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Convergence Technologies
for 3G Networks
IP, UMTS, EGPRS and ATM




Jeffrey Bannister, Paul Mather and Sebastian Coope
at Orbitage Consultants
Convergence Technologies
for 3G Networks
Convergence Technologies
for 3G Networks
IP, UMTS, EGPRS and ATM




Jeffrey Bannister, Paul Mather and Sebastian Coope
at Orbitage Consultants
Copyright ™ 2004 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester,
West Sussex PO19 8SQ, England

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A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN 0-470-86091-X

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Contents


About the Authors xvii


1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to Convergence 1
1.2 Third Generation (3G) 2
1.3 Why UMTS? 3
1.4 IMT2000 Process 4
1.5 Organization of the Book 8


2 Principles of Communications 11
2.1 Circuit- and Packet Switched Data 11
2.1.1 Datagram Approach 12
2.1.2 Virtual Circuits 12
2.2 Analogue and Digital Communications 14
2.2.1 Representing Analogue Signals in Digital Format 14
2.3 Voice and Video Transmission 15
2.3.1 Sampling 15
2.3.2 Coding and CODECs 16
2.3.3 Pulse Code Modulation 19
2.3.4 Compression 19
2.3.5 Comfort Noise Generation and Activity Detection 20
2.3.6 Packetization Delay 20
2.3.7 Erlang and Network Capacity 21
2.3.8 Voice over IP (VoIP) 21
2.3.9 Quality of Service 22
vi CONTENTS


2.4 Multiple Access 23
2.5 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) 23
2.6 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) 24
2.7 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) 26
2.7.1 DS-CDMA Signal Spreading 27
2.7.2 Orthogonal Codes and Signal Separation 31
2.7.3 PN Sequences 33
2.8 Multipath Propagation and Diversity 35
2.8.1 Soft Handover 38
2.8.2 Fading and Power Control 38
2.9 Protecting the Data 39
2.9.1 Convolution Coding 40
2.9.2 Interleaving 41
2.10 Summary 42

3 GSM Fundamentals 43
3.1 General Architecture 44
3.2 Mobility Management 49
3.3 GSM Air Interface 52
3.3.1 GSM Multiframes 55
3.3.2 Traf¬c Channel Multiframe 56
3.3.3 Control Channel Multiframe 58
3.3.4 Frames, Multiframes, Superframes and Hyperframes 60
3.4 Timing Advance 63
3.5 Initial Connection Procedure 63
3.6 Protocols and Signalling 65
3.7 GSM and Signalling System 7 68
3.7.1 Signalling Points 69
3.7.2 Protocol Stack for SS7 Signalling over MTP 70
3.7.3 Address Translation 73
3.7.4 Example of Routing of a Call to a Mobile Subscriber 73
3.7.5 Example of Routing of an SMS Message to a
Mobile Subscriber 75
3.8 Summary 76

4 General Packet Radio Service 79
4.1 Introduction to GPRS 79
4.2 General Architecture 81
4.3 GPRS Network Elements 82
4.3.1 Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) 82
4.3.2 Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) 82
4.3.3 Charging Gateway (CG) 83
4.3.4 Lawful Interception Gateway (LIG) 83
4.3.5 Domain Name System (DNS) 83
4.3.6 Border Gateway (BG) 83
CONTENTS vii


4.4 Network Interfaces 84
4.4.1 Network Operation Mode 86
4.5 GPRS Air Interface 86
4.5.1 Resource Sharing 87
4.5.2 Air Interface Coding Schemes 89
4.5.3 Classes of Devices 90
4.5.4 Advantages of GPRS Over the Air 92
4.6 GPRS Protocols 93
4.6.1 Physical and Logical Channels 95
4.6.2 Subnetwork-Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP) 98
4.6.3 Logical Link Control (LLC) 100
4.6.4 Radio Link Control/Media Access Control (RLC/MAC) 106
4.6.5 GPRS Radio Protocol 117
4.6.6 Layer 1 118
4.7 Gb Interface Protocols 119
4.7.1 Layer 1 Bis 119
4.7.2 Frame Relay 119
4.7.3 Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP) 120
4.8 GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) 126
4.9 Connection Management 128
4.9.1 Mobility Management 129
4.9.2 Session Management 135
4.9.3 Transparent and Non-transparent Mode 142
4.9.4 Access Point Name (APN) 142
4.9.5 Charging and Billing 145
4.9.6 QoS over the GPRS Network 146
4.10 Connection scenarios 150
4.11 Other Cellular High-Speed Data Technologies 152
4.11.1 High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD) 152
4.11.2 Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) 152
4.11.3 Modi¬cation to RLC/MAC 154
4.11.4 Channel Coding for PDTCH 158
4.11.5 Link Adaptation and Incremental Redundancy 159
4.11.6 Compact EDGE 161
4.11.7 GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN) 162
4.12 Summary 165


5 IP Applications for GPRS/UMTS 167
5.1 Introduction 167
5.2 IP Protocol Suite Overview 168
5.2.1 IP Protocol 169
5.2.2 IP Addressing and Routing 170
5.2.3 Address Depletion and CIDR 172
5.2.4 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 174
5.2.5 User Datagram Protocol (UDP) 176
viii CONTENTS


5.2.6 Domain Name Service (DNS) 177
5.2.7 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 178
5.2.8 IP Summary 180
5.3 IP Routing 180
5.3.1 Dynamic Routing Algorithms 182
5.3.2 Distance Vector Routing Protocol 182
5.3.3 Link State Protocols 186
5.3.4 Other Routing Protocols 194
5.3.5 Exterior Routing Protocols 195
5.4 TCP and Congestion Control 197
5.4.1 Slow Start/Congestion Avoidance 197
5.4.2 Fast Retransmit/Fast Recovery (RENO TCP) 198
5.4.3 Drop Tail Buffer Management 199
5.4.4 Random Early Detection (RED) 199
5.5 TCP Optimization for the Air 200
5.6 IP for GPRS and UMTS R99 201
5.6.1 Reliability and Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) 203
5.6.2 VRRP Virtual MAC Addresses 206
5.6.3 IP Header Compression 206
5.6.4 IP Address Depletion and GPRS 210
5.6.5 Dynamic Host Con¬guration Protocol (DHCP) 210
5.6.6 Network Address Translation (NAT) 211
5.7 IP-based QoS for UMTS Networks 213
5.7.1 QoS Negotiation in UMTS 213
5.7.2 GPRS QoS Parameters 214
5.8 QoS for the GPRS Core Network 215
5.8.1 Differentiated Services (DiffServ) 217
5.8.2 Expedited Forwarding 218
5.8.3 QoS and the Integrated Services (IntServ) 220
5.8.4 Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) 221
5.8.5 RSVP for GPRS 224
5.8.6 IntServ versus DiffServ 225
5.9 IP Security 226
5.9.1 Transport Layer Security (TLS) and WAP Security (WTLS) 226
5.9.2 Virtual Private Networks and IP Security (IPSec) 230
5.9.3 Internet Key Exchange (IKE) 236
5.9.4 Security and GPRS 236
5.10 Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) 237
5.10.1 The IPv6 Header 238
5.10.2 Traf¬c Classes 239
5.10.3 Flow Labels 240
5.10.4 The Payload Length Field 240
5.10.5 The Next Header Field 240
5.10.6 The Hop Limit 240
5.10.7 The Source Address 241
CONTENTS ix


5.10.8 The Destination Address 241
5.10.9 IPv6 Address Representation 242
5.10.10 The Transition from IPv4 to IPv6 243
5.10.11 Dual IP Layer 243
5.10.12 Tunnelling 244
5.11 Serial Line IP (SLIP) and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) 245
5.11.1 LCP Link Establishment 246
5.11.2 PPP Authentication 248
5.11.3 Network Control Protocol (NCP) for IP 249
5.11.4 IP Packet Encapsulation 250
5.11.5 PPP in 3G 250
5.12 Radius Accounting, Authorization and Authentication (AAA) 251
5.12.1 RADIUS Functions 252
5.12.2 RADIUS Authentication and Con¬guration 252
5.12.3 RADIUS Accounting 253
5.13 Diameter AAA 253
5.13.1 Attribute Value Pairs (AVPs) 254
5.14 Mobile IP 255
5.14.1 Mobile IP Routing 255

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