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Aieiaii? eaiei? ?ioa?iao-?aeeaie ? aaa-naeo. A?i iioe?eou
?ioi?iao?? i?i oiaa?e, iineoae, iie?oe?iiai e?aa?a aai ia?-
o??, ui ca?euoeou e?eue?nou cao?eaaeaieo in?a — iioaio?eieo
iieoio?a aai aeai?o?a. Iaiae ?aeeaiia eaiiai?y ia ouiio ia
caaa?oo?ouny. C iaeyao ia iniaeeaino? WWW-naeoe, c iaiiai
aieo, ? iaea?euo aoaeoeaiei aeaii ?ioa?iao-?aeeaie, c a?oai-
ai — oiaa?aie, ye? nai? iio?aao?ou ?aeeaioaaiiy. Aa?oi ca-
cia?eoe, ui a?euo?nou ?ioeo aea?a ?ioa?iao-?aeeaie ii?eeai
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye aey ?aeeaie naeoo, oae ? aey aaciina?aa-
iui? ?aeeaie oiaa?o, iineoae, iie?oe?iiai e?aa?a ?e ia?o??.
Na?aa ia?oi?a?aiaeo ? iaei?ino?oeo aea?a ?ioa?iao-?aeea-
ie, yeo aeei?enoiao?ou eeoa aey ?aeeaioaaiiy naeoo, aeie-
?aie??ou ?a?no?ao?? naeoo a iiooeiaeo nenoaiao. Ia aoau-
yeiio iiooeiaiio naeo? ?nio? eiiiea “aiaaoe ?ano?n” (“aiaaoe
aa?ano”, “add URL”), iaoenioaoe ia yeo ei?enooaa? io?eio?
oi?io-aeaie. I?ney aianaiiy on?o iaiao?aieo a?aiiinoae, aecia-
?aiiy “ee??iaeo ne?a” (keywords), ii yeeo aoaa i?iaiaeoenu
iiooe naeoo, iieno noi??iee ? ?iciia?eo a oaiaoe?ieo a?oiao
naeo aoaa aiaaii ai iiooeiai? nenoaie. Ine?euee oaeeo nenoai
ao?a aaaaoi, i?ioan ?a?no?ao?? naeoo ii?a aooe aineou o?eaa-
eei. O? i?ioaao?o ii?ia cia?ii ni?inoeoe ca aiiiiiai? aaoi-
iaoe?ieo nenoai ?a?no?ao??, ye? aicaiey?ou ia?aoe oaiaoe?io
eaoaai???, ai yei? aoaa caianaii naeo, a oaei? a?anoa?eoe
i?ioan ?a?no?ao?? a ei?iiio eaoaeic?.
Aiaaoeiai ii?ia ca?a?no?oaaoe naeo ia “?iaoeo noi??i-
eao”, ye? ? nai???aieie naeoaie-aia?aieeaie. Aey oiai uia naeo
iio?aiea o a??ooaeuiee aia?aiee, iio??aii i?ieoe ianeeaaio

415
?a?no?ao??, yea noi?a c ?a?no?ao??? naeoo a iiooeiaeo nenoa-
iao. O?eaaei iiiaioii ? oa, ui i?ney ?a?no?ao?? aaee?acia
e?eue?nou naeo?a ii?a iio?aieoe ai a?oeiaaii? aa?n?? “?iaoeo
noi??iie”. E??i oiai, i?ao?? i?aienea ia iiiaeaiiy naeoo —
ei?iiai aiy ia e-mail on?o aa?a??eo ei?enooaa??a a?ai?aaey-
?ouny iineeaiiy ia ?ano?ne, ye? aoee iauiaaaii aianai? ai ea-
oaeiao.
Iaiae naeoo iio??aia iino?eia ?aeeaiia i?ao?eiea, a?euo
??oioiaia ? aeiao?aeeaa. Oae?e oa?aeoa?enoeo? a?aiia?aa? o?aae-
o?eiee ? iaeiioe?ai?oee aea ?aeeaie a ?ioa?iao? — aaia?ia
?aeeaia.
Aaia?ii (banner) iaceaa?ou ?aeeaiiee iin?e cacae?ae i?y-
iieooiiai a?ao??iiai cia?a?aiiy, yea anoaaey?ouny a noi??i-
ee naeoa. Ine?euee aaia? ia?aaaa?a? iineeaiiy (link) ia iaaiee
URL (Uniform Resource Locator — iien, aa i?noeouny iaaiee
oaee), cacia?aiee aea ?aeeaie ii?ia aeei?enoiaoaaoe eeoa
ye can?a ?aeeaioaaiiy aaa-naeoo ?aeeaiiaaaoy. Ca a?anooi?no?
iineeaiiy ia iaaiee URL aaia? ia?aoai???ouny ia a?ao??iee
aai ai?iao?eiee ?enoiie, ca aiiiiiai? yeiai ii?ia ii?aaae-
oe aeaniee naeo aai ua ?ac iaaaaaoe i?i iaaio iia??, iai?ee-
eaa, aeai?e.
?ici??e aaia?a aa????ouny caea?ii a?a iaoe ?aeeaiii? eai-
iai??, iaiae o?aaeo?eii noaiiaeyou 468?60 i?enae?a (pixel —
iaeiaioee aeaiaio cia?a?aiiy ia eiii’?oa??). Oaeee aaia? ia
oiia?eui?? caaaioa?aiiy noi??iee ? aicaiey? noai?eoe aineou
?ioi?iaoeai? ?aeeaii? iiaoe?.
Iaoa ?aeeaiii? eaiiai?? aecia?a? e ?io? ia?aiao?e aaia?o.
Aaia? ii?a aooe noaoe?iei (ye i?aaeei, o oi?iao? JPEG —
Joint Photographic Experts Group — oi?iao caa?a?aiiy a?a-
o??ieo cia?a?aiu, noeniooeo aeai?eoiii JPEG, oa o oi?iao?
GIF — Graphic Interchange Format — oi?iao caa?a?aiiy
cia?a?aiu, ye? i?noyou aaeee? iiey iaiiai eieui?o) aai ai?ia-
o?eiei (Flash-ai?iao?y — noaiaa?o ?ioa?aeoeaii? ai?iao?? ia
iniia? aaeoi?ii? a?ao?ee). Inoaii?e i?eaa?oa? a?euoa oaaae,
i?ioa ?iia? ii?a oiia?eui?aaoe caaaioa?aiiy noi??iee ? oei
naiei a?aooaaoe ei?enooaa?a. ?nio?ou oaei? ?ioa?aeoeai? aaia-
?e — oae?, ui ia?ou iineeaiiy ia ia iaei URL.
Aaia?e ii?oou aooe oaei? ieaaa??eie (stroll-aaia?e).
Aiie ia anoaaey?ouny a noi??ieo naeoo, a caa?ae i?noyouny o

416
aa?oiuiio i?aaiio eoo? ae?aia. Io?a, eiee ei?enooaa? ia?ai?-
uo?ouny ii noi??io?, aaia? neio?iiii ia?ai?uo?ouny ?acii ?c
ne?ie?iaii (scrolling — i?ie?ooea cia?a?aiiy, ?anoeia yeiai
aeoiaeou ca ia?? ae?aia). ?eui a?i caaa?a? ei?enooaa?o, eiai
ii?ia cae?eoe, yeui i?ioyaii iaaiiai ?ano ei?enooaa? ia ?a-
aao? ia aaia?, a?i cieea?.
Aaia?ia ?aeeaia ia? iaeiioeiaeui?o? iiaae? iieaoe: ca oe-
ny?o iieac?a aaia?a ?aeeaiiaaaoy aai ca ee?e ieoa? ii aaia-
?o ?c ia?aoiaii ia naeo, ui ?aeeaio?ou. C iaiiai aieo, ?ae-
eaiiaaaaou ia aeo?a?a? caeaeo eioo?a, aea c a?oaiai —
aoaeoeai?nou aaia?ii? ?aeeaie cia?ii? i??i? caea?eou a?a
?ici?uaiiy.
Aaia?aie ii?ia iai?iyoeny ?c naeoaie-ia?oia?aie, ?ici?n-
oeoe ia niao?aeuieo ?aeeaiieo naeoao (?aeeaiieo iaeaai?e-
eao) aai a aaia?iiai?iieo ia?a?ao, ui ia’?aio?ou aaaaoi nae-
o?a. Aea?? i?noy ?ici?uaiiy caea?eou a?a eiie?aoieo caaa?
?aeeaiii? eaiiai??. Iai?eeeaa, yeui iio??aii caeo?eoe aaee-
eo aoaeoi???, oi aa?oi iaaaoe ia?aaaao ?aeeaii?e ia?a??. Ai
oiai ?, ?aeeaiiaaao? aoaoou ainooii? ??ci? oieonoaaiiy
(targeting), ye? aicaiey?ou aeie?aieoe ?c caaaeuii? aoaeoi???
iioaio?eieo ee??io?a.
Iae?a??e ?aeeaiio ia?a?o, iaiao?aii a?aoiaoaaoe aaye?
?eiieee.
• Ii-ia?oa, ye?niee neeaa naeo?a-o?aniee?a, ia yeeo aoaa
aaiiino?oaaoeny ?aeeaia. Iai?eeeaa, yeui iio??aii caeo?eoe
aeai?o?a, ye? ua ia aecia?eeeny, oi aey naeoo eaiaeaaoa ia
iino I?aceaaioa aoei a ai?a?ii ia?aoe ia?a?o, ai yei? aoi-
ayou ia o?euee naeoe iie?oe?iiai ni?yioaaiiy.
• Ii-a?oaa, e?eue?ni? iieacieee caaaeuii? noaoenoeee ia?a-
??, ye? ? a?aia?a?aiiyi ianooaa?a ioiieaiiy aoaeoi???.
• Ii-o?ao?, ii?eeaino? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy, ia ye?e i?ao??
ia?a?a. Aa?eeai ciaoe, ?e i?iiiio? ia?aia ia?a?a iaeaooo-
aaiiy ?anoioe ?aeeaiiiai eiioaeoo, ?e ? aiaaoeia?, ni?eyoee-
a? aoaeoeai?e ?aeeai? oieonoaaiiy. Ia?aoo?, o?ia, yea ia caa-
?ae ca?aa?ouny c ye?no?, a a aaiiio aeiaaeo — c aoaeoeai?no?
?aeeaioaaiiy (http://www.rle.ru/inf/reklama.html).
Iacaa?a??e ia i?aaeai? ia?aaaae aaia?ii? ?aeeaie, inoai-
i?i ?anii iioe?aiiy iaaoaa? rich-media — aea ?ioa?iao-?ae-
eaie, yeee aeei?enoiao? ioeuoeiaa?ei? ii?eeaino? eiii’?-

417
oa?a: ?aeeaii? iiaoe? noai???ouny ca aiiiiiai? oaoiieia?e
Java (iiaa i?ia?aioaaiiy), Flash, CGI (Common Gateway
Interface — ?ioa?oaen i?eeeaaiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy), DHTML
(Dyn amic Hypertext Markup Language — ?icoe?aia aa?n?y
iiae a?ia?oaenoiai? ?ici?oee, caniao iieno aieoiaio?a o WWW)
oa Shock Wave (ioeuoeiaa?eia oaoiieia?y) ? i?aanoaaey?ou ni-
ai? iiaiio?ii? ?aeeaii? ?ieeee c? caoeii, ai?iao??? oa a?aaia-
oaeoaie.
Oae aea ?ioa?iao-?aeeaie ia ia?aaaa?a? iaia’yceiai? iaya-
iino? naeoo ?aeeaiiaaaoy. ?ieeee rich-media aai aeoeai? aiaa-
oee (active ads) cacae?ae ia ia?ou o?eniaaieo ?ici???a, aiie
caaaioa?o?ouny iaii?anii ?c eiioaioii (ci?noii) naeoo ? aaiii-
no?o?ouny caa?oo iuiai. I?ney caaa?oaiiy aaiiino?ao?? aiie aa-
oiiaoe?ii cae?eaa?ouny ? caeeoa?ou i?ney naaa aaia? aai oa-
enoiaa iineeaiiy ia naeo ?aeeaiiaaaoy, yeui oaeee ?. ?ne?aaa
ioi?ieaiiy oa ai?iao?y cacae?ae ia a?aoo? ei?enooaa??a, a ia-
aiaee, i?eaa?oa? oaaao.
Iiaoe? rich-media ii?oou aaiiino?oaaoeny a ie?aieo a?eiao
o?eniaaiiai ?ici??o, ye? aeieeaa?ou iaa noi??iei? (pop-up
windows), ui i?iaeyaa?ou, aai i?a ia? (pop-under windows).
Pop-up a?eia a?ae?eaa?ouny aaoiiaoe?ii ?c caaaioa?aiiyi noi-
??iee. Cacae?ae oa aeeeeea? oai?iaeeao ?aaeo?? ei?enooaa??a,
iniaeeai yeui oaeeo a?eii e?euea. Pop-under a?eia oaei? a?a-
e?eaa?ouny ?acii ?c caaaioa?aiiyi iniiaii? noi??iee, i?ioa
ieoo?ai ia?aoiayou ia caai?e ieai ? ia caaa?a?ou ei?enooaa?o
ia?aaeyaaoe iniiaiee naeo. I?ney caaa?oaiiy ia?aaeyao naeoo
? cae?eooy a?eia a?aoca?a ei?enooaa? ia? ciiao iciaeiieoeny
?c ci?noii pop-under a?eia. Oi? nooi?iu ?ica?aoiaaiino? cie-
?o?ouny.
Ii?eeaino? rich-media ao?a oe?ie?, aea iaai??ia ?o ae-
ei?enoaiiy ii?a i?ecaanoe ai i?yii i?ioeea?iiai aoaeoo —
iaa’yceeai? ?aeeaie. Aey iioei?cao?? aeei?enoaiiy oi?iaoo
rich-media aoei ?ic?iaeaii ?ya niaoeo?eao?e ? ?aeiiaiaao?e,
ye? ainooii? o niao?aeuieo a?ae?ioaeao.
?aeeaiiaaaaou ii?a ?ici?uoaaoe ?aeeaio oaeiai oi?iaoo
ia ?aeeaiieo iaeaai?eeao ? a ia?a?ao nenoai, ye? ea?o?ou
i?iaaaaiiyi ?aeeaiieo eaiiai?e oi?iaoo rich-media. A ia?a-
?ao oaeeo nenoai ia’?aiaia aaeeea e?eue?nou ?aeeaiieo iaeaai-
?ee?a, aoaeoi??y yeeo ? ao?a oe?iei?.

418
?aeiei cia?iei iaaie?eii cacia?aiiai aeao ?ioa?iao-?aeea-
ie ? o?ia. Oae? ?aeeaii? iiaoe? ni?aaaaeeai ca?aoiao?ou ai ae-
nieeo ?aeeaiieo oaoiieia?e, oiio noai?aiiy ye?niiai ?ieeea
ii?a ia?eoenu o cia?io noio.
Ia?aaaai? ?ioa?iaoo ? oa, ui a?i ia iaia?o?ouny eeoa a?a-
o??ii? ?aeeaii?. Na?aa aea?a ?ioa?iao-?aeeaie aecia?a?ou ?
oaenoiao ?aeeaio (oaenoia? aeiee). Oae ?aeeaiiee iin?e yaey?
niai? a?aoi?iaoiaaiee oaeno, yeee i?noeou ?aeeaiia caa?iai-
iy ? iineeaiiy ia a?aiia?aiee URL, ui ia?aaaa?a? iayai?nou
naeoo ?aeeaiiaaaoy. Cae?aeii, oaeno ii?a ? ia iaoe iineeaiu,
aea aoaeoeai?nou ?aeeaioaaiiy cia?ii cie?o?ouny.
Ia a?ai?io a?a iiia?aai?o aea?a ?ioa?iao-?aeeaie, oaenoia?
aeiee ? iaaaaaoi aaoaaoei ? i?ino?oei o aeei?enoaii?. Ia ?ai-
i?o noaa?yo ?icaeoeo ?ioa?iaoo aoei iioe?aia ?ici?uaiiy
oaenoiaeo aeie?a o ia?a?ao oaenoiai? ?aeeaie. Aiie ia eooaeo
aaia?iiai?iieo ia?a? ia’?aioaaee aaee?acio e?eue?nou naeo?a ?
caaacia?oaaee ioiieaiiy oe?iei? aoaeoi???. Iaiae oae? ia?a??
ia iiaee caaacia?eoe aeo?aiiy ai o?euiai? aoaeoi???, a oaei?
iioeiaeuio ?anoioo ?aeeaiiiai eiioaeoo. O ca’yceo c oei aoae-
oeai?nou oaenoiai? ?aeeaie ia a?aiia?aaea cao?a?aiei ia ia?
eiooai. Oi?a ia?a?? oaenoiai? ?aeeaie ?nio?ou ? ain?, aiie
a?a aaaii iinooieeeny i?noai eiioaenoi?e oaenoia?e ?aeea-
i? (http://www.rle.ru/inf/reklama.html).
?? i?eioei iieyaa? a oiio, ui ai oaenoiai? ia’yae i?aae?a-
?ouny iaaiee nienie ee??iaeo ne?a, ui iaea?aou ai oiaa??a,
iineoa, iie?oe?ieo e?aa??a ?e ia?o?e, yeeo ?aeeaio?ou. A oia?
?aeeaiii? eaiiai?? ia’yae aaiiino?o?ou ia noi??ieao, ye? i?n-
oyou oae? nai? ee??ia? neiaa. Oae, ae??oo?ouny i?iaeaia ioiieai-
iy o?euiai? aoaeoi???, a aoaeoeai?nou oaenoiai? ?aeeaie cia?ii
i?aaeuo?ouny. I?e ouiio noaiaa?o?a ia ?ici?? oa oi?io oaen-
oiaeo aeie?a iaia?.
?ico?iee ia ?ici?uaiiy eiioaenoieo oaenoiaeo aeie?a caee-
oa?ouny ainooiieie ? aea?aieie: iiea?o?ouny ei?iee ee?e ie-
oa? ?c iiaaeuoei ia?aoiaii ia naeo ?aeeaiiaaaoy.
I?ioa aa?oi cacia?eoe, ui iniiaiei i?ecia?aiiyi ouiai
aeao ?ioa?iao-?aeeaie ? eaiiai??, iai?aaeai? ia i?inoaaiiy oi-
aa??a ?e iineoa. C iie?oe?ii? ?aeeaii? aeieea?ou o?oaiiu?,
ine?euee ?a?ac iaia?aia ioiieaiiy aoaeoi??? ? niaoeo?eo oaen-
oiai? ?aeeaie i?iaaaaiiy aoaeoeaii? ?i?a?aai? ?aeeaiii? eai-
iai?? i?aeoe?ii ia ii?eeaa.

419
Aoau-yeo ?aeeaiio eaiiai?? ii?ia iie?aueoe ca aiiiiiai?
a?ia?oaenoiaeo (hypertext) iineeaiu.Aaaaoi naeo?a ?ici?uo?ou
ia nai?o noi??ieao ??ciiiai?oi? aiae?oe?i? noaoo? oa iaeyae. Ia
neia?, o?ac?, ?a?aii? aai o?eiio oaenoiaiio aeieo, ui noino-
?ouny oiaa??a, iineoa, iie?oe?ieo e?aa??a ?e ia?o?e, ?iaeouny
a?ia?iineeaiiy (hyperlink), yea aaaa ia naeo ?aeeaiiaaaoy.
?ici?uaiiy a?ia?oaenoiaeo iineeaiu o a?euoino? aeiaae?a ?
aaceiooiaiei aai iiea?o?ouny ca iaaio e?eue?nou ee?e?a ieoa?
?c iiaaeuoei ia?aoiaii ia noi??ieo ?aeeaiiaaaoy. Cacae?ae
oaeee aea ?ioa?iao-?aeeaie aeei?enoiao?ouny ia ia?oia?nueeo
naeoao, ui ia?ou ni?euio oaiaoeeo.
A?ia?oaenoiaa iineeaiiy ii?ia ?ici?noeoe ? ia promotion-
noi??ieao. ?aeeaii? iaeaai?eee noai???ou niao?aeuii aey ?a-
eeaiiaaao?a aiaaoeia? noi??iee, aecaei yeeo ia aeoiaeou ca
ia?? ioi?ieaiiy naeoo. O ?ac? a?anooiino? naeoo ?aeeaiiaaaoy
ia oaeeo noi??ieao ii?ia ?ici?noeoe ?ioi?iao?? i?i oiaa?e,
iineoae, iie?oe?ieo e?aa??a ?e ia?o??.
?eui naeo ?, oi ia promotion-noi??ieao ?acii ?c ?ioi?iao?-
?? ?ici?uo?ou aaia?e, oaenoiao ?aeeaio ? a?ia?oaenoia? iine-
eaiiy, ye? aaaoou ia naeo ?aeeaiiaaaoy.
Aeuacacia?ai? aeae ?ioa?iao-?aeeaie ca?aoiao?ou ai ianea-
ieo, ine?euee aiie ?ic?aoiaai? ia oa, ui ei?enooaa? a?aooea?
?o nai. Aoaeoeai?nou i?iaaaaiiy ?aeeaiii? eaiiai?? a ?ioa?iao?
ii?a cia?ii i?aaeueoe aeei?enoaiiy aeoeaii? ?aeeaie.
Iaeiioe?ai?oei ? iaei?ino?oei o aeei?enoaii? aeaii aeoea-
ii? ?ioa?iao-?aeeaie ? aeaeo?iiia iiooa (e-mail). Ia ?? iaoa-
i?ci nie?a?ouny aaaaoi ?ioeo cania?a a?uaiiy a ?ioa?iao?, na?aa
yeeo nienee ?icneeee, aeneon?ei? eenoe oa ?iaea?aoaeui? ii-
ooia? iia?aiieaiiy. Inoaii?e ??ciiaea aecia?aiiai aeao ?ioa?-
iao-?aeeaie ii?ia aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye aey ?aeeaie naeoo, oae
? aey ?aeeaie oiaa?o, iineoae, iie?oe?iiai e?aa?a ?e ia?o??.
A ?ioa?iao? ?nio? aaee?acia e?eue?nou niene?a ?icneeee — ca-
nia?a eiioi?eao??, i?ecia?aieo aey iaaii? o?euiai? a?oie. ?ic-
neeee i?enay?ai? ??ciiiai?oiei oaiaoeeai ? cacae?ae ei?enoo-
?ouny iaaaeyei? iiioey?i?no?.
Iaoai?ci ouiai aeao ?aeeaie i?inoee: niao?aeui? neo?ae
i?iiiio?ou ?aeeaiiaaaoyi, ye? ia?ou aeaniee naeo, ??ciiia-
i?oi? iaeaoe iineoa uiai i?iaaaaiiy ?aaoey?ii? oaiaoe?ii?
?icneeee — uinu ia c?acie aeaeo?iiiiai a?oeiaaiiai aeaaiiy,

420
yea ?icneea?ouny ii iioo?. ?a?aia? aeionee ?icneeee io?eio-
?ou o? ei?enooaa??, ye? aia?ia?euii ia ieo i?aienaeeny. ?nio?ou
a?ae?eo? ?icneeee, i?aien ia ye? ainooiiee aey on?o ei?enoo-
aa??a, cae?eo?, ye? ci???ioiaai? aeee??ii ia iaaio aoaeoi???,
aaceiooiai?, ca i?aien ia ye? ei?enooaa? ia ia? ieaoeoe, oa
ieaoi?, ye? ainooii? eeoa ca iaaio o?io. Ai oiai ?, iacaa?a-
??e ia aea ?icneeee, ei?enooaa? a aoau-yeee ?an ii?a a?aii-
aeoenu a?a ?icneeee.
Io?a, c iaiiai aieo, caaacia?o?ouny ioiieaiiy o?euiai? aoae-
oi???, a c a?oaiai — oaea ?aeeaia ia aeeeeea? ?ica?aooaaiiy.
Aeneon?ei? eenoe noai???ouny caaey iai?io ?ioi?iao???
aai iaaiai?aiiy ieoaiu iaaii? oaiaoeee. Ia a?ai?io a?a niene?a
?icneeee, o aeneon?eieo eenoao ii?oou a?aoe o?aou an? aa?a-
???. I?ney i?aienaiiy ia eeno ?aeeaiiaaaaou io?eio? eenoe an?o
o?aniee?a. A?aiia?aii eiai eenoe ainooii? aey ?ioeo. A?euoa
oiai, eenoe caa??aa?ouny a a?o?a?. ?e i?aaeei, ia?aa a?ai?aa-
eaiiyi iia?aiieaiiy i?ioiaeou aa?eo?eao?? iiaa?aoi?ii. A?i
ia?aa??y? a?aiia?ai?nou iia?aiieaiu oaiaoeo? eenoa, a oaei?
eiio?ie?? nooi?iu i?aanoaaeaiino? iaoa??aeo. Iiaa?aoi?ii
ii?a aooe aai caniiaiee eenoa, aai eiiiaoaioia iniaa, ia?a-
ia o?anieeaie.
I?ioa iaeaoaeoeai?oei ??ciiaeaii aeaeo?iiii? ?icneeee ?
?icneeea ?iaea?aoaeuieo iia?aiieaiu. A ?acoeuoao? aeei?enoai-
iy ouiai aeao ?ioa?iao-?aeeaie iia?aiieaiiy iio?aiey? naia
ai o??? e?aeie, ?e?? oaaae iaea?euoa iio?aao? ?aeeaiiaaaaou.
Iaiae i?ioan cai?o aa?an ei?enooaa??a, ye? aoee a cao?eaaeai?
a io?eiaii? iia?aiieaiiy, ii?a caeiyoe cia?io e?eue?nou ?ano.
Cacae?ae ?aeeaiiaaao? ciaoiayou aa?ane oaeeo ei?enooaa??a ca
oaiaoeei? ?oi?o web-noi??iie, ca ?oi?ie iia?aiieaiiyie o aen-
eon?eieo eenoao, iia?aiieaiiyie o oaeaeiioa?aio?yo ? ia aio-
eao ia’ya (http://leopold.hl.ru/net/new_20. htm).
Ua iaei aea aeoeaii? ?ioa?iao-?aeeaie — oaeaeiioa?ai-
o?y — oa nenoaia ?iciia?eo iia?aiieaiu ca oaiaie, yea aaco-
?ouny ia noi?niiio c i?ioieieii TCP/IP (Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol) i?ioieie? iai?io iiaeiaie NNTP

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