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short-term planning
короткострокове планування;

forward planning
перспективне планування;

quantitative and qualitative planning
планування за кількісними та якісними показниками;

new-product planning
планування нової продукції;

practice planning
застосовувати планування.
VII. Match the Ukrainian and English equivalents:
А.
аналіз беззбитковості

global analysis

аналіз даних

ranging analysis

аналіз прибутків та витрат

operating (business) analysis

аналіз витрат (собівартості)

break-even analysis

класифікаційний
аналіз

design analysis

аналіз конструкції

preliminary (pilot) analysis

контрольний аналіз

data analysis

загальний аналіз

comparative analysis

повний аналіз

loss analysis

попередній аналіз

income-expenditure analysis

порівняльний аналіз

complete analysis

аналіз вартості

cost analysis

техніко-економічний
аналіз

check analysis

аналіз збитків

engineering-economic analysis

аналіз господарчої діяльності

value analysis
В.
бюджетний план

promotional plan

валютний план

current plan

зовнішньоторговельний план

budgeted programme

генеральний план

feasible plan

єдиний план

foreign trade

комплексний план

sales (marketing) scheme
(plan)

план заходів

delivery schedule (plan)

план заходів зі стимулювання збуту

currency (foreign exchange) plan

план, що обговорюється

comprehensive (package) plan

ухвалений план

common plan

орієнтовний план

project under discussion

план постачань

working (operation) schedule (plan)

план роботи

master plan

ретельний план

approved plan

план збуту

plan (schedule) of measures

поточний план

preliminary plan
VIII. Read an edited extract from the Principles of Marketing (Kotler and Armstrong) and complete Charts 1 and 2.
The steps in the strategic planning process are shown in Chart 1. At the corporate level, the company first defines its overall purpose and mission. This mission is then turned into detailed supporting objectives that guide the whole company. Next, top management decides what portfolio of businesses and products is best for the company, and how much support to give each one. Each business and product unit must шn turn develop detailed marketing and other functional plans that support the company-wide plan.
Chart 1

When management senses that the organization is drifting it must renew its search for purpose. It is time to ask. What is our business? Who is the customer? What is value to the customer? What will our business be? What should our business be?
Companies traditionally defined their business in product terms such as, «We manufacture video games, or in technological terms such as, «We are a chemical-processing firm». But some years ago, Theodore Levitt proposed that market definitions stated in terms of particular customer groups or needs were better.
Management should avoid making its mission too narrow or too broad. Mission statements should be specific, realistic, and motivating. As an illustration, the International Minerals and Chemical Corporation is in many businesses including the fertilizer business. As you can see in Chart 2, the fertilizer division does not say that its mission is to produce fertilizer. Instead, it says that its mission is to «fight world hunger». This mission leads to a hierarchy of business objectives, marketing objective and, finally, marketing strategy.
The mission of fighting world hunger leads to the company’s prime business objective of «increasing agricultural productivity». This in turn leads to «researching new fertilizers which promise higher yields». But research is expensive and requires improved profits to plough back into research programmes. So a major objective becomes «to improve profits».
Chart 2
Business Mission
a._________________________________
Business Objectives
Increase agricultural productivity
b. _________________________________
c. _________________________________
Marketing Objectives

d. ______________

e. ______________

Reduce costs

f. ______________
Marketing Strategy
g. ______________
h. ______________
Profits can be improved by increasing sales or reducing costs. Sales can be increased by enlarging the company’s share of the US Market and by entering foreign markets. These became the company’s current marketing objectives.
Marketing strategies must be developed to support these marketing objectives. To raise its US market share, the company will increase its product’s availability and promotion. To enter new foreign markets, the company will out prices and call on large farms abroad. These are the broad marketing strategies.
IX. Sequence. Look at the following sentences.
The company first defines its overall purpose and mission.
This mission is then turned into detailed …
The following steps describe project management procedure. Put them into the right order.
Following these meetings progress reports must be submitted to the Board.
Before final submission of the project report, this project leader should match the findings with original specification.
Having agreed investment, the first step is to see what action steps are needed to implement it.
As the project nears completion, it is important to outline future steps.
Once an action plan has been agreed, select a competent project leader.
Finally the results should be presented to the Board.
Once the project has started, regular meetings should be held to monitor progress
The project leader should then call together his or her team and establish clear roles and responsibilities.
X. Expressing purpose, look at the following sentences:
Sales can be increased by enlarging the Company’s share of the US market…
To raise its market share the company will increase its product’s availability and promotion.
Now match the purpose with the means:
Purpose
Means
In order to reduce labour costs
a regular product update was circulated
To establish a technological lead
research efforts were increased
The salesforce was strengthened
the workforce was reduced
Financial reporting was streamlined
by headhunting new sales people
So that customers were informed
by introducing new accounts software
XI. Fill in the blanks from the words below. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
assets (2); assign (2); equity (2); engage (4); maintain (2); maintenance; sound.
The firm is _____ in the export of oil.
Ordinary stocks are usually described as _____, indicating that the holders are entitled to what is left of the _____ and profits, after certain claims have been met.
I will _____ myself to manage the business if you will _____ yourself to provide the capital.
With high inflation rates it is difficult to _____ prices.
Highly qualified specialists were _____ to the job.
The judge _____ that the accused is innocent of the charge.
_____ normally, but not invariably, carry voting power.
Can the company _____ that all these statements are trustworthy?
The data told management what _____ are at their disposal and what commitments they have to be prepared to meet.
_____ order is a legal order made by a court of law obliging a person to support somebody.
The day for the trial has already been _____.
«Kyiv Star»is a _____ business company, you can deal with it.
XII. Read the following text and summarize it in 100 words.
THE BOSTON CONSULTING GROUP APPROACH
Using the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) approach, a company classifies all its SBUs in the growth-share matrix. On the vertical axis, market-growth rate provides a measure of market attractiveness. On the horizontal axis, market share serves as a measure of company strength in the market. By dividing the growth-share matrix in the way indicated, four types of SBUs can be distinguished:
Stars. Stars are high-growth, high-share businesses of products. They often need heavy investment to finance their rapid growth. Eventually their growth will slow down, and they will turn into cash cows.
Cash cows. Cash cows are low-growth, high-share businesses or products. These established and successful SBUs need less investment to hold their market share. Thus, they produce a lot of cash that the company uses to pay its bills and support other SBUs that need investment.
Question marks. Question marks are low-share business units in high-growth markets. They require a lot of cash to hold their share, let alone increase it. Management has to think hard about which question marks it should try to build into stars and which should be phased out.
Dogs. Dogs are low-growth, low-share businesses and products. They may generate enough cash to maintain themselves but do not promise to be a large source of cash.
The ten circles in the growth-share matrix represent a company’s ten current SBUs. The company has two stars, two cash cows, three question marks, and three dogs. The areas of each circle are proportional to the SBU’s dollar sales. This company is in fair shape, although not in good shape. It wants to invest in the more promising question marks to make them stars, and to maintain the stars so that they will become cash cows as their markets mature. Fortunately, it has two good-sized cash cows whose income helps finance the company’s question marks, stars, and dogs. The company should take some decisive action concerning its dogs and its question marks. The picture would be worse if the company had no stars, too many dogs, or only one weak cash cow.
market growth rate

High
Star

Question marks
? ? ?
Low
Cash cow




Dog




High
Low
relative market share
As time passes, SBUs change their position in the growth-share matrix. Each SBU evolves. Many SBUs start out as question marks and move into the star category if they succeed. They later become cash cows as market growth falls, then finally turn into dogs toward the end of their life cycles. The company needs to add new products and units continuously so that some of them will become stars and eventually cash cows to help finance its other SBUs.
XIII. Find the closest synonym for the words on the left. Select from a-k on the right.
purpose
goal
plan
reinvest
wander aimlessly
sensible
general
limited
wide
raise
cut
drift
narrow
reduce
mission
overall
objective
increase
broad
plough back
sound
strategy
XIV. Translate into English:
Найпоширенішим допоміжним засобом стратегічного планування є портфель продукту. За дослідженням Кастеслаг (1982), уже 1975 року 45 % з 500 найбільших американських підприємств використовували метод портфеля. Водночас приріст користувачів цієї групи становив 25—30 підприємств на рік.
Основна ідея моделей портфеля полягає в тому, що різні (у багатьох підприємствах численні) продукти подаються у вигляді двовимірної матриці. Обидві осі характеризують ринкові шанси (привабливість, зростання) і здатність підприємства сприймати ринкові шанси (ресурси фірми, нинішнє становище на ринку і т. д.). За допомогою приведення різноманітних торговельних просторів до єдиного поняття їх можна порівняти і розробити специфічну стратегію.
Можна також використати відому портфельну матрицю Бостонської консалтингової групи, за якою ринкові можливості визначаються за допомогою зростання ринку і здатності сприйняття можливостей відносно часток ринку.

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