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5 percent and amortization in eight years. Its purpose also was to convert
previous Spanish foreign loans issued at Amsterdam. It was also issued by
´
the banker to the Spanish crown at Amsterdam, the ¬rm of Weduwe E.
Croese & C´a. The guarantees of debt service were promissory notes on the
±
royal treasuries of M´ xico.
e
1801 Foreign loan of 4.5 million ¬‚orins for the Spanish crown: interest rate
of 5 percent and amortization in eight years. Its purpose was to convert
previous Spanish foreign loans issued at Amsterdam. It was also issued by
´
the banker to the Spanish crown at Amsterdam, the ¬rm of Weduwe E.
Croese & C´a. The guarantees of debt service were promissory notes on the
±
royal treasuries of M´ xico.
e
1805 Foreign loan of 10 million ¬‚orins for the Spanish crown, issued by the
Amsterdam banking ¬rm of Hope & Co. The loan carried an interest rate
of 5.5 percent and amortization to be completed in ten years. Guarantee
of payment was covered with a series of promissory notes (libranzas) on
288 Appendixes

the royal treasuries of Mexico worth 8,484,375 pesos, almost double the
value of the loan.
1807 Foreign loan of 22 million ¬‚orins for the Spanish crown, issued by the
Amsterdam banking ¬rm of Hope & C´a. With an interest rate of 6 percent
±
and amortization to be completed in seven years. The bonds were sold at 90
percent of nominal value and the Hope bankers charged a commission of 7.5
percent due, presumably, to the high risks in European ¬nancial markets
at this stage of the Napoleonic wars. As guarantee of payments on these
securities, the Caja de Consolidaci´ n gave Hope & Co. promissory notes
o
(libranzas) worth almost 28.5 million pesos to be cashed at Veracruz in case
the Spanish government found itself unable to remit directly to Amsterdam.
Half of this loan was to be used to convert previous Dutch loans to Spain and
the rest for international obligations of the Spanish crown. In fact, Hope
& Co. used some of the proceeds to pay 4,500,000 ¬‚orins to the French
Treasury to comply with the Spanish government™s obligations under the
Subsidy Treaty that Napoleon had forced Charles IV to sign in late 1803.
As a result of the French invasion of Spain in 1808, the debt service of this
loan was suspended for many years.
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