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The owner of the company does not _____ himself responsible for the business debts.
When can you take _____ of the new car?
Damages were _____ at $ 100.
This barrel _____ 25 litres.
The exchange rate is in their _____.
The company met the _____ of their rivals and started producing new equipment.
The speaker _____ his audience spellbound.
The employee lost his job because he _____ his duties.
The activities of the enterprise should be _____ by the consumer demands.
The firm guarantees prompt _____ of goods.
XII. Translate into English:
Роберт Кейз, колишній віце-президент американського концерну з виробництва харчових продуктів. «Рillsbury Co» (виробництво пекарських продуктів) охарактеризував у статті спосіб мислення для свого підприємства в різних фазах розвитку.
Орієнтація на виробництво:
«Ми є кваліфікованими виробниками борошна. Благословенні поставками найліпшої південноамериканської пшениці, дешевою енергією гідроелектростанцій і відмінним устаткуванням, ми виробляємо борошно найвищого ґатунку. Наше головне завдання — виробництво борошна найвищої якості і, очевидно, для того щоб його продати, нам необхідно брати на роботу продавців точнісінько так само, як ми зараховуємо бухгалтера для ведення нашого обліку».
Орієнтація на продаж:
«Ми є виробниками борошна, які випускають для споживача певні продукти. Нам необхідна першокласна збутова організація, котра збуватиме за вигідними цінами всі вироби, що їх ми виробляємо. Через рекламу з-поміж споживачів, а також ринкову інформацію ми маємо підтримувати зовнішню службу. Ми прагнемо, щоб наші продавці й торговельні посередники мали всі допоміжні засоби, яких вони потребують, аби доставляти продукцію наших фабрик споживачам».
Орієнтація на маркетинг:
«Ми справді мали побудувати на нашому підприємстві нову структуру управління, котра керує всіма іншими функціональними сферами: від закупівлі до виробництва, від реклами до продажу. Цією функцією був маркетинг. Наше рішення полягало в тому, щоб організувати сучасний відділ маркетингу. Цей відділ розробив критерії, необхідні нам для висновку — які вироби ми пропонуємо. І ці критерії були й лишаються не більш і не менш ніж критерії самого споживача... Завдання підприємства полягало насамперед не в тому, щоб випускати борошно чи інші вироби, а в тому, щоб задовольнити сьогоднішні та потенційні потреби й запити наших споживачів. Коли б ми спробували якомога простіше сформулювати нашу нову філософію за останні 10 років, то це виглядало б так: «Ми виготовляємо вироби для споживачів та продаємо їх».
«Pillsbury» перебуває на початку своєї четвертої великої ери в маркетинговій революції. По суті, філософію цієї четвертої ери можна сформулювати так: «Ми розвиваємось від підприємства, котре має концепцію маркетингу, до маркетинг-підприємства». Спрощено зазначені тенденції розвитку можна схарактеризувати так:
Орієнтація на виробництво (ринок продавців)
«Виробляти скільки можна».
Орієнтація на продаж (тенденція насичення)
«Намагатися збувати те, що виробили».
Орієнтація на маркетинг (ринок покупців)
«Виробляти те, що можна збути (...)».
XIII. Act as an interpreter for A and B:
A:
What concept should direct marketing efforts?
B:
Досить очевидно, що вся діяльність у сфері маркетингу має здійснюватися в межах якоїсь одної концепції. Існує п’ять основних філософій, на підставі яких комерційні організації здійснюють свою маркетингову діяльність.
A:
What are they?
B:
Це концепція вдосконалення виробництва, концепція вдосконалення товару, концепція інтенсифікації комерційних зусиль, концепція маркетингу та соціального маркетингу.
A:
What do you know about these philosophies?
B:
Ці концепції репрезентують різні періоди в історії економіки та основні соціальні, економічні та політичні зміни за останні п’ятдесят років. Загальна тенденція розвитку — зміщення ак-
центу з виробництва на комерційні зусилля, на споживача і все більша орієнтація на проблеми споживача та суспільства.
A:
The selling concept and the marketing concept are frequently confused. Do you know the difference between them?
B:
Їх розрізняють таким чином. Комерційні зусилля зі збуту — це зосередженість на потребах продавця, а маркетинг — це концентрація на потребах покупця. Комерційні зусилля зі збуту — це турбота про потреби продавця, які стосуються перетворення товару в готівку, а маркетинг — це турбота про задоволення потреб клієнта за допомогою товару та цілої низки факторів, пов’язаних зі створенням, постачанням і, нарешті, споживанням цього товару.
A:
I see. Thus the marketing concept in its essence is the orientation to consumer wants and needs.
B:
Абсолютно правильно. Концепція маркетингу — це орієнтація на потреби споживачів, яка підкріплена комплексними зусиллями маркетингу, націленими на задоволення запитів споживачів, і є основою для досягнення цілей організації.
XIV. Consider the following chart and speak about the difference between the sales or production orientation, and the consumer or market orientation:
SALES AND PRODUCTION ORIENTATION

CONSUMER AND MARKET ORIENTATION

XV. Read the following text and give a short summary of it:
MARKETING IN ACTION:
POLAROID ADOPTS MARKETING CONCEPT
Some companies such as Polaroid have only recently adopted the marketing concept. Edwin H. Land, the Inventor of the Polaroid Instant camera and founder of Polaroid Corp., believed that marketing success was based on the development of Innovative products that consumer would then be persuaded to purchase. Under his leadership and direction, Polaroid used little or no marketing research. This production and sales orientation worked as long as Land could improve his Instant camera and as long as use of traditional cameras was complicated and the delay in developing pictures was long. When easy to use, computer-controlled 35-mm cameras were Inverted and 1-hour photo processing centers began to spring up around the country, however, the market for instant photography faltered.
Land left Polaroid in 1980, after the company lost approximately $ 300 million on Polavision — an instant home movie camera. Industry analysts acknowledged that Polavision was a technological success, but there was no market for the product. With the departure of Land, William J. McCune became president and brought the marketing concept to Polaroid.
Under McCune’s direction the company’s approach to product development became more pragmatic. Now Polaroid begins by targeting a market need: for example, the need to convert graphic computer displays to color slides, for which the company developed Palette, which sells for $ 1,499. The product development efforts at Polaroid involve the integrated efforts of the engineering, marketing and manufacturing operations. Under Land’s direction, these three domains were independent and had little or no contact with each other.
XVI. Round-table discussion:
Do you feel all companies must be predominantly market-oriented?
Is there a danger that if a company is too market-oriented that it will ignore other ingredients of success such as efficient production?
Identify organizations in your country that practise the production concept, the product concept, and the selling concept. How could these organizations become more market-oriented?
Giving your opinion make use of the following helpful phrases:
To introduce opinions:
Well, I’d just like to say, that …
My attitude from the beginning was …
My feelings about… Well, …
I’d like to start by saying that …
I am glad to have the opportunity to …
Perhaps I could begin by saying that …
To make a point:
I think that I should be frank and say that …
We should always remember that …
I can’t make this point strong enough …
To check a point:
Am I right in thinking that you are proposing …
Right. If I am not mistaken, your policy is …
Correct me if I am wrong, but what you are proposing is …
To move on:
Perhaps we could move on to the next point (question) under discussion ...
That brings us to the next item on …
XVII. Action problem:
How might your university practice the marketing concept? For example, how can it market itself to attract new students? Write a 250-word essay. Before writing the essay read the following information:
THE ESSAY TEST
Every student who has reached the college level is quite familiar with the process of taking tests. Many tests are short-answer tests; they ask students to respond by filling in blanks, matching, choosing correct terms, or writing words or phrases. The second major type of test is the essay test, on which students are asked to respond to questions by writing one or more paragraphs. These tests require that students be able to write effectively about the material they have learned.
To write effectively on an essay test the student must remember that the purpose of the essay test answer differs from the purpose of the essay. The essay develops an argument; it presents the student’s ideas about a subject and explains why the student has that position on the subject. An essay test answer, on the other hand, is designed to demonstrate how much a student knows about a particular subject. An essay test answer is an attempt by the student to show that he or she grasps the ideas of other people.
The length and the form of an effective essay test answer will be determined by the individual question. Some answers will require only one paragraph; others will need several paragraphs. Whatever the case, every essay test taker begins to answer by turning the question into a statement:
Question: What are two major factors influencing the development of personality?
Immediate Answer: The two major factors influencing personality development are heredity and environment.
An immediate answer serves the same function as a topic sentence in a paragraph or a thesis statement in an essay. The rest of the answer will be sentences or perhaps paragraphs adding explanatory detail.
It is important for all beginning college writers to learn to write an effective essay test answer. No student can get credit for information that she knows if she can’t demonstrate that she knows it.
XVIII. Case Study:
THE ELECTRIC FEATHER PIROGUE:
GOING WITH THE MARKETING FLOW
The Fin and Feather Products Company of Marshall, Texas, produces a line of small, versatile, lightweight boats called the Electric Feather Pirogue (pronounced pe r6). The term «feather» was chosen to emphasize the light weight of the boat and «electric» because it is propelled by an electric trolling motor. The name Pirogue refers to the historic small riverboats used on the Louisiana bayous. The kayak-shaped boat is 12 feet long, 38 inches wide, and 12 inches deep. It comes complete with motor and has a load capacity of about 540 pounds. Power is provided by a standard 12-volt automotive-type storage battery. The built-in Shakespeare motor is available with 18-pound or 24-pound thrust. The hull is handcrafted fiberglass, sturdily constructed by a hand-layup process.
The stable, flat-bottomed Pirogue can operate in very shallow water, so it is ideally suited for fishing, duck hunting, bird watching, or just leisure stream cruising. The propeller is protected from submerged objects by specially engineered motor guards on each side of the exposed drive unit. A 1/2-inch sheet of polyurethane foam is built into the bottom to provide flotation. The boat is extremely simple to operate. A panel just below the wraparound gunwale contains two control switches—a forward-off-reverse switch and a low-medium-high speed switch. A horizontal lever just above the panel provides steering control. There is only one moving part in the entire control system. The 3-speed, 18-pound thrust motor has a maximum speed of 10 miles an hour, and the 4-speed, 24-pound thrust motor can attain a speed of 14 miles an hour. The company furnishes a one-year unlimited warranty, on the boat, and the Shakespeare Company provides a similar warranty on the motor.
The company produced only one basic model of the boat but offered optional equipment that provided some variation within the product line. Retail prices ranged from approximately $ 490 to $ 650, depending on motor size and optional equipment. Although designed to accommodate two people, the standard model has only one molded plastic seat. The second seat, deluxe swivel seats, marine carpeting, and tonneau cover are the major optional items. No trailer is required because the boat fits nicely on the roof of even the smallest car or in the back of a station wagon or pickup truck. Without battery, the Pirogue weighs only about 80 pounds and can easily be handled by one person.
In Year 1 (the base year), Mr. Bill Wadlington purchased controlling interest in, and assumed managerial control of, the seven-year-old Fin and Feather Products Company. One of Mr. Wadlington’s first moves was to adopt a strict cash-and-carry policy: Supplies and equipment were paid for at the time of purchase, and all sales were for cash prior to shipment whether shipment was to a dealer or directly to a customer. All shipments were F.O.B. the factory in Marshall, Texas. As a result of this policy, the firm has no accounts receivable and virtually no accounts payable. Mr. Wadlington anticipated sales of between 800 and 1000 units in Year 1. This volume would approach plant capacity and produce a wholesale dollar volume of approximately $ 350,000 to $ 400,000. After only six months of operation, Mr. Wadlington would not predict an exact annual net-profit figure, but he was very optimistic about the first year’s profit prospect. It was also difficult to predict exactly what future volume would be, but sales had shown a steady increase throughout the first half of the year. The flow of inquiries from around the United States and from several foreign countries made the future look bright.
The company hired no outside salespeople, and Mr. Wadlington was the only in-house salesman. There were 15 independent dealers around the country who bought at wholesale and assumed a standard markup. There was no formal agreement or contract between the company and the dealers, but to qualify as a dealer, an individual or firm’s initial order had to be for at least five boats. Subsequent orders could be for any quantity desired. Dealers’ orders had to be accompanied by a check for the entire amount of the purchase.
In addition to the dealers, the company had 20 agents who were authorized to take orders in areas outside dealer territories. These agents accepted orders for direct shipment to customers and were paid a commission for the boats they sold. Agents were not assigned a specific territory but could not sell in areas assigned to dealers. As with all sales, agent orders had to be prepaid. Direct orders from individuals were accepted at the factory when the customer lived outside a dealer territory. Most direct sales were the result of the company’s advertisements in such magazines as Ducks Unlimited, Outdoor Life, Argosy, Field and Stream, and Better Homes and Gardens.
Mr. Wadlington had not established a systematic promotional program. The services of an out-of-state advertising agency were used to develop and place ads and to help with brochures and other promotional materials. Almost all negotiations with the agency were handled by phone or mail. The amount of advertising done at any time depended on existing sales volume. As sales declined, advertising was increased; when orders approached plant capacity, advertising was curtailed. Magazines were the primary advertising medium. The dealers and agents were provided with attractive, professionally prepared brochures. The company had exhibited, or had plans to exhibit, at boat shows in Texas, Ohio, and Illinois. Arrangements had been completed for Pirogues to be used as prizes on one of the more popular network game shows.
A detailed analysis of sales, in terms of who was buying the boats and for what purpose, had not been made. However, Mr. Wadlington did know that one of the most successful ads was in Better Homes and Gardens. An examination of orders produced by the ad indicated that they were primarily from women who were buying the boat for family use. There had been reports of the boats being used as utility boats for large houseboats and yachts, but the extent of such use was unknown. Although orders had been coming in from all parts of the country, the best sales areas had been in the eastern and southeastern parts of the United States. Mr. Wadlington attributed this, at least in part, to the fact that the company’s past sales efforts had been concentrated almost exclusively in the southern and southwestern areas of the country. After the company began using national media, totally new markets were tapped. The Pirogue had virtually no direct competition, particularly outside the Texas-Louisiana area.
Questions
Is Mr. Wadlington practicing the marketing concept? If not, which of the marketing philosophies does he I follow?
What are the characteristics of the people who make up the market for the Electric Feather Pirogue? Describe the needs and wants that are satisfied by the product.
Mr. Wadlington seems to be opposed to changing his present marketing system. Apparently, he believes that his current plan is working because sales are strong and profits are satisfactory, and he would ask, «Why not stick with a winner?» How would you respond to Mr. Wadlington’s assumptions?
What recommendations would you make to Mr. Wadlington if he wanted to adopt the marketing concept?
TEXT B
STRATEGIC PLANNING
Strategic planning is deciding today what to do in the future. It sets the stage for the rest of the planning in the firm and consists of analysis and strategy. Strategic planning can be defined as the process of developing and maintaining a strategic fit between the organization’s goals and capabilities and its changing marketing opportunities. It relies on developing a clear company mission, supporting objectives, a sound business portfolio, and coordinated functional strategies.
At the corporate level, the company first analyses its present position and defines its overall purpose and mission. This mission is then turned into detailed supporting objectives that guide the whole company. Next, headquarters decides what portfolio of businesses and products is best for the company and how much support to give each one. Each business and product unit must in turn develop detailed marketing and other departmental plans that support the company-wide plan. Thus, marketing planning occurs at the business-unit, product, and market levels. It supports company strategic planning with more detailed planning for specific marketing opportunities.
The first step in the strategic marketing management process is analysis. It consists of identifying the firms Strengths and Weaknesses as well as Opportunities and Threats. Note that the first letters in each of these words compose the acronym SWOT. A SWOT analysis consists of studying a firm’s performance trends, resources, and capabilities to assess a firm’s strengths and weaknesses, explicitly stating a firm’s mission and objectives, and scanning the external environment to identify opportunities and threats facing the organization.
A firm’s strengths and weaknesses can be identified and analyzed by studying performance trends, resources, and capabilities. Past performance typically is measured in financial terms, such as sales and profits. Profits act as prophets, in a sense. For example, yearly increases in profits are a sign of strength, while a steady decline in profits indicates that the firm has a problem. Current resources and capabilities also help to determine a firm’s strengths and weaknesses. Resources and capabilities refer to various things; special talents (i.e., the company has one of the most creative advertising departments In the country), areas of expertise (i.e., the company is a beer producer and is the industry leader in developing new brewery technologies), unique assets (i.e. the company holds 12 patents on new products or has $ 50 million in available cash), or any other advantage that can be drawn on for support (i.e. a pharmaceutical company may have excellent working relationships with retail druggists).
Opportunities and threats can be identified by stating the organization’s mission and objectives and engaging in the process of environmental scanning.
The marketer wants to identify market opportunities that exist because there is an unmet or unsatisfied need or want in the marketplace and for which the firm has an interest in and capability to satisfy. At the same time the marketer should try to convert threats into opportunities. For example, toy industry marketing managers should view the decline in birth rates as an opportunity to broaden their market base to appeal to adults by developing more sophisticated toys and games.

Defining the Company Mission
What is our business? Who is the customer? What do consumers value? What will our business be? What should our business be? These simple-sounding questions are among the most difficult the company will ever have to answer. Successful companies continuously raise these questions and answer them carefully and completely.
Many organizations develop formal mission statements that answer these questions. A mission statement is a statement of the organization’s purpose — what it wants to accomplish in the larger environment. A clear mission statement acts as an «invisible hand» that guides people in the organization so that they can work independently and yet collectively toward overall organizational goals.
Companies traditionally defined their business in product terms, such as «We manufacture furniture,» or in technological terms, such as «We are a chemical-processing firm.» But market definitions of a business are better than product or technological definitions. Products and technologies eventually become out-of-date, but basic market needs may last forever. A market-oriented mission statement defines the business in terms of satisfying basic customer needs. Thus, AT&T is in the communications business, not the telephone business. Visa defines its business not as credit cards, but as allowing customers to exchange value—to exchange such assets as cash on deposit or equity for virtually anything, anywhere in the world. And Sears’s mission is not to run department stores but to provide a wide range of products and services that deliver value to middle-class, home-owning families.
Management should avoid making its mission too narrow or too broad. A leading pencil manufacturer that says it is in the communication equipment business is stating its mission too broadly. Mission statements should be specific and realistic. Many mission statements are written for public relations purposes and lack specific, workable guidelines. The statement «We want to become the leading company in this industry by producing the highest-quality products with the best service at the lowest prices» sounds good but is full of generalities and contradictions. It will not help the company make tough decisions.
Setting Company Objectives and Goals
The company’s mission needs to be turned into detailed supporting objectives for each level of management. Each manager should have objectives and be responsible for reaching them.
Marketing strategies must be developed to support these marketing objectives. To increase its national market share, the company may increase its product’s availability and promotion. To enter new foreign markets, the company may cut prices and target large farms abroad. These are its broad marketing strategies.
Designing the Business Portfolio
Guided by the company’s mission statement and objectives, management must now plan its business portfolio. A company’s business portfolio is the collection of businesses and products that make up the company. The best business portfolio is the one that best fits the company’s strengths and weaknesses to opportunities in the environment. The company must (1) analyze its current business portfolio and decide which businesses should receive more, less, or no investment, and (2) develop growth strategies for adding new products or businesses to the portfolio.
Analyzing the Current Business Portfolio
The major tool in strategic planning is business portfolio analysis, whereby management evaluates the businesses making up the company. The company will want to put strong resources into its more profitable businesses and phase down or drop its weaker businesses. It can keep its portfolio of businesses up-to-date by withdrawing from declining businesses and strengthening or adding growing businesses.
Management’s first step is to identify the key businesses making up the company. These can be called its strategic business units. A strategic business unit (SBU) is a unit of the company that has a separate mission and objectives and can be planned independently from other company businesses. An SBU can be a company division, a product line within a division, or sometimes a single product or brand.
The purpose of strategic planning is to find ways in which the company can best use its strengths to take advantage of attractive opportunities in the environment.
The company must determine what role each will play in the future. One of four strategies can be pursued for each SBU. The company can invest more in the business unit in order to build its share. Or it can invest just enough to hold the SBU’s share at the current level. Or it can harvest the SBU, increasing its short-term cash flow by investing little or nothing in it regardless of the long-term effect. Finally, the company can divest the SBU by selling it or phasing it out and using the resources elsewhere.
Such analysis is no cure-all for finding the best strategy. But it can help management to understand the company’s overall situation, to see how each business or product contributes, to assign resources to its businesses, and to orient the company for future success. When used properly, strategic planning is just one important aspect of overall strategic management, a way of thinking about how to manage a business.
I. Key terms:
Business portfolio — портфель продукції компанії — the collection of business and products that make up a company.
Marketing strategy — стратегія маркетингу — specifies a target market and a related marketing mix.
Mission statement — формулювання місії компанії — a statement of the organization’s purpose — what it wants to accomplish in the larger environment.
Portfolio analysis — аналіз портфеля продукції компанії — a tool by which management identifies and evaluates the various businesses and products that make up a company.
Strategic business unit — стратегічний підрозділ компанії — an organizational unit (within a larger company) that focuses its efforts on some product-markets and is treated as a separate profit centre.
Strategic planning — стратегічне планування — the managerial process of developing and maintaining a match between an organization’s resources and its market opportunities.
IV. Vocabulary notes:
maintain, v.
keep up, retain; continue — підтримувати, зберігати; maintain friendly relations — підтримувати дружні стосунки; maintain prices — тримати ціни стабільними; maintain law and order — підтримувати закон і порядок;
support — утримувати; підтримувати; maintain one’s family — утримувати сім’ю; надавати підтримку, субсидіювати (партію, рух тощо);
defend — захищати, обстоювати; maintain one’s rights — захищати свої права;
keep in good repair or working order — обслуговувати, тримати в доброму стані;
assert as true — запевняти, наполягати, обстоювати;
maintenance, n.
maintaining or being maintained — підтримання, підтримка; збереження, продовження;
what is needed to support life — утримання, засоби для існування; maintenance money — гроші на утримання; retail price maintenance — practice of maintaining fixed retail prices;
sound, adj.
healthy, in good condition — здоровий, міцний, кріпкий; be sound of body and mind — бути здоровим і тілом і душею; sound in wind and limb — (colloq.) physically fit;
not hurt, injured or decayed — доброякісний, добрий, незіпсований, свіжий, непошкоджений; sound fruit — свіжі фрукти;
dependable, based on reason; prudent — правильний, розсудливий, логічний; a sound argument — переконливий доказ; передбачливий, тверезий; a sound policy — тверда політика; глибокий, старанний; a sound analysis — глибокий аналіз; платоспроможний, надійний, сталий; a sound bank — надійний, платоспроможний банк;
capable, careful, good — умілий, добрий, поважний; a sound scholar — поважний учений;
legal — законний, дійсний; a sound title to land — законне право на землю;
engage, v.
obtain the right to employ; to get the right to use or occu-
py — наймати, запросити, ангажувати; engage sb. as an interpreter;
engaged in — take part in; busy oneself with — займатися; engage in politics — займатися політикою;
be engaged (in) — be busy, be occupied (with); take part in — бути зайнятим; The line is engaged — номер (телефону) зайнятий;
promise, undertake, bind (oneself), guarantee — зобов’язуватися, гарантувати, переконувати; He engaged himself to do it — він зобов’язався зробити це;
attract (usu Passive) — привертати, займати; Her attention was engaged by the display of new machines;
6) be engaged to marry — be bound by a promise to marry — обручитися, заручитися;
asset, n.
(usu Pl.) anything owned by a person, company, etc. that
has money value and that may be sold to pay debts — майно, з якого можуть бути сплачені борги; майно неплатоспроможного боржника; актив, капітал, фонди; assets and liabilities — актив і пасив;
valuable or useful quality or skill — цінна (позитивна) якість, перевага, плюс; good health is a great asset — добре здоров’я — велике благо;
equity, n.
fairness, right judgment; principles of justice outside common law or statute law, used to correct laws when these would apply unfairly in special circumstances — справедливість, об’єктивність, неупередженість, юр. право справедливості;
(often Pl.) ordinary stocks and shares not bearing fixed interest — звичайна акція; акція без фіксованого дивіденду; частка акціонера в капіталі підприємства; маржа; чиста вартість капіталу, не враховуючи зобов’язання; активи (підприємства) за винятком заборгованості;
assign, v.
smth. (to smb./smth.) — give for use or enjoyment, or as a share or part in a distribution, e.g. of work, duty — здавати, доручати, зобов’язувати;
name, put forward as a time, place, reason, etc. — призначати, вважати; Can one assign a cause to these events?
assign smb. (to/to do) — appoint, name — призначати на посаду;
assign to — (legal) transfer property, rights, etc. — передавати, переуступати (права тощо).
III. Answer the following questions:
What is strategic planning?
How can it be defined?
What does strategic planning rely on?
At what levels does marketing planning occur?
What is the first step in strategic marketing management process?
What is SWOT analysis? How is it used in strategic marketing management?
How can firm’s strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats be identified?
Why does the marketer want to identify market opportunities?
How can the marketer convert threats into opportunities?
In what way can the company mission be defined?
How does a clear mission statement act?
Why should management avoid making its mission too narrow and too broad?
Why does the company’s mission need to be turned into detailed supporting objectives?
What is a company’s business portfolio?
Why should a company analyze its current business portfolio?
What do you know about SBUs?
What strategies can be pursued for each SBU?
Is portfolio analysis a good means for finding the best company strategy?
IV. Find in the text the following words and word combinations and translate the sentences in which they are used:
strategic fit; supporting objectives; headquarters; SWOT analysis; performance trends; to assess a firm’s strengths and weaknesses; past performance; prophet; steady decline; current resources and capabilities; brewery technologies; available cash; can be drawn on; retail druggist; sophisticated toys and games; cash on deposit; lack specific guidelines; designing the business portfolio; withdrawing from declining businesses; to assign resources.
V. Find English equivalents:
ринкові можливості; чітка місія компанії; загальна мета; портфель продукції компанії; скоординована функціональна стратегія; за чергою; ясно (чітко) визначати; ретельно вивчати фактори зовнішнього середовища; виміряти у фінансових показниках; щорічне зростання; постійне падіння; особливий талант; творчий; галузь знань та досвіду; особливі (виняткові) активи; фармацевтична фірма; перетворити загрозу в можливість; зниження рівня народжуваності; подобатися дорослим; у кінцевому підсумку (зрештою); кредитна картка; узагальнення та суперечність; тверде рішення; частка на національному ринку; виходити на зовнішній ринок; скорочувати ціни; виводити з виробництва; марка (продукції); пожинати плоди; грошовий потік; позбавлятися; панацея.
VI. Memorize the following terms and use them in your own sentences:
А. Analysis
аналіз, дослідження, детальний розгляд;

in-depth analysis
глибокий аналіз;

integrated analysis
загальний аналіз;

demand analysis
аналіз попиту;

thorough analysis
ретельний аналіз;

legal analysis
юридичний аналіз, аналіз юридичних аспектів;

opportunity analysis
аналіз можливостей;

profitability analysis
аналіз прибутковості;

factor analysis
аналіз факторів;

environmental analysis
аналіз факторів зовнішнього середовища;

in-house analysis facilities
засоби проведення аналізу на фірмі.
В. Plan
1) план; 2) креслення, схема, діаграма;
3) проект; 4) задум, намір, припущення; 5) спосіб дії; 6) система;

total plan
загальний план;

effective plan
ефективний план;

communications plan
план організації контактів (з покупцями);

marketing plan
маркетинговий план;

design (develop) a plan
розробити план;

create a plan
створити план;

implement a plan
реалізувати план.
С. Planning
1) планування; 2) проектування; 3) землеустрій;

alternative planning
альтернативне планування;

corporate planning
корпоративне планування;

long-term planning
довгострокове планування;

overall planning
загальне планування;

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