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Viceroy Azanza promulgated this instruction in New Spain on October
28, 1798. Spaniards (whites) were to contribute 2 pesos per head of fam-
ily, castes and mulatos 1 peso, and Indian peasants 4 silver reales (half a
peso). In the years 1798“1800 the sum of 1,618,914 pesos was collected;
in addition, the Tribunal de Mineria provided 500,000 pesos, although
it was forced to ask for a loan from religious foundations to be able to
do so.
Sources: For lists of individuals, see AGN, Donativos y Pr´stamos, vol. 32, exp.
e
8, fs. 55“57; vol. 2, fs. 230“231; and vol. 33, exp. 9, fs. 157“158; there
is also much scattered information in AGN, Donativos y Pr´stamos, vols. 2,
e
14“16, 18“20, 25, and 27“28. On the donation of the Tribunal de Miner´a, ±
see AGN, Donativos y Pr´stamos, vol. 33, exp. 3, fs. 123“126.
e

Donativo and Loan of 1805. Amount collected: 497,557 de pesos.
After the declaration of war against England on December 28, 1804,
the Spanish crown requested ¬nancial assistance from “all the provinces of
the empire.” In New Spain, the collection of a donativo from April 1805
included contributions from the Tribunal de Mineria (300,000 pesos), from
various bishops (100,000 pesos), and from the Mexico City Merchant Guild
(50,000 pesos).
Sources: See lists in Gaceta de M´xico, April 9, June 4, and July 15, 1805.
e

Donativo of 1805 (for the Widows and Orphans of the Naval Battle of Trafalgar).
Amount collected: 23,764 pesos.
In New Spain, a donativo began to be collected from March 5, 1806,
on behalf of the “the widows and orphans of the defenders of the nation
who died in the naval combat of Trafalgar.” Small sums were registered
irregularly in the Gaceta de M´xico during the years 1806 and 1807.
e
Sources: See Gaceta de M´xico, from March 5, 1806 through August 26, 1807.
e
278 Appendixes

Donativo of 1808“1810 (for the War against Napoleon). Amount collected:
1,941,643 pesos.
On October 4, 1808, Viceroy Pedro Garibay published a request for a
donativo to assist the Spanish patriot troops in their struggle against the
French military forces that had invaded Spain. The lists of contributors
began to be published in Gaceta de M´xico from October 12, 1808, and in
e
scarcely a month, 450,000 pesos were collected. The collection of this same
donativo was continued for two more years until the outbreak of insurgency
led by Miguel Hidalgo in Guanajuato in September 1810, which marked
the ¬rst stage of the prolonged civil war in Mexico, known as the war of
independence.
Sources: Fairly complete lists of contributors can be found in weekly Gaceta
de M´xico during the years 1808“1810; also see abundant correspondence
e
scattered various volumes in AGN, Donativos y Pr´stamos: vols. 3“4, 6, 9,
e
11, 12, and 29.


Donativos Requested in the Years 1810“1811. Amounts collected: incom-
plete information.
On May 5, 1810, the Regency Council in C´ diz requested a new dona-
a
tivo for the struggle against the French troops. In the decree, the Council
declared: “Vosotros (los americanos) pagais la deuda del Estado en plata y
˜
oro, ellos (los soldados espanoles) en sangre. . . . ” Subsequently, on Septem-
ber 22, 1810, the viceroy of New Spain Francisco Xavier Venegas gathered
notables and upper clergy at the government palace in Mexico City to urge
them to contribute. The of¬cial order for this so-called tercer donativo in New
Spain was published on September 25, 1810. Among the large contribu-
tions were those by the Count of Regla (4,000 pesos) and Count Bassoco
(25,000 pesos).
According to Lucas Alaman, additional donativos were requested in 1810
and 1811. For example, the Mexico City Merchant Guild organized one
donativo of 300,000 pesos to pay for shoes and boots for the Spanish troops.
Additional subscriptions were announced in support of the celebrated troops
under the leadership of the Castilian guerilla leader known as Empecinado
who had numerous successes against the French: in Mexico 43,000 pesos
were raised for this purpose.
Sources: Hern´ ndez and D´ valos (1878), doc. 39; and Alam´ n (1985),
a a a
pp.233“234. For correspondence on the tercer donativo of September 25,
1810, see AGN, Donativos y Pr´stamos, vol. 4, exp. 20, fs. 64“68, exp.
e
105. fs. 329“336; vol. 6, exp. 12, fs. 227“256; and vol. 11, exp. 7, fs.
78“80.
Appendixes 279

III.2: List of Loans Raised in New Spain to Finance Wars
of the Spanish Crown, 1781“18112
Loan of the Merchant Guilds of New Spain for the Spanish Crown, March 1781“
March 1782. Amount requested: 1,655,415 pesos (non-interest-bearing loan).
This non-interest-bearing loan was an advance to be supplied by wealthy
merchants of Mexico, Veracruz, and Xalapa for the Crown to pay for war
expenses against Britain, particularly in the greater Caribbean. Contributors
included forty-seven merchants from the city of Mexico, nineteen merchants
from Xalapa, and ¬fteen from the port of Veracruz. The of¬cial documents
indicated that repayment would be effected on presentation of certi¬cates of
the loan “resguardos correspondientes a cada prestamista,” (AGN, Consulado
de M´xico, caja 306, exp.7). The correspondence of the viceroy with regard to
e
this loan suggested that titles of nobility might be forthcoming as a result
of major contributions. With time, such leading merchants of Mexico City
as Antonio Bassoco and Pedro Alonso de Alles did receive titles, but this
occurred only after contributing to various royal loans.
Sources: Abundant documents in AGN, Consulado, caja 306, exp. 7, fs. 7“10;
Donativos y Pr´stamos, vol. 21, exp. 5, fs. 110“119; and in AGI, Audiencia de
e
M´xico, exp. 2348, letter of Viceroy Mayorga to the Spanish Minister Jos´
e e
G´ lvez, April 30, 1784.
a

Loan of the Mexico City Merchant Guild, August 1782. Amount requested:
1,000,000 pesos. Interest: 5 percent.
The viceroy of New Spain, Mart´n de Mayorga, requested the Mexico
±
City Merchant Guild in August 1782 to provide a loan for the Crown
to ¬nance expenses of the war against Britain. The guild was authorized
to collect a small percentage of the port tax, known as aver´a, to cover
±
debt service. Among the leading lenders who subscribed to the loan were
nine merchants, seven rentiers of the city of Mexico, and nine ecclesiastical
corporations.
Sources: AGN, Archivo Hist´rico de Hacienda, legs. 683“626 and Correspndencia
o
de Virreyes, vol. 131, exp. 1691, fs. 48“49 and exp. 1760, fs. 130“131.
Guillermina del Valle (1997), Chapter 4 includes detailed information on
individual contributions.

Loan of the Tribunal de Miner´a, August 1782. Amount requested: 1,000,000
±
pesos. Interest: 5 percent.

2 The largest volume of primary documents on the loans can be found in the thirty-three volumes of the
archival branch known as Donativos y Pr´stamos in the Archivo General de la Naci´ n in Mexico City.
e o
280 Appendixes

In August 1782, Viceroy Mayorga requested the Mining Tribunal (run
by the association of silver miners) to operate as ¬nancial intermediary for
a one-million-peso loan to ¬nance expenses of the war against Britain. The
Tribunal would receive sums from the Mexico City mint to guarantee debt
service. The Crown also promised not to allow for increase in the price
of mercury during the duration of the loan. A total of eighteen individ-
uals and corporations subscribed to the loan, with sums ranking between
$3,000 and $200,000, including $110,000 from the Banco de Avi´ de o
˜
la Miner´a and major contributions by the marquis of Castaniza (250,000
±
pesos), the merchant Francisco Mart´nez Cabez´ n (200,000 pesos), and mer-
± o
chants Vicente de las Heras and Antonio Bassoco (100,000 pesos apiece).
Sources: Lists of contributors can be found in AGN, Miner´a, vol. 63, ff.
±
145“146 and Howe (1949), pp.82“102. There is additional information in
AGN, Correspondencia de Virreyes, 131, exp. 1691, fs. 48“49, and exp. 1760,
fs. 130“131.

Tobacco Loan of 1783. Amount requested: 523,376 pesos. Interest: 5 percent.
By royal instruction of August 17, 1780, Charles III authorized royal
¬nancial of¬cers to obtain loan monies for the war against Britain by allow-
ing for the mortgage of funds in the Indies of the tax branches of tobacco
and alcabalas, offering an annual return of 4 percent interest to those same
tax branches while the monies were used for other purposes. This measure
was not applied in New Spain until January of 1783 when Viceroy Mayorga
promulgated it: he offered to pay 5 percent annual interest payments to the
tobacco monopoly for the lending of its funds to the Crown for war expenses
in Cuba. Apparently, most of the sums collected came from Durango and
Guadalajara (461,657 pesos).
Sources: AGN, Bandos, vol. 12, exp. 42, fs. 146“148; AGN, Impresos O¬ciales,
vol. 49, exp. 38, fs. 398“399. Also documents in David Marley, AGN
(1985), docs. XII and XIII and the essay by Jos´ Joaqu´n Real Diaz, titled
e ±
“Martin de Mayorga” Calder´n Quijano (1968), vol. 2, p. 147.
o

Loan of the Mexico City Merchant Guild, 1786. Amount requested: 150,000.
Interest: 5 percent.
According to documents of the Mexico City Merchant Guild, the pur-
pose of the loan was to alleviate the grave agrarian crisis of that year:
˜
“a¬‚igi´ al reino en el ano de 1786 una hambre y carest´a general de viveres
o ±
que puso a todos en la mayor consternaci´ n . . . y el Gobierno . . . acudi´ a
o o
este Consulado, quien concurriendo por su parte al socorro de estas graves
indigencias . . . 150,000 pesos.” In practice, most of the funds were used
to improve three principal roads to Mexico City in order to speed up the
transport of corn and cereals.
Appendixes 281

Sources: AGN, Archivo Hist´rico de Hacienda, vol. 442, exp. 16, fs. 1“9.
o

Loan of the Mexico City Merchant Guild, 1790. Amount requested: 100,000
pesos. Interest: 5 percent.
This was a loan for the Crown to celebrate the end of the war with
Algiers. The Mexico City Merchant Guild circulated the following decla-
˜
ration among its members: “En el ano de 1790 en virtud de Real Orden
del 6 de diciembre de 1785 se tomaron otros 100,000 a r´ ditos sobre el
e
mismo cuatro al millar para que este Consulado contribuyese por su parte
a las paces celebradas con la Regencia de Argel.”
Sources: AGN, Archivo Hist´rico de Hacienda, vol. 442, exp. 16, fs. 1“9. See
o
list of subscribers in Guillermina del Valle (1997), Table III.6, p. 214.

Loan of 1793“1794. Amount requested: 1,559,000 pesos. Interest: no interest.
On December 6, 1792, Charles IV requested a loan from his vassals in the
Americas to help ¬nance the imminent war against France. The monarch
instructed the viceroy of New Spain to send as quickly as possible “six to
eight million pesos, or the largest sum possible.” A non-interest-bearing
loan was promoted by the colonial government in Mexico. By July 9, 1794,
1,559,000 pesos had been collected without interest and with only the
promise of amortization by the royal treasuries in a period of two years. A
series of promissory notes called “libranzas” were issued by the royal treasury
to the lenders in exchange for the silver advanced.
Sources: See Guillermina del Valle (1997), Table IV-I, pp. 285“286, which
includes a preliminary list of subscribers; see additional documents in AGN,
Donativos y Pr´stamos, vol. 1, exps 1“45, 80, and 88 and vol. 28, fs. 3“17.
e

Loan of the Mexico City Merchant Guild, 1793. Amount requested: 1,000,000
pesos. Interest: 5 percent
In early 1793, Viceroy Revillagigedo asked the Mexico City Merchant
Guild to help raise a loan for the war against revolutionary France. The
merchant guild reported on February 23, 1793, that it had approved a loan
for 1,000,000 pesos but against a guarantee of an increase of its percentage
of receipts of the averia port tax. It immediately provided the royal treasury
with an advance in silver of 350,000 pesos and by April 13 had collected
547,000 pesos, obtaining a number of additional subscriptions until it suc-
cessfully completed collecting the million pesos promised by June 7, 1793.
The merchant guild requested the authorities to publish the information on
individual contributors in the of¬cial gazette, newspaper Gazeta de M´xico,
e
but the viceroy refused to do so.
282 Appendixes

Sources: AGN, Donativos y Pr´stamos, vol. 1, exp. 80, fs. 317“318, exp. 88,
e
fs. 319“323; vol. 28, fs. 1“24. For a list of subscribers to the loan, see
Guillermina del Valle (1997), Cuadro IV-2, pp. 287“288.

Loan of the Tribunal de Miner´a, 1793. Amount requested: 1,000,000 pesos.
±
Interest: 5 percent. (Amount collected: 1,100,000 pesos.)
In early 1793, Viceroy Revillagigedo asked the Mining Tribunal to serve
as ¬nancial intermediary for a one-million-peso loan to ¬nance the war
against France. The miners accepted and obtained the funds from diverse
investors, including an extra 100,000 pesos from silver miners of Guana-
juato. The sum of 3 gramos on each silver mark minted at the Mexico City
mint was assigned for payment of debt service.
Sources: Howe (1949), pp. 375“377; AGN, Correspondencia de Virreyes, series
II, vols. 17“170, doc. 616.

Loan of Tribunal de Miner´a, August 1794. Amount requested: 1,000,000 pesos.
±
Interest: 5 percent.
Once again, the viceroy of New Spain requested the Mining Tribunal to
serve as ¬nancial intermediary for another one-million-peso loan to ¬nance
the war against France. The miners™ association accepted and soon raised
the funds.
Source: Howe (1949), pp. 377“378.

Loan of the Mexico City Merchant Guild, August 1794. Amount requested:
1,000,000 pesos. Interest: 5 percent.
The viceroy asked the Mexico City Merchant Guild in August 1794 to
serve as ¬nancial intermediary for another one-million-peso loan to ¬nance
the war against France. Six wealthy merchants contributed, including Anto-

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