...
Questions
How does participant 1 aim to bring down prices?
How does participant 3 intend to develop a strategy for the future?
What added dimension does participant 4 include?
Why does participant 5 mention the Japanese?
Each participant of the discussion expresses a different view. These views can be summarized as follows:
The production concept. The company should focus on improving production and distribution efficiency.
The product concept. The company should focus on making product improvements.
The selling concept. The company should focus Its effort on selling and promotion.
The marketing concept. The company should focus on the needs of its customers.
The societal marketing concept. The company should consider the needs not only of its customer but also of society as a whole.

Allocate one of the concepts (A-E) to each of the participants (1—5):


Participants
Concept
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.


IX. Opinion-giving. Look at the following sentences:
I feel we must certainly ensure quality...
As I see the problem, the major focus...
Now substitute the underlined phrases in the sentences below with the closest equivalent selected from the following list:
I feel
In my opinion
It’s certain
We could discuss
What we must do is
I tend to think
I’m sure that
From this point of view

As I see it we should double our development investment.
What we have to do is withdraw from this sector.
I think we can’t continue as we are.
I’m inclined to believe we should leave this sector.
I’m convinced that we must stay in this sector.
He might consider a gradual withdrawal from the market.
There’s no doubt we can’t leave it any later.
From this angle we have no alternative
X. Agreeing and disagreeing. Look at the following sentences:
I think we’d all agree with you as far as you ...
I’m not sure I agree with either of you
Now match equivalents In terms of strength/neutrality/weakness, for example:
I agree
I disagree
I think we’d all agree
That’s interesting but
I’m 100 per cent with you
I’m inclined to disagree
I can see what you mean
There’s no way we can agree that
You’ve got a point
I disagree entirely
I tend to agree with you
It looks as though there’s no agreement
Be can certainly agree to that
I’m not sure I understand your point of view
XI. Fill in the blanks from the words below. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:
neglect; hold (3); implement; favour (3); delivery (2); challenge; assess; guide.
Cheques should be drawn in _____ of the Society, not in _____ of the Treasurer.
The new method has been successfully _____.

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