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The concatenation of a series of label bindings is called a label switched path (LSP). The
LSP is created when the label bindings are distributed between the MPLS routers. LSP
establishment is either done on demand, i.e. an MPLS edge node requests a binding when
a new path is required, or is ongoing as part of standard routing table update procedures.
There are three different ways that an LSP can be established: hop-by-hop, explicit
or constraint-based routing. With hop-by-hop routing each MPLS node determines the
contents of the LIB by referring to its IP routing table. For each entry in its routing
table it will advertise a binding (consisting of an IP network address and label) to its
neighbours. Explicit routing, on the other hand, allows an MPLS edge router to establish
an exact path across the network by specifying a router list. One example of explicit
routing is when using MPLS with RSVP to provide QoS. The RSVP reservation message
is carried along the route determined by the path message. For each hop a binding is
carried which establishes the path. With constraint-based routing, the request to establish
the path contains certain QoS requirements. Each MPLS node will determine on which
interface to establish the path depending on local conditions. This is much like the way
that an SPVC is established in ATM.


9.9.4 Label distribution
Label bindings can be distributed between MPLS nodes in two ways, either piggybacked
on existing routing or QoS protocols or using the label distribution protocol (LOP). LDP
provides for conventional hop-by-hop routing; an extension to LDP called constrained-
based LDP (CR-LDP) provides for both explicit and constraint-based LSP establishment.



9.10 SUMMARY

This chapter has described how UMTS with Release 5 has moved to an all-IP architecture.
Not only is IP used to transport signalling and user data, but SIP, an IP-based session
control protocol, is used instead of SS7 call signalling. This has provided a number of
advantages, including better interoperability with other users on the Internet as well as
complex value-added services such as multimedia calls, conferencing and instant mes-
saging. With R5 the RAN can use IP for all of its signalling. The options for IP in the
RAN were described, as well as the issues involved when interworking between IP and
ATM networks.



FURTHER READING

RFC 2507: IP Header Compression. M. Degermark, B. Nordgren, S. Pink. February 1999.
624 RELEASE 5 AND BEYOND (ALL-IP)


RFC 2508: Compressing IP/UDP/RTP Headers for Low-Speed Serial Links. S. Casner,
V. Jacobson. February 1999.
RFC 2782: A DNS RR for specifying the location of services (DNS SRV). A. Gulbrandsen,
P. Vixie, L. Esibov. February 2000.
RFC 2806: URLs for Telephone Calls. A. Vaha-Sipila. April 2000.
RFC 2915: The Naming Authority Pointer (NAPTR) DNS Resource Record. M. Mealling,
R. Daniel. September 2000.
RFC 2916: E.164 number and DNS. P. Faltstrom. September 2000.
RFC 2976: The SIP INFO Method. S. Donovan. October 2000.
RFC 3031: Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture. E. Rosen, A. Viswanathan,
R. Callon. January 2001.
RFC 3036: LDP Speci¬cation. L. Andersson, P. Doolan, N. Feldman, A. Fredette,
B. Thomas. January 2001.
RFC 3212: Constraint-Based LSP Setup using LDP. B. Jamoussi, Ed., L. Andersson,
R. Callon, R. Dantu, L. Wu, P. Doolan, T. Worster, N. Feldman, A. Fredette,
M. Girish, E. Gray, J. Heinanen, T. Kilty, A. Malis. January 2002.
RFC 3262: Reliability of Provisional Responses in Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).
J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne. June 2002.
RFC 3263: Session Initiation Protocol (SIP): Locating SIP Servers. J. Rosenberg,
H. Schulzrinne. June 2002.
RFC 3264: An Offer/Answer Model with Session Description Protocol (SDP).
J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne. June 2002.
RFC 3265: Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-Speci¬c Event Noti¬cation. A. B. Roach.
June 2002.
RFC 3268: Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Ciphersuites for Transport Layer Secu-
rity (TLS). P. Chown. June 2002.
RFC 3311: The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) UPDATE Method. J. Rosenberg. October
2002.
RFC 3312: Integration of Resource Management and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).
G. Camarillo, Ed., W. Marshall, Ed., J. Rosenberg. October 2002.
RFC 3320: Signaling Compression (SigComp). R. Price, C. Bormann, J. Christoffersson,
H. Hannu, Z. Liu, J. Rosenberg. January 2003.
RFC 3327: Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Extension Header Field for Registering Non-
Adjacent Contacts. D. Willis, B. Hoeneisen. December 2003.
RFC 3329: Security Mechanism Agreement for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).
J. Arkko, V. Torvinen, G. Camarillo, A. Niemi, T. Haukka. January 2003.
RFC 3361: Dynamic Host Con¬guration Protocol (DHCP-for-IPv4) Option for Session
Initiation Protocol (SIP) Servers. H. Schulzrinne. August 2002.
RFC 3372: Session Initiation Protocol for Telephones (SIP-T): (SIP-T): Context and
Architectures. A. Vemuri, J. Peterson. September 2002.
RFC 3398: Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) User Part (ISUP) to Session
Initiation Protocol (SIP) Mapping. G. Camarillo, A. B. Roach, J. Peterson, L. Ong.
December 2002.
RFC 3428: Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Extension for Instant Messaging.
B. Campbell, Ed., J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, C. Huitema, D. Gurle. December
2002.
FURTHER READING 625


RFC 3485: The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and Session Description Protocol
(SDP) Static Dictionary for Signaling Compression (SigComp). M. Garcia-Martin,
C. Bormann, J. Ott, R. Price, A. B. Roach. February 2003.
3GPP TS23.002: Network Architecture.
3GPP TS23.003: Numbering, Addressing and Identi¬cation.
3GPP TS23.060: General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Service description; Stage 2.
3GPP TS23.218: IP Multimedia (IM) session handling; IM call model; Stage 2.
3GPP TS23.228: IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS); Stage 2.
3GPP TS23.815: Charging implications of IMS architecture.
3GPP TS24.228: Signalling ¬‚ows for the IP multimedia call control based on SIP and
SDP; Stage 3.
3GPP TS24.229: IP Multimedia Call Control Protocol based on SIP and SDP; Stage 3.
3GPP TS25.412: UTRAN Iu interface signalling transport.
3GPP TS25.414: UTRAN Iu interface data transport & transport signalling.
3GPP TS25.420: UTRAN Iur Interface: General Aspects and Principles.
3GPP TS25.422: UTRAN Iur interface signalling transport.
3GPP TS25.424: UTRAN Iur interface data transport & transport signalling for CCH data
streams.
3GPP TS25.426: UTRAN Iur and Iub interface data transport & transport signalling for
DCH data streams.
3GPP TS25.432: UTRAN Iub interface: signalling transport.
3GPP TS25.434: UTRAN Iub interface data transport & transport signalling for CCH
data streams.
3GPP TS25.933: IP transport in UTRAN.
3GPP TS29.228: IP Multimedia (IM) Subsystem Cx and Dx Interfaces; Signalling ¬‚ows
and message contents.
3GPP TS29.229: Cx and Dx interfaces based on the Diameter protocol; Protocol details.
3GPP TS33.203: 3G security; Access security for IP-based services.
3GPP TS33.210: 3G security; Network Domain Security (NDS); IP network layer security.
draft-ietf-dhc-dhcpv6-23.txt: Dynamic Host Con¬guration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6)”,
Ralph Droms, C Perkins, Jim Bound, Bernard Volz, M. Carney, Ted Lemon, 02/06/2002.
draft-ietf-enum-rfc2916bis-00.txt: The E.164 to URI DDDS Application”, Michael
Mealling, Patrik Faltstrom, 02/27/2002.
draft-ietf-sipping-dialog-package-01.txt: An INVITE Initiated Dialog Event Package for
the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), Jonathan Rosenberg, Henning Schulzrinne, 05-
Mar-03.
A list of the current versions of the speci¬cations can be found at http://www.3gpp.org/
specs/web-table specs-with-titles-and-latest-versions.htm, and the 3GPP ftp site for the
individual speci¬cation documents is http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/latest/
Glossary of Terms


2G 2nd Generation
3G 3rd Generation
3GPP Third Generation Partnership Project
8-PSK 8-state Phase Shift Keying
A3 Authentication algorithm A3
A38 A single algorithm performing the functions of A3 and A8
A5/1 Encryption algorithm A5/1
A5/2 Encryption algorithm A5/2
A8 Ciphering key generating algorithm A8
AAA Authorisation, Authentication and Accounting
AAL ATM Adaptation Layer
AAL1 ATM Adaptation Layer Type 1
AAL2 ATM Adaptation Layer type 2
AAL3/4 ATM Adaptation Layer Type 3/4
AAL5 ATM Adaptation Layer type 5
ABR Available Bit Rate
AC Authentication Centre
ACCH Associated Control Channel
ACK Acknowledgement
ACR Allowed Cell Rate
ADPCM Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation
AESA ATM End System Address
AFI Authority and Format Identi¬er
AGCH Access Grant CHannel


Convergence Technologies for 3G Networks: IP, UMTS, EGPRS and ATM J. Bannister, P. Mather and S. Coope
™ 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd ISBN: 0-470-86091-X
628 GLOSSARY OF TERMS


AH Authentication Header
AI Acquisition Indicator
AICH Acquisition Indicator Channel
AK Anonymity key
ALCAP Access Link Control Application Protocol
AM Acknowledged Mode
AMR Adaptive Multi Rate
AMR-WB Adaptive Multi Rate Wide Band
AN Access Network
AP Access preamble
APDU Application Protocol Data Unit
API Application Programming Interface
APN Access Point Name
ARFCN Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number
ARP Address Resolution Protocol
ARQ Automatic Repeat Request
AS Access Stratum
ASC Access Service Class
ASN.1 Abstract Syntax Notation One
AT command ATtention Command
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AuC Authentication Centre
AUTN Authentication token
AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise
BA BCCH Allocation
BCCH Broadcast Control Channel
BCD Binary Coded Decimal
BCH Broadcast Channel
BER Bit Error Ratio
BG Border Gateway
BICC Bearer Independent Call Control
B-ICI B-ISDN Inter-Carrier Interface
B-ISDN Broadband ISDN
BLER Block Error Ratio
BMC Broadcast/Multicast Control
BOM Beginning of Message
BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying
BS Base Station
BSC Base Station Controller
BSS Base Station Subsystem
BSSAP Base Station Subsystem Application Part
BSSGP Base Station Subsystem GPRS Protocol
BSSMAP Base Station Subsystem Management Application Part
Btag Beginning Tag
BTFD Blind Transport Format Detection
GLOSSARY OF TERMS 629


BTS Base Transceiver Station
BUS Broadcast and Unknown Server
BVC BSS GPRS Protocol Virtual Connection
BVCI BSS GPRS Protocol Virtual Connection Identi¬er
BW Bandwidth
C/R Command/Response ¬eld bit
CA Certi¬cation Authority
CAC Connection Admission Control
CAMEL Customised Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic
CAP CAMEL Application Part
CB Cell Broadcast
CBC Cell Broadcast Centre
CBCH Cell Broadcast CHannel
CBR Constant Bit Rate
CBS Cell Broadcast Service
CC Call Control
CCCH Common Control Channel
CCH Control Channel
CCITT Comit´ Consultatif International T´ l´ graphique et T´ l´ phonique (The
e ee ee
International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee)
CCPCH Common Control Physical Channel
CCTrCH Coded Composite Transport Channel
CD Collision Detection
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CDR Charging Data Record
CDV Cell Delay Variation
CDVT Cell Delay Variation Tolerance
CER Cell Error Ratio
CES Circuit Emulation Service
CFN Connection Frame Number
CHAP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
CI Cell Identity
CIP Composite IP
CIR Carrier to Interference Ratio
CIR Committed Information Rate
CLK Clock
CLP Cell Loss Priority
CLR Cell Loss Ratio
CM Connection Management
CN Core Network
COM Continuation of Message
CONS Connection-oriented network service
CPCH Common Packet Channel
CPCS Common Part Convergence Sublayer
CPCS-SDU Common Part Convergence Sublayer-Service Data Unit
630 GLOSSARY OF TERMS


CPICH Common Pilot Channel
CPS Common Part Sublayer
CPU Central Processing Unit
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
CRNC Controlling Radio Network Controller
C-RNTI Cell Radio Network Temporary Identity

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