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Товар у реальному виконанні — це запропонований на продаж товар з певним набором властивостей, зовнішнім оформленням, рівнем якості, марочною назвою й упаковкою.
Зважаючи на швидкі зміни в смаках споживачів, удосконалення технологій і конкуренцію, фірма не може покладатися тільки на наявні товари.
Споживач хоче і чекає нових удосконалених товарів.
Існують розходження в маркетингу товарів промислового призначення і споживчих товарів, хоч і не завжди ці відмінності враховуються.
Споживчі товари зазвичай розраховані для побутових знадоб і не піддаються дальшій промисловій переробці.
Виробник має планувати маркетинг у такий спосіб, щоб його продукт був відомий і завжди був у наявності в тих регіонах, де мешкають і здійснюють купівлі споживачі його товарів.
IX. Find synonyms for the following words used in the text:
to satisfy
warm
product
manufacturer
to define
to forget
broadly
benefits
to bring to mind
factory
automobile
important
between
to protect
to buy
to provide
to bore
to call
to travel
design
X. Combine these pairs of sentences with an appropriate connector:
Sales have decreased. Profits have increased.
One advantage is that you have instance access to the market. You can deliberately undercut your competitors.
We were making a loss. We withdrew from the market.
The product sold well in the South. In the North, the results were disastrous.
We promoted the product at the point of sale. Our competitors used mass advertising.
The market-leader pioneers this technology. The initiative product offers more value.
XI. The following are common abbreviations. Categorize them coding them with:
Academic qualifications
Professional qualifications
Title, distinction or decoration
Name of organization
Commercial and other abbreviation
a/c
accounts
BA
Bachelor of Arts
BBc
Bachelor of Science
COD
Cash on delivery
DSC
Doctor of Science
Do
(Ditto) the same
eg
(exempli gratia) for the sake of example
C/O
Certificate of origin
D/C
Delivery clause
D/O
Delivery order
E.O.M.
End of month
AIB
Associate of Institute of Bankers
sg(n)
signes
UNCTAD
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
VAT
Value added tax
W/T (wt)
Weight
XII. Make the sentences with the Complex Object with the Infinitive following the models:
Model 1
Nestle wanted Rowntree (UK), Carnation (US), Perrier (Italy) to become the world’s largest food companies.
Model 2
Experiments proved each product line to consist of several sublines.
Model 3
What made this woman buy Avon’s products?
XIII. Read and discuss the following text and give answers to the questions below:
WHAT IS A BRAND?
Perhaps the most distinctive skill of professional marketers is their ability to create, maintain, protect, and enhance brands. A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of these intended to identify the products or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors. Thus, a brand identifies the maker or seller of a product.
A brand is a seller’s promise to deliver consistently a specific set of features, benefits, and services to buyers. The best brands convey a warranty of quality. According to one marketing executive, a brand can deliver up to four levels of meaning:
Attributes. A brand first brings to mind certain product attributes. For example, Mercedes suggests such attributes as «well engineered», «well built», «durable», «high prestige», «fast», «expensive, and «high resale value». The company may use one or more of these attributes in its advertising for the car. For years, Mercedes Benz, advertised «Engineered like no other car in the world». This provided a positioning platform for other attributes of the car.
Benefits. Customers do not buy attributes, they buy benefits. Therefore, attributes must be translated into functional and emotional benefits. For example, the attribute «durable» could translate into the functional benefit, «I won’t have to buy a new car every few years». The attribute «expensive» might translate into the emotional benefit. «The car makes me feel important and admired». The attribute «well built» might translate into the functional and emotional benefit, «I am safe in the event of an accident».
Values. A brand also says something about the buyers’ values. Thus, Mercedes buyers value high performance, safety, and prestige. A brand marketer must identify the specific groups of car buyers whose values coincide with the delivered benefit package.
Personality. A brand also projects a personality. Motivation researchers sometimes ask, «If this brand were a person, what kind of person would it be?» Consumers might visualize a Mercedes automobile as being a wealthy, middle-aged business executive. The brand will attract people whose actual or desired self-images match the brand’s image.
The challenge of branding is to develop a deep set of meanings for the brand. Given the four levels of a brand’s meaning, marketers must decide the levels at which they will build the brand’s identity. The most lasting meanings of a brand are its values and personality. They define the brand’s essence. Thus, Mercedes stands for «high achievers and success». The company must build its brand strategy around creating and protecting this brand personality. Although Mercedes has recently yielded to market pressures by introducing lower-price models, this might prove risky. Marketing less expensive models might dilute the value and personality that Mercedes has built up over the decades.
What is a brand?
What does a brand identify?
What four levels can a brand deliver up to?
What is the challenge of branding to develop?
What defines the brand’s essence?
What attributes does Mercedes suggest?
Evaluate why many people are willing to pay more for branded products than for unbranded products. What does this tell you about the value of branding?
XIV. Translate into English:
Товар — перший і найважливіший елемент комплексу маркетингу. Товарна політика вимагає прийняття узгоджених рішень, що стосуються окремих товарних одиниць, товарного асортименту і товарної номенклатури.
Кожну окрему товарну одиницю, запропоновану споживачам, можна розглядати з погляду трьох рівнів. Товар за задумом — це та основна послуга, яку дійсно здобуває покупець. Товар у реальному виконанні — це запропонований на продаж товар з певним набором властивостей, зовнішнім оформленням, рівнем якості, марочною назвою й упаковкою. Товар з підкріпленням — це товар у реальному виконанні разом із супровідними послугами, такими як гарантія, установлення, монтаж, профілактичне обслуговування і безкоштовна доставка.
Пропонується кілька методик класифікації товарів. Наприклад, товари можна класифікувати за ступенем довговічності (товари короткочасного користування, товари тривалого користування та послуги). Товари широкого вжитку зазвичай класифікують, орієнтуючись на купівельні звички споживачів (товари повсякденного попиту, товари попереднього вибору, товари особливого попиту і товари пасивного попиту). Товари промислового призначення класифікують за мірою участі їх у процесі виробництва (матеріали і деталі, капітальне майно, допоміжні матеріали і послуги).
Фірма має розробити товарно-марочну політику, положеннями якої вона керуватиметься стосовно товарних одиниць, що входять до складу її товарного асортименту. Фірма має вирішити: чи треба взагалі вдаватися до використання товарних марок; чи варто користуватися марками виробника або власними марками; які якості потрібно закладати в марочний товар; чи мають бути колективні марочні назви для товарних груп або індивідуальні марочні назви; чи варто збільшувати межі марочної назви, поширюючи її на нові товари; чи доцільно пропонувати кілька марочних товарів, що конкурують один з одним.
XV. Assignment:
List and explain the core, tangible and augmented products of the educational experience that universities offer.
TEXT B
PRODUCT CLASSIFICATION
In developing marketing strategies for their products and services, marketers have developed several product-classification schemes. First, marketers divide products and services into two broad classes based on the types of consumers that use them—consumer products and industrial products.
Consumer products are those bought by final consumers for personal consumption. Marketers usually classify these goods further based on how consumers go about buying them. Consumer products include convenience products, shopping products, specialty products, and unsought products. These products differ in the ways consumers buy them; therefore they differ in how they are marketed (see Table 9—1).
Convenience products are consumer products and services that the customer usually buys frequently, immediately, and with a minimum of comparison and buying effort. They are usually low priced and widely available. Examples include soap, candy, and newspapers. Convenience products can be divided further into staples, impulse products, and emergency products. Staples are products that consumers buy on a regular basis, such as ketchup, toothpaste, or crackers. Impulse products are purchased with little planning or search effort. These products are normally widely available. Thus, candy bars and magazines are placed next to checkout counters in many stores because shoppers may not otherwise think of buying them. Customers buy emergency products when their need is urgent— umbrellas during a rainstorm, or boots and shovels during the year’s first snow-storm. Manufacturers of emergency products place them in many outlets to make them readily available when customers need them.
Shopping products are less frequently purchased consumer products that customers compare carefully on suitability, quality, price, and style. When buying shopping products, consumers spend much time and effort in gathering information and making comparisons. Examples include furniture, clothing, used cars, and major appliances. Shopping products can be divided into homogeneous and heterogeneous products. The buyer sees homogeneous shopping products, such as major appliances, as similar in quality but different enough in price to justify shopping comparisons. The seller has to «talk price» to the buyer. However, when shopping for heterogeneous products such as clothing and furniture, customers usually find product features more important than price. If the buyer wants a new suit, the cut, fit, and look are likely to be more important than small price differences. Therefore, a seller of heterogeneous shopping products must carry a wide assortment to satisfy individual tastes and must have well-trained salespeople to give information and advice to customers.
Specialty products are consumer products with unique characteristics or brand identification for which a significant group of buyers is willing to make a special purchase effort. Examples include specific brands and types of cars, high-priced photographic equipment, and custom-made men’s suits. A Rolls-Royce, for example, is a specialty product because buyers are usually willing to travel great distances to buy one. Buyers normally do not compare specialty products. They invest only the time needed to reach dealers carrying the wanted products. Although these dealers do not need convenient locations, they still must let buyers know where to find them.
Unsought products are consumer products that the consumer either does not know about or knows about but does not normally think of buying. Most major innovations are unsought until the consumer becomes aware of them through advertising. Classic examples of known but unsought products are life insurance and blood donations to the Red Cross. By their very nature, unsought products require a lot of advertising, personal selling, and other marketing efforts. Some of the most advanced personal selling methods have developed out of the challenge of selling unsought products.
Industrial products are those purchased for further processing or for use in conducting a business. Thus, the distinction between a consumer product and an industrial product is based on the purpose for which the product is bought. If a consumer buys a lawn mower for use around home, the lawn mower is a consumer product. If the same consumer buys the same lawn mower for use in a landscaping business, the lawn mower is an industrial product.
І. Key terms:
Consumer products — споживчі товари широкого вжитку — products bought by final consumers for personal consumption.
Convenience products — товари повсякденного попиту; товари зручної купівлі; харчові продукти — consumer products that the customer usually buys frequently, immediately, and with a minimum of comparison and buying effort. Products that need very little preparation after being bought.
Industrial products — промислові товари — products bought by individuals and organizations for further processing or for use in conducting a business.
Shopping products — товари попереднього попиту — consumer goods that the customer, in the process of selection and purchase, characteristically compares on such bases as suitability, price and style.
Specialty products — товари особистого попиту — consumer products with unique characteristics or branch identification for which a significant group of buyers is willing to make a special purchase effort.
Unsought products — товари пасивного попиту — consumer products that the consumer either does not know about or knows about but does not normally think of buying.
ІІ. Vocabulary notes:
include, v.
have (sb/sth) as part of a whole — містити в собі; містити у своєму складі; Does the price include VAT?
make sb/sth part of a larger group or set: include an article (in a newspaper); We all went, me/myself included — включати до складу;
including, prep.
having (sb/sth) as a part: ?57.50 including postage and packing — включаючи, у тому числі;
inclusion, n.
(in sth) including or being included: the inclusion of the clause in the contract — включення; приєднання; уміщення;
inclusive, adj.
(of sth) including sth; including much or all. The price is ? 800 inclusive of tax — що містить у собі; включає в себе;
(following ns) including the limits stated: from Monday to Friday inclusive — включаючи; у тому числі;
differ, v.
(from sb/sth) not to be the same — відрізнятися, різнитися; відрізняти; Tastes differ.
(with, from sb), (about/on sth) disagree; not share the same opinion — не погоджуватися, розходитися в думках; We differ on many things.
idm. agree to differ. I beg to differ.
difference, n.
(in of sth) state or way in which the people or things are not the same, or in which sb/sth has changed. It’s easy to tell the difference between butter and margarine — різниця, відмінність, несхожість, відміна;
(in sth) amount or degree in which two things are not the same or sth. has changed. There is not much difference in price between two computers — різниця;
(over sth) disagreement, often involving a quarrel — чвари, незгоди, нелади; To settle the differences.
different, adj.
not the same; separate, distinct — різний, несхожий, відмінний, інший, особливий, різноманітний, неоднаковий; The same product with different name; in different ways; a lot of different things;
idm. (as) different as chalk and/from cheese completely different;
differential, n.
difference in rates of pay for different types of work or workers — різниця в оплаті праці;
differential year — тех. диференціал;
differential, adj.
відмітний, характерний;
диференціальний, різницевий — differential tariff — диференціальний тариф;
divide, v.
(sth up/into sth) split or break into part parts; separate — ділити(ся); розділяти(ся); розбивати(ся) на частини; divide the class up/into small groups;
break sth. into parts and give a share to each of a number of individuals — ділити, розділяти; We divided the work between us;
split sth up, esp. one’s time, and use parts of it for different activities, etc; apportion sth. He divides his energies between politics and business;
(into sth) be able to be multiplies to give another number; 5 divides into 30 six times; (by sth) find out how many times one number is contained in another — ділити; 30 divided by 6 is five;
vote, by separating into groups for and against a motion — голосувати, ставити на голосування; проводити голосування; D! D! — ставте на голосування; divide the House, i.e. ask for a vote to be taken;
division, n.
dividing or being divided; dividing one number by another — поділ, розподіл; the division of wealth; division of labour; are you any good at division? мат. ділення; simple division — ділення без остачі;
(often proceeded by an adj.) result of dividing: a fair/unfair division of money;
disagreement or difference in thought, way of life, etc. — розбіжність, незгода, розбіжність у думках; deep/widening divisions in society today;
dealer n.
(in sth) trader — дилер, торговець, торговий агент, перекупник; a used-car dealer; a furniture dealer in (i.e. sb. who buys and sells) stolen goods;
place, v.
put sth. in a particular place — He placed the money on the counter. The advertisement is placed too high. Nobody can read it. — ставити, класти; установлювати, розташовувати;
invest (money), esp. to earn interest — вкладати гроші;
to find job, home, etc. for sb. — улаштовувати (на роботу, посаду);
продавати (товари, акції);
innovation, n.
innovating; a period of innovation — нововведення; новина, новаторство; technical innovations in industry;
innovate, v.
make changes, introduce new things — prepared to innovate in order to make progress — запроваджувати нове (новини); робити зміни, оновлювати;
innovative, innovatory, adj.
introducing or using new idea, techniques etc. — innovative firm — новаторський, раціоналізаторський;
innovator, n.
person who innovates — новатор, раціоналізатор;
ІІІ. Answer the following questions:
What two broad classes do marketers divide products and services into?
What are consumer products?
How do marketers usually classify these goods?
What do consumer products include?
Why are convenience products usually low priced and widely available? Give examples of convenience products.
Where are impulse products usually placed in a shop?
When do customers buy emergency products?
Why are shopping products less frequently purchased? Give examples of shopping products.
What are specialty products?
Why is a Rolls-Royce a specialty product?
What are industrial products?
What is the distinction between a consumer product and industrial product?
IV. Find English equivalents to the words and word combinations given below:
товари та послуги; власне (особисте) споживання; зусилля зі здійснення купівлі; низькі ціни; широко придатний; постійно; негайно; основний товар; ринок збуту; розміщувати товари близько вузлів розрахунку; збирати інформацію; робити порівняння; подержаний автомобіль; вести переговори про ціну (домовлятися про ціну); властивості товару; зменшувати; (наздогнати) підігнати; задовольняти особисті смаки; добре підготовлені покупці; ідентифікація марки; чоловічий костюм, виготовлений на замовлення; обізнаний завдяки рекламі; страхувати життя; здавати кров; для дальшої обробки.
V. Match the English and Ukrainian equivalents:
A.
1) marketers
1) плитка, батончик

2) impulse products
2) товари пасивного попиту

3) style
3) класифікувати

4) staples
4) головні новації

5) specialty products
5) потрібні товари

6) to classify
6) продавці

7) product classification scheme
7) робити порівняння

8) shopping products
8) імпульсивні товари

9) shovels
9) промислові товари

10) emergency products
10) схема класифікації товару

11) to invest
11) товари попереднього попиту

12) major appliances
12) лопата

13) industrial products
13) схожі товари

14) to justify
14) вкладати

15) unsought products
15) особисте споживання

16) homogeneous products
16) товари особистого попиту

17) wanted products
17) товари для екстрених випадків

18) bar
18) несхожі товари

19) personal consumption
19) основний продукт харчування

20) major innovations
20) основні товари постійного попиту

21) heterogeneous products
21) головні пристосування

22) brand identification
22) торговельна точка

23) make comparisons
23) фасон, стиль

24) convenience products
24) ідентифікація марки

25) outlet
25) виправдати
VI. Memorize the following terms and use them in your own sentences:
declining product
товар, який перебуває в стадії зане-
паду;
deficient product
недосконалий товар;
desirable product
бажаний (приємний) товар;

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