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5.14.2 Mobile IP Security 257
5.14.3 Route Reverse Tunnelling 257
5.14.4 Route Optimization 257
5.14.5 Mobile IP for IPv6 258
5.14.6 Foreign Agent Handover and Mobile IP 259
5.14.7 Mobile IP for CDMA2000 260
5.14.8 Mobile IP for UMTS 260
5.15 Summary 261


6 Universal Mobile Telecommunications System 265
6.1 UMTS Network Architecture 265
6.1.1 WCDMA Base Station (WBTS) 266
6.1.2 Radio Network Controller (RNC) 267
6.1.3 3G Mobile Switching Centre (3G MSC) 267
6.2 Network Evolution 268
6.3 UMTS FDD and TDD 269
6.4 UMTS Bearer Model 270
6.5 UMTS QoS Classes 273
6.6 UTRAN Channels 276
6.6.1 Logical Channels 277
6.6.2 Downlink Transport and Physical Channels 278
6.6.3 Uplink Transport and Physical Channels 279
6.7 Radio Resource Management (RRM) 279
6.7.1 Admission Control 279
6.7.2 Packet Scheduler 281
6.7.3 Load Control 282
x CONTENTS


6.7.4 Handover Control 282
6.7.5 Power Control 286
6.8 WCDMA Physical Layer 288
6.8.1 Physical Layer Procedures 289
6.8.2 Data Protection 289
6.8.3 Radio Frame Segmentation and Rate Matching 291
6.8.4 Spreading 291
6.8.5 Modulation and Transmission 295
6.8.6 Common Channels 296
6.8.7 Dedicated Physical Channels 297
6.9 Initial Connection to Network 300
6.9.1 Synchronization Procedures 300
6.9.2 Slot Synchronization 301
6.9.3 Frame Synchronization 302
6.9.4 Scrambling Code Identi¬cation 303
6.9.5 Random Access Procedure 304
6.10 Compressed Mode 305
6.11 Downlink Transmit Diversity Techniques 307
6.11.1 Space Time Transmit Diversity (STTD) 307
6.11.2 Time Switched Transmit Diversity (TSTD) 307
6.11.3 Site Selection Diversity Transmit (SSDT) 308
6.11.4 Closed Loop Mode Transmit Diversity 308
6.12 Radio Interface Protocol Architecture 309
6.12.1 Broadcast/Multicast Control (BMC) 311
6.12.2 Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) 312
6.12.3 Radio Link Control (RLC) 312
6.12.4 Media Access Control (MAC) 316
6.12.5 MAC and Physical Layer Interaction 319
6.13 Adaptive Multirate (AMR) CODEC 323
6.14 Calculated Transport Format Combinations 326
6.15 Use of DSCH 328
6.16 Radio Resource Control (RRC) 328
6.16.1 RRC Mobile States 330
6.16.2 UTRAN UE Identi¬ers 333
6.16.3 RRC Connection 333
6.16.4 Signalling Radio Bearers 335
6.16.5 RRC Security Mode Control 336
6.16.6 RRC Paging 336
6.16.7 Radio Bearer Establishment 337
6.16.8 Transfer of NAS Messages 339
6.16.9 Cell/URA Update 339
6.16.10 Measurement Reporting 340
6.16.11 Active Set Update 342
6.17 Broadcast System Information 343
6.17.1 Master Information Block (MIB) 345
CONTENTS xi


6.17.2 System Information Block 1 345
6.17.3 System Information Block 2 346
6.17.4 System Information Block 3 347
6.17.5 System Information Block 5 347
6.17.6 System Information Block 7 348
6.17.7 System Information Block 11 348
6.18 Frame Protocols 348
6.18.1 Dedicated User Data on the Iub/Iur Interface 348
6.18.2 User Data on Iub Common Channels 357
6.18.3 User Data on Iur Common Channels 359
6.18.4 User Data on the Iu Interface 363
6.18.5 Control Procedures 367
6.19 UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) 371
6.19.1 Iub Interface 373
6.19.2 Node B Application Part (NBAP) 374
6.19.3 Iur Interface 376
6.19.4 Radio Network Subsystem Application Part (RNSAP) 377
6.19.5 Iu Interface 379
6.19.6 Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP) 381
6.19.7 Broadband SS7 389
6.20 Mobility Management for Packet Switched Operation 392
6.20.1 PMM-Detached 392
6.20.2 PMM-Idle 392
6.20.3 PMM-Connected 392
6.21 UMTS Security Architecture 393
6.21.1 User Identity Con¬dentiality 395
6.21.2 Authentication 395
6.21.3 Security Mode Establishment 397
6.21.4 Con¬dentiality 399
6.22 UMTS Call Life Cycle 401
6.22.1 Signalling Connection Establishment 401
6.22.2 Location Updating 405
6.22.3 Paging 406
6.22.4 Connection Establishment: Circuit Core 407
6.22.5 Handover Control 410
6.22.6 Circuit Call Termination 412
6.22.7 Packet Core Connection 413
6.23 CDMA2000 414
6.23.1 History of Cellular in the USA 415
6.23.2 The TDMA System 417
6.23.3 The CDMA System 417
6.23.4 Evolution Path 417
6.23.5 CDMA2000 1xRTT 418
6.23.6 CDMA2000 1xEV 418
6.23.7 CDMA2000 3xMC 418
xii CONTENTS


6.23.8 CDMA2000 Network Architecture 418
6.23.9 Simple IP and Mobile IP 420
6.23.10 Mobility Management 421
6.24 Time Division-Synchronous CDMA (TD-SCDMA) 421
6.25 Summary 422


7 UMTS Transmission Networks 425
7.1 Introduction to RAN Transmission 425
7.2 Introduction to ATM 426
7.3 History and Standards 428
7.3.1 Virtual Circuits and Virtual Paths 429
7.4 The ATM Reference Model 430
7.5 The Physical Layer 432
7.5.1 PMD Sublayer 433
7.5.2 Transmission Convergence (TC) Sublayer 436
7.5.3 Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) 439
7.6 The ATM Layer 440
7.7 The ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) 442
7.7.1 AAL1 443
7.7.2 Circuit Emulation Service (CES) 446
7.7.3 AAL2 450
7.7.4 Service-speci¬c convergence sublayer (SSCS) 457
7.7.5 AAL3/4 460
7.7.6 AAL5 461
7.7.7 Summary 462
7.8 Traf¬c Classes 463
7.9 Traf¬c Management and Quality of Service 466
7.9.1 Traf¬c Descriptor 468
7.10 Traf¬c Shaping 471
7.10.1 Generic Cell Rate Algorithm (GCRA) 471
7.10.2 Usage Parameter Control 473
7.11 ABR and Traf¬c Congestion 474
7.12 Network Management 475
7.12.1 Integrated Local Management Interface (ILMI) 476
7.12.2 Layer Management 476
7.13 ATM Signalling 478
7.13.1 ATM Signalling Protocol Stack 478
7.13.2 Service-Speci¬c Connection-Oriented Protocol (SSCOP) 479
7.13.3 Service-speci¬c Coordination Function (SSCF) 482
7.13.4 ATM Addressing Format 483
7.13.5 UMTS Signalling Transport 485
7.13.6 UNI3.x Signalling 486
7.13.7 Connection Establishment 487
7.13.8 Signalling Message Structure 489
7.13.9 UNI4.0 491
CONTENTS xiii


7.14 Private Network-to-Network Interface (PNNI) 492
7.14.1 Peer Group 493
7.14.2 AAL2 Signalling 494
7.15 IP/ATM Internetworking 498
7.15.1 Packet Core 499
7.15.2 Data Encapsulation 499
7.15.3 Classical IP over ATM (CLIP) 501
7.15.4 Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP) 503
7.15.5 IP Multicast over ATM 504
7.16 Summary 505


8 IP Telephony for UMTS Release 4 509
8.1 Introduction 509
8.2 R4 Softswitch Architecture 510
8.2.1 MSC Server 510
8.2.2 Media Gateway (MGW) 511
8.2.3 Gateway MSC Server (GMSC Server) 511
8.2.4 CS Domain External Interfaces 512
8.2.5 CAMEL 513
8.3 Voice over IP (VoIP) 513
8.3.1 VoIP Call Control 513
8.4 Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) 514
8.4.1 RTP at the Nb Interface 514
8.4.2 Source Identi¬ers 517
8.4.3 Encryption with RTP 518
8.4.4 Redundancy with RTP 518
8.4.5 Real-Time Control Protocol (RTCP) 518
8.4.6 RTCP Receiver Report 519
8.4.7 RTCP Sender Report 520
8.4.8 SDES Source Description 521
8.4.9 BYE Goodbye 521
8.4.10 APP Application De¬ned 521
8.4.11 RTP Limitations 522
8.5 Session Description Protocol (SDP) 522
8.6 Media Gateway Control 523
8.6.1 Evolution of Media Control Protocols 523
8.7 MEGACO 524
8.7.1 Terminations and Contexts 524
8.7.2 Events and Signals 526
8.7.3 MEGACO Commands and Descriptors 528
8.7.4 Context and Termination Handling (Bearer Establishment) 529
8.7.5 Deleting Contexts and Bearers 535
8.7.6 Summary 536
8.8 Bearer-Independent Call Control (BICC) 536
8.8.1 Forward and Backward Bearer Establishment 538
xiv CONTENTS


8.8.2 BICC Messages and Parameters 538
8.8.3 Bearer Control Function 540
8.8.4 Bearer Control Protocols 542
8.8.5 BICC IP Bearer Control Protocol (IPBCP, Q.1970) 542
8.8.6 BICC Call Flow Examples for Release 4 544
8.8.7 Tandem-Free and Transcoder-Free Operation 545
8.8.8 BICC Summary 547
8.9 Sigtran Protocol 548
8.9.1 MTP3 User Adaptation Layer (M3UA) 548
8.9.2 Streaming Control Transport Protocol (SCTP) 551
8.10 Summary 552


9 Release 5 and Beyond (All-IP) 555
9.1 Introduction 555
9.2 IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) 555
9.2.1 Call Session Control Function (CSCF) 558
9.2.2 Application Server (AS) 559
9.2.3 Breakout Gateway Control Function (BGCF) 560
9.2.4 Multimedia Resource Function (MRF) 560
9.2.5 Media Gateway Control Function and Media Gateway
(MGCF and MGW) 560
9.3 Home Subscriber Server (HSS) 560
9.3.1 HSS Cx Interface 561
9.4 IP Network Domain Security 563
9.5 Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) 564
9.5.1 SIP Addressing 565
9.5.2 SIP Components 566
9.5.3 SIP Messages 568
9.5.4 SIP Responses 569
9.5.5 SIP Transaction Handling 570
9.5.6 SIP Message Transport 570
9.5.7 SIP Server Discovery 571
9.5.8 SIP Headers 571
9.5.9 SIP Call Establishment 574
9.5.10 CANCEL 575
9.5.11 Call Establishment via Proxy 576
9.5.12 Stateless and Stateful Proxies 576
9.5.13 SIP Offer/Answer Model 577
9.5.14 SIP Registration 579
9.5.15 SIP Call Routing (Direct, Proxy and Redirect) 581
9.5.16 Provision of QoS with SIP 584
9.5.17 SIP Security 588
9.5.18 SIP“PSTN Interworking 591
9.5.19 SIP Bridging 593
9.5.20 Conferencing with SIP 595

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