<<

. 41
( 47 .)



>>

connect it, as I do, to domestic and familial discourse.
± Romantic discourse and sentimental discourse are not identical, either
aesthetically or historically, but they have similarities enough “ especially
the priority of emotion, feeling, and imagination “ to warrant their equation
in this context. On the gendered intersections between these discourses, see
Notes to pages ±“± µ
Anne K. Mellor, Romanticism and Gender (New York: Routledge, ±),
pp. ±·“. See also Suzanne Clark, Sentimental Modernism: Women Writers and
the Revolution of the Word (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, ±±),
pp. ·“.
± Ford paid tribute to Conrad upon many occasions, and their relationship
has been extensively documented (see chapter , n. ±±). Fitzgerald told John
Galsworthy that Joseph Conrad, Anatole France, and Galsworthy himself
were the three living writers he admired most, and in answer to a query
from the Chicago Tribune, Fitzgerald pointed to Nostromo as ˜˜the greatest
novel since Vanity Fair (possibly excluding Madame Bovary)™™; see Frederick
Karl, A Reader™s Guide to Joseph Conrad (New York: Doubleday, ±°), p. .
Je¬rey Meyers records how Fitzgerald attempted to pay homage to Conrad
by dancing drunkenly with Ring Lardner on the lawn of the Doubleday
estate when Conrad was a guest there in May of ±; see Joseph Conrad, A
Biography (New York: Scribner™s, ±±), pp. “µ°.
° Ford Madox Ford, The Good Soldier (±±µ; New York: Vintage-Random
House, ±), pp. µ“. Further page references to be given in the body of
the chapter with the abbreviation ˜˜GS.™™
± The Confessions of St. Augustine, trans. Rex Warner (New York: New American
Library, ±), pp. µ“.
 F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby (±µ; New York: Collier, ±), pp. “
. Further page references will be given in the body of the chapter with
˜˜GG.™™
 The Provencal courtly love story to which Dowell alludes in his narrative “
the story of ˜˜Peire Vidal the Troubador™™ who ˜˜fell all over the lady™s bed
while the husband, who was a most ferocious warrior, remonstrated some
more about the courtesy that is due to great poets™™ (GS, pp. ±“±·) “ reveals
the centrality of adulterous desire, if not necessarily consummated adultery,
to the courtly love tradition. For an overview of the threat to established
order posed by this literary tradition which foregrounds devotion to a
forbidden object of erotic and spiritual desire, see Boone, Tradition Counter
Tradition, pp. “.
 See chapter , n. ·, for critical sources treating the paradoxical status of
masochism with respect to normative masculinity.
µ Dowell also resembles Ralph Touchett, as well as Portrait™s other conspicu-
ously leisurely, upper-class, transatlantic male ¬gures, in his lack of a career:
˜˜the ¬rst question they asked me was not how I did but what did I do. And I
did nothing. I suppose I ought to have done something, but I didn™t see any
call to do it™™ (GS, p. ±µ).
 The discourse of blackmail gives an overtone of homosexual scandal to the
˜˜Kilsyte case™™ (GS, p. ±), the name by which Dowell refers to Edward™s
˜˜natural but ill-timed™™ (GS, p. µ°) sexual advance towards a working-class
woman and its repercussions. Rictor Norton a¬rms that many, perhaps
most, blackmail attempts in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in-
volved a threat to expose a man as homosexual, whether or not he was in
µ Notes to pages ±“±
fact gay; see Mother Clap™s Molly House: The Gay Subculture in England, ±·°°“
±° (London: GMP, ±), p. ±µ; see also pp. ±“µ. The ˜˜Kilsyte case™™
occurs sometime between ± and ±µ, the latter date being the year
Oscar Wilde was sentenced to imprisonment under the ˜˜Labouchere `
Amendment™™ to the Criminal Law Amendment Act of ±µ, commonly
known as the ˜˜blackmailer™s charter,™™ further reinforcing the association of
Edward™s transgressions with homosexual scandal. This reckoning of dates
is based on Vincent J. Cheng, ˜˜A Chronology of The Good Soldier,™™ English
Language Notes , no. ± (September ±).
· Samuel Hynes, for example, asserts that ˜˜Passion is the necessary antagon-
ist of Convention, the protest of the individual against the rules™™ (p. ) in
˜˜The Epistemology of The Good Soldier,™™ Sewanee Review , no.  (Spring
±±).
 Mark Girouard describes the literary, artistic, and popular manifestations
of late Victorian and Edwardian neochivalry in The Return to Camelot: Chivalry
and the English Gentleman (New Haven: Yale University Press, ±±), pp. µ°“
·.
 Michael Levenson, ˜˜Character in The Good Soldier,™™ Twentieth-Century Litera-
ture °, no.  (Winter ±), ·. While my discussion of character is
indebted to Levenson™s, his conclusions “ that ˜˜in an utterly improbable
way Dowell becomes a compelling image of the free man™™ (p. ) and that
Dowell ˜˜reanimates the ethical sense that had languished in Edward,
petri¬ed in Leonora, and died in Florence™™ (p. ) “ seem to me overly
optimistic. To champion the vision and moral rectitude of Ford™s narrator is
to miss the lack of resolution, both epistemological and ethical, generated in
this narrative through the device of one man telling another man™s story.
° Levenson, ˜˜Character in The Good Soldier,™™ p. ·µ.
± Lawrence Buell has described the catalogue as a feature of American
modernism in ˜˜The Pleasures of Repetition (Revisiting Whitman),™™ The
Breadloaf Anthology of Contemporary American Essays, ed. Robert Pack and Jay
Parini (Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, ±).
 David Castronovo discusses American emulation of Englishness as a class
signi¬er in The American Gentleman: Social Prestige and the Modern Literary Mind
(New York: Ungar-Continuum, ±±), pp. µ“; see also his discussion of
New York gentility in The Great Gatsby, pp. “·µ.
 Ford™s biographers have treated extensively Ford™s fascination with English-
ness and particularly his ambivalence toward the ¬gure of the proper
English gentleman. Ford repudiated this ¬gure as the nemesis of true art in
his literary criticism, yet often assumed the pose of the English gentleman
despite the fact that he was singularly unquali¬ed for the role by his marital
in¬delities and unconventional domestic arrangements; by his feminist and
vaguely socialist sympathies; and by his non-English origins on his father™s
side and his non-landed gentry status. See Arthur Mizener, The Saddest Story:
A Biography of Ford Madox Ford (New York: World, ±·±), pp.  and µ“··;
Thomas Moser, The Life in the Fiction of Ford Madox Ford (Princeton University
Notes to pages °°“° µµ
Press, ±°), pp. ±±“µ; Brita Lindberg-Seyersted, Introduction to Pound/
Ford, The Story of a Literary Friendship: The Correspondence Between Ezra Pound and
Ford Madox Ford and Their Writings about Each Other (New York: New Direc-
tions, ±), p. viii; Alan Judd, Ford Madox Ford (London: Collins, ±°),
p. ±°·; and Max Saunders, Ford Madox Ford: A Dual Life (Oxford University
Press, ±), I, pp. , °, and °“.
 Joseph Conrad, Preface to The Nigger of the ˜˜Narcissus™™; A Tale of the Sea (±·;
New York: Oxford University Press, ±), p. xlii.
µ Adam Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, ed. D. D. Raphael and A. L.
Mac¬e (Oxford: Clarendon Press, ±·), p. .
 Clark, Sentimental Modernism, pp. µ and µ.
· On the historical shift in the valuation of sentimentality from a term of
approval to a epithet connotating degradation, see Clark, Sentimental Modern-
ism, pp. °“±.
 One of the most in¬‚uential accounts of the relations of modernism, Con-
rad™s authorial identity, and Lord Jim, to mass culture is Fredric Jameson,
˜˜Romance and Rei¬cation: Plot Construction and Ideological Closure in
Joseph Conrad,™™ The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act
(Ithaca: Cornell University Press, ±±), pp. °“°. See also White, Joseph
Conrad and the Adventure Tradition.
 Ford Madox Ford, The English Novel: From the Earliest Days to the Death of Joseph
Conrad (London: Constable, ±°), p. ·. The novel/nuvvle dichotomy was
Ford™s way of contending with the a¬ront to the manly dedication of the
true artist posed by those English gentleman nuvvelists who found it ˜˜not
really gentlemanly to think of being anything but being a gentleman.™™ Both
novelist and nuvvelist have their manly honor at stake, but the nuvvelist™s
honor resides in simply being a gentleman whereas the novelist™s lies in the
integrity of his art.
° Ford Madox Ford, ˜˜The Commercial Value of Literature: A Radio Talk
Given by Ford Madox Ford,™™ transcribed and ed. Max Saunders, Contem-
porary Literature °, no.  (±), .
± Stephen Matterson, The Great Gatsby (London: Macmillan, ±°), observes
that ˜˜it is no accident that critical interest in The Great Gatsby was stimulated
most during the ±°s and ±µ°s, when the New Criticism was a dominant
teaching and research practice™™ (p. ±°).
 My overview of Fitzgerald™s early career is based primarily on Matthew
Bruccoli™s Some Sort of Epic Grandeur: The Life of F. Scott Fitzgerald (New York:
Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovitch, ±±), see especially pp. ±µ“.
 Once again, I am troping upon Nina Baym™s ˜˜Melodramas of Beset
Manhood.™™
 Nick™s ambivalence towards Gatsby™s sentimentalism has contributed to the
long-debated question of his reliability as narrator. For a ¬ne overview of
the ˜˜Carraway Controversy™™ and an analysis of its ideological implications,
see Elizabeth Preston, ˜˜Implying Authors in The Great Gatsby,™™ Narrative µ,
no.  (May ±·).
µ Notes to pages °“±
µ Only several pages before Nick avows his ˜˜intense personal interest™™ in
Gatsby, Gatsby dismisses Daisy™s love for her husband as ˜˜just personal™™
(GG, p. ±µ); this combination of disavowal and endorsement of the personal
parallels the novel™s ambivalent treatment of the sentimental. For a reading
of the gendered implications of emotional investment in Gatsby which is
compatible with my account here, see Frances Kerr, ˜˜Feeling ˜Half Femi-
nine™: Modernism and the Politics of Emotion in The Great Gatsby,™™ American
Literature , no.  (June ±).
 My reading here owes much to Mitchell Breitwieser™s intelligence concern-
ing waste, voice, and melancholy in Fitzgerald™s novel; see ˜˜The Great Gatsby:
Grief, Jazz, and the Eye-Witness,™™ Arizona Quarterly ·, no.  (Autumn ±±),
and his ˜˜Fitzgerald, Kerouac, and the Puzzle of Inherited Mourning™™
(unpublished essay). Thanks also to Anne Cheng for her elucidation of the
complexities of melancholic logic.
· Keath Fraser draws on manuscript passages excluded from the published
text of The Great Gatsby to argue that the narrative™s pervasive anxiety is
rooted, at least in part, in homosexual panic; see ˜˜Another Reading of The
Great Gatsby,™™ F. Scott Fitzgerald™s The Great Gatsby, ed. Harold Bloom (New
York: Chelsea House, ±).
 It was Ford, not Fitzgerald, who self-consciously aligned his own and
Conrad™s literary practice with painterly Impressionism, a connection sug-
gested by Dowell who observes that ˜˜[t]he whole world for me is like spots
of colour in an immense canvas™™ (GS, p. ±). Ford theorized this connection
in his essay, ˜˜On Impressionism™™ (±±), Critical Writings of Ford Madox Ford,
ed. Frank MacShane (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, ±). Critical
discussions of Ford™s impressionism can be found in Levenson, ˜˜Character
in The Good Soldier,™™ ·“; Charles Daughady, ˜˜Cubist Viewing with the
Comic Spirit in Ford™s The Good Soldier,™™ Kentucky Philological Association
Bulletin (±); and Richard Hood, ˜˜˜Constant Reduction™: Modernism and
the Narrative Structure of The Good Soldier,™™ Journal of Modern Literature ±, no.
 (Spring ±).
 Ford, ˜˜On Impressionism,™™ p. µ.
µ° I am indebted to Claire Kahane™s reading of this passage in ˜˜Male Modern-
ists and the Ear of the Other in Heart of Darkness and The Good Soldier,™™
Passions of the Voice: Hysteria, Narrative, and the Figure of the Speaking Woman,
±µ°“±±µ (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, ±µ), pp. ±°“±.
Whereas Kahane reads Dowell™s paci¬c vision of communion as an illusory
attempt to compensate for the betrayals he experiences, and as a cover-up
for the sadistic and masochistic pleasures of narrative that he subsequently
comes to enjoy, I see his fantasy as signifying that the narrative retains the
ideal, if not the actuality, of redemptive communion with the other.

¦   · ¤
± F. Scott Fitzgerald, interview with Charles C. Baldwin, originally published
as ˜˜F. Scott Fitzgerald,™™ in The Men Who Make Our Novels (New York: Dodd,
Notes to page ± µ·
Mead, ±); reprinted in F. Scott Fitzgerald in His Own Time: A Miscellany, ed.
Matthew J. Bruccoli and Jackson R. Bryer (Kent State University Press,
±·±), p. .
 December ±, ±µ letter from Eliot to Fitzgerald, in The Crack-Up: With
Other Uncollected Pieces, Note-books, and Unpublished Letters, Together With Letters to
Fitzgerald, ed. Edmund Wilson (New York: New Directions, ±µ), p. ±°.
February °, ± letter from Fitzgerald to Maxwell Perkins, in F. Scott
Fitzgerald: A Life in Letters, ed. Matthew J. Bruccoli (New York: Scribner™s,
±), p. ±·.
Bibliography




Adams, James Eli. Dandies and Desert Saints: Styles of Victorian Masculinity. Ithaca:
Cornell University Press, ±µ.
Adams, Marian. The Letters of Mrs. Henry Adams, ±µ“±. Ed. Ward Thoron.
Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., ±·.
Agnew, Jean-Christophe. ˜˜The Consuming Vision of Henry James.™™ The
Culture of Consumption. Fox and Lears (eds.), pp. ·“±°°.
˜˜Alarming Increase of Old Maids and Bachelors in New England.™™ Literary
Digest µ, no.  (April ±°, ±°), “·°.
Alpern, Andrew. Apartments for the A¬„uent: A Historical Survey of Buildings in New
York. New York: McGraw-Hill, ±·µ.
Andreas, Eulalie. ˜˜Apartments for Bachelor Girls.™™ House Beautiful , no. 
(November ±±), ±“·°.
Anesko, Michael. Friction with the Market: Henry James and the Profession of Author-
ship. Oxford University Press, ±.
Apter, Emily and William Pietz (eds.). Fetishism as Cultural Discourse. Ithaca:
Cornell University Press, ±.
Ardis, Ann. New Women, New Novels: Feminism and Early Modernism. New Brun-
swick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, ±°.
Armstrong, Nancy. Desire and Domestic Fiction: A Political History of the Novel. New
York: Oxford University Press, ±·.
Arnold, Matthew. Culture and Anarchy: An Essay in Political and Social Criticism.
London: Smith, Elder and Co., ±.
Auerbach, Jonathan. The Romance of Failure: First-Person Fictions in Poe, Hawthorne,
and James. New York: Oxford University Press, ±.
Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. The Confessions of St. Augustine. Trans. Rex
Warner. New York: New American Library, ±.
˜˜The Bachelor: A Modern Idyll.™™ Temple Bar µ (February ±), ±“.
˜˜Bachelor Invalids and Male Nurses.™™ Once a Week , no.  (October ·, ±·±),
±·“±.
The Bachelor Married; or the Biter Bit. Leeds: Webb and Millington, ±°.
˜˜The Bachelor™s Christmas.™™ Blackwood™s Edinburgh Magazine , no. ± (Jan-
uary ±), ±“µ.
˜˜A Bachelor™s Christmas.™™ Harper™s New Monthly Magazine , no.  (February
±µ±), “°±.

µ
µ
Bibliography
˜˜Bachelor™s Hall.™™ All The Year Round ±, no. · (March , ±), “; no.
°° (March , ±), “µ.
˜˜Bachelor™s Hall.™™ Harper™s New Monthly Magazine ±, no. ± (September ±°),
µ±±“±.
˜˜A Bachelor™s Story.™™ Chamber™s Journal of Popular Literature, Science, and Arts µ,
no. ° (June ±, ±·), ±“µ.
˜˜Bachelors “ Why?: Views of Five Hundred of Them on the Income Needed
for Matrimony and the Fitness of the Girls for Household Management.™™
Good Housekeeping µ°, no.  (March ±±°), µ“°; no.  (April ±±°), ±“µ.
˜˜The Bachelors™ Wing.™™ Living Age , no.  (April ·, ±°), “.
Baines, Jocelyn. Joseph Conrad: A Critical Biography. Westport, CT: Greenwood
Press, ±·.
Baldwin, Charles C. The Men Who Make Our Novels. New York: Dodd, Mead,
±.
Banks, J. A., and Olive Banks. Feminism and Family Planning in Victorian England.
University of Liverpool Press, ±µ.
Barker-Ben¬eld, G. J. The Horrors of the Half-Known Life: Male Attitudes Toward
Women and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Harper and
Row, ±·.
Barrie, J. M. My Lady Nicotine: A Study in Smoke. London: Hodder and Stoughton,
±°.
When a Man™s Single: A Tale of Literary Life. London: Hodder and Stoughton,
±.
Barthes, Roland. The Pleasure of the Text. Trans. Richard Miller. New York: Hill
and Wang, ±·µ.
Bascom, Louise. The Bachelor Club™s Baby. Franklin: Eldridge Entertainment
House, ±±.
Baym, Nina. ˜˜The Blithedale Romance: A Radical Reading.™™ The Norton Critical

<<

. 41
( 47 .)



>>