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having determined its cause.
3. A disease, as a rule, is not observable by the patient. The
symptoms are.
4. About overcoming a discomfort. According to the general
principles of conservation it seems improbable to overcome a chronic
disease without active efforts on the part of the patient, without the abil-
ity to bear the sense of discomfort patiently, without strain.
5. About an active role of the patient. Only the organism itself
can cure disease by means of the respective MRRs. The doctor and the
patient can only assist or counteract these mechanisms. Hence, the pa-
tient should be the most active participant in the cure process, and an
unreasonable intervention in a natural work of these mechanisms is very
dangerous.
6. About hierarchy of functions. The degree of influence of
functions of the exchange with environment on the processes in organ-
isms (importance of a function) can be determined by the time of pres-
ervation of vital activity at switching-off of the corresponding function.
The quicker the organism perishes at switching-off of any function, the
stronger is the influence of this function on the processes in an organ-
ism. According to this principle, breathing has the greatest influence on
internal processes among the functions controlled by consciousness,
because at a respiratory standstill the organism can live only several
minutes (without water - several days, without nutrition - several
weeks). The importance of the MRR is determined by the importance of
the corresponding function.
7. About asymmetry of resistibility to diseases. Dependence of
efficiency and resistibility to illnesses of MRRs on a felt and/or real-
ized level of threat to a survival of species is asymmetric to the range
of values accepted as a norm. For example, these functions work better
at malnutrition, shortage of sleep, excess of movement, than at overeat-
ing, long sleeping hours, lack of movement, etc. Moreover, it is assumed
that the presence of the factors of threat to survival improves not only
III. Main principles (postulates) 59
the work of the mechanisms directly connected with this factor, but also
all other MRRs. Generally speaking, this principle should be considered
as the law from the theory of evolution in general biology. In fact, from
the point of view of survival of species it is much more dangerous to be
sick, when there is lack of food, when it is often necessary to escape
from predators, etc.
It is obvious that this system of principles is incompatible with
the system of principles of traditional medicine, which implicitly as-
sumes a passive role of the patient, achievement of a minimum of un-
pleasant sensations during treatment, etc. Therefore, it will be natural to
classify all medicine as two cooperating branches, which can be named
as "medicine of survival" and "medicine of comfort".
IV. The basic model and specific formal models

Let us introduce the following objects into consideration.
1. Metabolism. The state of this object determines the level of
physical health of a person in the Buteyko theory. The state of metabo-
lism is determined by many parameters, in particular, the acid-alkaline
balance measured by the level of acidity (pH), etc.
2. The second type of objects in K.P. Buteyko's theory is the
MRR of a function. For example, the mechanism of unconscious man-
agement of breathing, the mechanism of providing the cells and organs
with an oxidizer (oxygen), the mechanism of management of body tem-
perature, etc.
3. The third kind of objects is the processes of exchange with
environment. Here it is necessary to include breathing, nutrition,
movement, thermoregulation, removing of metabolic products, for ex-
ample, the stool, urination, perspiration, expectoration, etc. According to
the sixth principle of hierarchies of functions, breathing is the most im-
portant of them, though in practice it is necessary to consider other
processes as well, with the purpose to facilitate the patient's process of
convalescence.
4. The fourth, as it was revealed, a very important object is con-
sciousness.
Let us characterise now the relations between the objects show-
ing the influence of one object on another (fig. 1). The links in the direc-
tion from metabolism to other objects of the scheme are rather obvious.
It means that if in metabolism there are disproportions and disorders,
this inevitably affects the condition of all objects of the model, including
consciousness. And these influences, obviously, can have various prop-
erties, i.e. both smooth deteriorations or improvements, and threshold
changes ("breakages" or restoration) at achieving in metabolism of the
certain levels of disproportions are possible. Besides, obviously, the in-
formation component is also present in these links. The information
component allows MRRs to take decisions about the intensity of their
influences.
The links in the direction from MRRs are also obvious, since
they reflect the function of regulation of these mechanisms. The link in
the direction from the MRR of breathing to consciousness reflects the
knowingly perceived sensations, such as ease or difficulty of breathing,
IV. The basic model and specific formal models 61
feeling of lack of air, etc.




Fig. 1 Basic model of a human organism.

The link in the opposite direction, i.e. from consciousness to the
MRR of breathing has two components. The first is an opportunity to
influence knowingly this mechanism in several ways. A.) Due to giving
as if "general commands" of the type "stop breathing", "continue
breathing", "diminish breathing", "enhance breathing", etc., leaving with
the mechanism the management of details of respiratory cycles. B) By
means of mental associations. C) Conscious application of the factors of
decrease or augmentation of the depth of breathing (see the following
sections).
Another component follows from the 7-th principle of Buteyko
theory (about asymmetry of resistibility). Here it is the influence of the
62 IV. The basic model and specific formal models
general characteristic of consciousness called the system of values, mor-
als, etc. From a quantitative measure of morals introduced above it fol-
lows that more moral decisions and acts contribute more to survival of
species of the people than less moral ones. Then, according to the 7-th
principle, a more moral person got used to make more moral decisions
and to perform more moral acts has a better state of MRR of breathing,
which fact is observed in practice.
The link from consciousness to breathing and other processes of
interaction with environment reflects an obvious opportunity within cer-
tain limits to regulate these processes knowingly (by means of mental
orders).
Here again it is necessary to pay attention to the process of
breathing. The link under consideration specifies an opportunity to
knowingly control all elements of the respiratory process directly, as
though "bypassing" the MRR, i.e., according to the given model there
are two ways of meaningful management of the process of breathing: a)
through the MRR of breathing; b) "directly". According to the 5-th prin-
ciple, the second way is extremely dangerous, as it is a rude interven-
tion in a natural, unknown to the end logic of operation of a very com-
plex mechanism, i.e., with probability close to 1 a prolonged application
of the second way should lead to additional disorders in the MRR of
breathing, and, hence, to intensifying disease of Deep Respiration. All
this is proven by numerous sad examples from the practice of those who
studied Buteyko therapy inattentively, as well as those who followed all
possible respiratory gymnastics and "pseudo yoga" schools of training
breathing.
Apart from the basic model, Buteyko theory assumes also the
use of specific models, especially for practical application in concrete
patients. The specific model differs from the basic model in that instead
of the object "other mechanisms" one or several concrete MRRs are
taken. For the replacement the mechanisms are chosen which in the
concrete patient generate symptoms of a disease (rhinitis, bronchitis,
etc.), and (or) are damaged by the disease of Deep Respiration (allergy,
diabetes, etc.). Attentive study of the case history showing what symp-
toms and when were observed in the given patient can render big help.
The mechanisms active during the concrete moment are easy to deter-
mine by means of a "deep breathing test” (hyperventilating test) (18,
19). It is especially important to take into account those mechanisms in
which the transient phenomenon is fraught with critical values of the
IV. The basic model and specific formal models 63
vital parameters of the organism. This can be, for example, the mecha-
nism of management of body temperature, the cardiovascular system
(hypertension), the mechanism of management of the contents of carbo-
hydrates in blood (diabetes), etc. Besides, in the specific model the ob-
ject "other processes of interaction with environment" can be replaced
by those processes, which are used by the concrete patient (or are rec-
ommended by the doctor) for assistance in correcting breathing. These
can be nutrition, a thermal exchange (tempering), a motor activity, etc.
V. The factors influencing breathing

According to the accepted model the MRR of breathing is in-
fluenced by the diversified factors, internal, as well as external. These
factors are very different in nature and are described by a great number
of the most diversified parameters. However, there are two common
parameters. They are duration and intensity (degree). It is obvious that
the result of the influence of any factor possesses an "integrating" prop-
erty and it can be estimated by the generalised (in any sense) product of
duration of its influence and its intensity. It is obvious also that all fac-
tors by the direction of action can be divided into two classes (6-8) -
diminishing (correcting) or deepening (damaging) the breathing. Con-
cerning some factors the direction of action is obvious. For those fac-
tors, where the direction of action is not obvious, for its clarification it is
necessary to be guided by the 7-th principle of asymmetry of resistibility
or experimental check-up.
Let us give some examples of the factors that deepen breathing:
the majority of medicines; ecological factors: household chemicals,
fuming from synthetic materials, etc.; from the 7-th principle follow:
overeating (especially protein nutrition); hypodynamia (lack of an exer-
cise stress); immorality - avidity, rage, egoism, excesses in pleasures,
etc.
Further we shall give examples of the breath-diminishing factors
which directly follow from the 7-th principle: restriction of nutrition
(keeping the fast), an optimum exercise stress, physical work; tempering
(making oneself fit, cold-treatment); attention; factors of asceticism - a
hard bed, hard furniture, cool temperature in rooms, self-restriction in
pleasures, etc.; rising morals, etc.
Among all factors influencing breathing, it is necessary to un-
derscore morals, since this factor possesses special properties which
other factors are deprived of. In fact, according to the accepted model,
the action of this factor does not affect any MRR, except for MRR of
breathing. Hence, the influence of morals does not lead to sharp changes
in the intensity of physiological processes, unlike such factors, as a
meal, physical activity, tempering, etc. Another important feature of
morals consists in the fact that restrictions on the "intensity" of this fac-
tor are unknown. As a result, such unique properties of this factor ac-
count for its special necessity in difficult and grave cases.
The entire experience of mankind over millennia confirms the
V. The factors influencing breathing 65
drawn theoretical conclusions. In fact, all mass religions confirm by
numerous examples of wonderful healings that an improvement in mor-
als and spiritual perfection lead not only to spiritual, but also to physical
health. All the Asian schools of improvement of the type of yoga, a chi
kung, etc. allow a pupil to start respiratory and physical exercises only
after passing a stage of spiritual perfection with an improvement in
morals. Special properties of morals are also proved to be true by practi-
cal experience of the qualified Buteyko experts. Thus, in particular, all
other things being equal, psycholomkas and abstersive-regenerative
reactions (see the following sections) proceed much less intensively in
moral patients, they easier manage to correct breathing, their process of
recovering proceeds more smoothly, and they achieve in it the best final
results. The same effect is observed, when the patient knowingly starts
changing consciousness in the direction of better morals.
VI. Measurement (diagnostics) of the degree of disease
of Deep Respiration - the control pause

According to definition, the disease of Deep Respiration is a
disorder of management. From the theory of automatic control it is
known that one of the major parameters of a regulating mechanism is
the so-called delay or a time constant (20). This is the time of reaction
of a regulating mechanism to the occurrence of change in a controlled
system from the moment of a change in the system until the first mo-
ment of display of management (for example, the first instance of opera-
tion of any of actuators).
The most obvious and simple conscious change in the process of
breathing is the standstill. From the point of view of the accuracy of
measurement the moment of the ending of an exhalation seems to be the
most preferable one for the start of measurement. In particular, during
this moment the volume of air in lungs and the concentration of oxygen
and carbon dioxide least depends on the amplitude of breathing.
Now it is necessary to determine the first moment of operation
of "actuator", i.e. any of respiratory muscles of a diaphragm, a thorax, a
muscle in a larynx, etc. In fact, after a respiratory standstill the moment
of involuntary reduction (a jerk or "the first difficulty ") of any of the
specified groups of muscles, more often – diaphragm is practically al-
ways observed.
It is obvious that in order to raise the accuracy of measurement
it is also necessary to formulate the requirements to constant conditions
of measurement. This is an absence of the exercise stress, a correct
(good-looking) posture - sitting upright with straightened shoulders. The
process of exhalation is as "natural" as possible (by relaxation). The
doctor can recommend a patient to squeeze the nose to be sure that there
is a respiratory standstill. Simultaneously, it is necessary to measure a
pulse rate to observe the supply of an oxidizer to an organism. In addi-
tion it is necessary to take care of preparations for measurement. This is
inactivity and usual breathing during approximately 10 minutes before
measurement.
All the above-stated has allowed K.P. Buteyko to formulate the
basic way of diagnostics of the disease of Deep Respiration which he
has named a control pause (CP) (6-8, 21).
VI. Measurement (diagnostics) of the degree of disease 67
In (6-8) the table of pairs (CP / pulse) allowing standardising the
intensity of the disease of Deep Respiration is given. Obviously, it is
necessary to consider that the accuracy of this diagnostic parameter can
considerably decrease, if the measurements are made during the use by
the patient of pharmaceutical preparations, which directly influence the
MRR of breathing, for example, the use of hormonal preparations. The
practice shows, that the values of a control pause can be distorted by 10
seconds and more.
As one would expect, the values of the (CP / pulse) pairs are
very closely connected with a condition of metabolism and, hence, with
the general condition of human health. Thus, these values can be rec-
ommended for an estimation of the general state of health as the first
approximation. Experience of their application has shown a high accu-
racy of such estimation. In particular, the skilled Buteyko expert can
predict a valid value of CP with accuracy of plus minus 2 to 5 seconds,
if he or she knows the set of symptoms. Besides, the dynamics of these
parameters enables one to reveal the patient's mistakes in correction of
breathing, etc.
Another important characteristic of control systems is intensity
of controlling, affecting, in our case, the amplitude of inhalation. Until
now it was not possible to formulate an objective way of singling out an
unconscious component in the depth of inhalation. Therefore, the ex-
perts of Buteyko therapy evaluate the amplitude of inhalation only sub-
jectively, on the basis of their experience and the peculiarities of the
patient and situation.
Apart from delay and amplitude any control system is character-
ised also by sensitivity. In our case for the estimation of sensitivity it is

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