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9.5.21 SIP Event Noti¬cation 595
9.5.22 SIP and Instant Messaging Services 596
9.6 E.164 Numbers (ENUM) 597
9.6.1 NAPTR 598
9.6.2 ENUM examples 598
9.7 UMTS IMS Call Signalling 599
9.7.1 IMS Security 599
9.7.2 P-CSCF Assignment 600
9.7.3 IMS Registration 601
9.7.4 IMS Mobile Originated Call 603
9.7.5 IMS Mobile Terminated Call 605
9.7.6 QoS Reservation for IMS Calls 606
9.7.7 IMS Accounting 608
9.7.8 Common Open Policy Service (COPS) 608
9.8 IP in the Radio Access Network (RAN) 609
9.8.1 Support for IPv6 609
9.8.2 IP in the Iu Interface 610
9.8.3 IP in the Iur Interface 612
9.8.4 IP in the Iub Interface 613
9.8.5 IP Header Compression in the RAN 613
9.8.6 RAN IP Datalink Layer 613
9.8.7 IP QoS in RAN 614
9.8.8 Composite IP (CIP) 614
9.8.9 Lightweight IP Encapsulation Protocol (LIPE) 615
9.8.10 Multiplexed PPP 617
9.8.11 AAL2 over UDP 618
9.8.12 IP ATM Interoperating 618
9.9 Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) in UMTS 620
9.9.1 MPLS terminology 621
9.9.2 MPLS Forwarding 621
9.9.3 Label Switched Paths (LSP) 623
9.9.4 Label Distribution 623
9.10 Summary 623

Glossary of Terms 643

Index 627
About the Authors

The three authors form part of the senior management team of Orbitage, a high-technology
consultancy ¬rm offering specialised expertise in many aspects of the telecommunication
and information technology ¬elds. Originally founded in 1998 and based in Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia, it has expanded to primarily cover the Asia-Paci¬c region, and has regional
of¬ces in Cyberjaya and Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong. Orbitage is
numbered among those companies to be awarded the prestigious Malaysian MSC status. In
addition, Orbitage has a development team in the UK, and representatives in Finland and
Ireland, as well as a regional of¬ce in Europe. Orbitage is also a distributor of NetHawk
2G/3G analysis tools.
Orbitage is highly regarded in Asia, and has provided consultancy and training services
to a number of major organizations, including Nokia, Ericsson, Motorola, Singapore Tele-
com, Mobile One Singapore, StarHub Singapore, Telekom Malaysia, Maxis Malaysia,
Celcom Malaysia, Telstra Australia, KGT Taiwan, TCC Taiwan, AIS and DTAC in Thai-
land, Vodaphone Ireland, and NetHawk Finland. Orbitage has been providing services to
Nokia in Asia for a number of years as well as projects in China and Europe. Orbitage
specialises in cross-training of professionals between the IT and telecommunications ¬elds
to enable them to become pro¬cient Convergence Engineers.
Further information can be found at www.orbitage.com or by email to

Dr. Jeffrey Bannister B.A., B.A.I., Ph.D., THEC Cert., MIEE, C.Eng.

Jeffrey is a co-founder and Telecommunications Specialist at Orbitage. A native of Ire-
land, he received his Ph.D. in Telecommunications/High-speed electronics from Trinity
College in Dublin. He has over 15 years of experience, and holds an internationally rec-
ognized teaching quali¬cation. Jeffrey has also been a lecturer, research fellow and course
developer with the Dublin Institute of Technology, Temasek Polytechnic, Singapore, and

Trinity College in Dublin, as well as providing consultation to a number of companies in
Europe and Asia. He has been living in Malaysia for the past 5 years.

Mr. Paul Mather B.Eng.(Hons), M.Sc.BA&IT, MasterCNE, MIEE, Cert. Ed., C.Eng.

Paul is a co-founder of Orbitage and has been located in the ASEAN region for the
last seven years, during which time he has been involved in course development, training
and consultancy for a number of companies. Prior to his relocation from Blackpool, UK,
he worked for a British college, where he was engaged as both a lecturer in Informa-
tion Engineering and as the computer network manager. As a certi¬ed internal veri¬er of
vocational quali¬cations, he has comprehensive experience in delivery, assessment and
development of a variety of IT and Communication programs. He is credited with estab-
lishing the ¬rst Novell Educational Academic Partnership in the ASEAN region. In an
industrial context, he has worked in the IT and Communications ¬elds for over 18 years,
this work has taken him to many countries as well as various oil and gas platforms in the
North Sea.

Mr. Sebastian Coope B.Sc., M.Sc., THEC Cert.

Sebastian is an IP/Software Specialist at Orbitage. From a small village called Bolling-
ton near Manchester originally, he received his Masters in Data Communications and
Networking from Leeds Metropolitan University. He has worked in a wide range of roles
as software engineer development and project manager, as well as consultant in the ¬elds
of network security and management. He has also worked as lecturer and consultant at
both Temasek Polytechnic Singapore and the University of Staffordshire. At Orbitage he
has led the team responsible for the development of mobile application products. He is
also co-author of Computer Systems (Coope, Cowley and Willis), a university text on
computer architecture.

To my family, Canjoe, Siobh´ n, Avril and Norman, for their love, support and encour-
To Vivian, my wife and best friend for her unbridled love and support and also to my
dad for ensuring I was suitably equipped for this journey-P.M.
I would like to dedicate my contribution in this book to Carole and little Al-S.C.

The authors would like to thank the following individuals for their assistance, contri-
butions and support with this book. We would like to thank our colleagues at Orbitage,
Roger Percival, Ruairi Hann, Siva Nadarajah, Annie Ling, Karen Wong, Vivian Koh, John

Ting and in particular to Tuan Ismail bin Tuan Mohamed for his continued support and
encouragement. At NetHawk, we would like to thank Hannu Loponen, Ari Niskanen and
Wong YeHim.
We would particularly like to extend our thanks to Sally Mortimore and Birgit Gruber
at John Wiley for their advice, support and encouragement in overseeing this project
to completion.
We would also like to take this opportunity to thank Kim Johnston, Reimund Nienaber,
Paolo Zanier, Jarkko Lohtaja, Dawn Ho, Pearly Ong, Lee Wing Kai, Kamaliah Aza-
hari, Idahayati Md. Dahari, Lewis Lourdesamy, Neela Tharmakulasingam, Adzahar Md.
Sharipin, Jennifer Huang and Mark Deegan. Jeffrey would further like to acknowledge
Dr. Brian Foley of Trinity College in Dublin for nurturing in him the thirst for, and skills
of, lifelong learning and critical analysis.


The telecommunications industry, and particularly the cellular industry, is currently going
through a state of enormous transition. Many of the major cellular operators are now
deploying a network to support packet switched data services and lead them to third
generation (3G). This step to 3G involves a major change in the network infrastructure
with the introduction of complex technologies such as asynchronous transfer mode (ATM),
code division multiple access (CDMA) and the Internet protocol (IP). For forward-looking
operators, this transition also requires a clear, strategic transformation of their business
model to grasp and maximize on the bene¬ts of the next generation™s lucrative revenue
streams. An operator requires both highly motivated staff with a substantial skill set as well
as comprehensive, dynamic information systems. Also crucial is a clear understanding of
the role the operator will play in this new model on the continuum from mere provision
of a bit-pipe, to an organization offering full Internet service provider (ISP) capabilities
and value-added services. This revised business model needs to incorporate integrated
solutions for charging and billing, and provide a clear understanding of the new revenue
streams available. Smooth convergence of network and telecommunications technologies
and a proactive business strategy are pivotal to the success of the future mobile operator.
Many telecoms engineers have little experience in the new packet and IP technolo-
gies. To remain competitive it is essential that they learn the new packet switched skills
quickly. The circuit switched skills will be required for a long time as circuit switch-
ing is not expected to disappear overnight and will probably be around for decades.
However, new network components for telecoms networks will be based around packet
switched technology.
Second generation cellular systems have been implemented commercially since the
late 1980s. Since then, the systems have evolved dramatically in both size and reli-
ability to achieve the level of quality subscribers expect of current networks. Mobile

Convergence Technologies for 3G Networks: IP, UMTS, EGPRS and ATM J. Bannister, P. Mather and S. Coope
™ 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd ISBN: 0-470-86091-X

network operators have invested heavily in the technology and the infrastructure, and it
is unreasonable to expect this to be simply discarded when a new 3G system is proposed.
As a term, convergence has been coined by both the telecoms and datacoms industries.
From a telecoms perspective, it is the expansion of the public switched telephone network
(PSTN) to offer many services on the one network infrastructure. For Internet advocates,
it is the death of the PSTN as its role is largely replaced by technologies such as voice
over IP (VOIP). In reality, the truth lies somewhere in the middle, and it is here that
the cellular industry takes the best of both worlds to create an evolved network, where
the goal is the delivery of effective services and applications to the end user, rather than
focusing on a particular technology to drive them. That said, the economy of scale and
widespread acceptance of IP as a means of service delivery sees it playing a central role
in this process.

Third generation or 3G is now the generally accepted term used to describe the next
wave of mobile networks and services. First generation (1G) is used to categorize the
¬rst analogue mobile systems to emerge in the 1980s, such as the advanced mobile
phone system (AMPS) and nordic mobile telephony (NMT). These systems provided a
limited mobile solution for voice, but have major limitations, particularly in terms of
interworking, security and quality. The next wave, second generation (2G), arrived in the
late 1980s and moved towards a digital solution which gave the added bene¬t of allowing
the transfer of data and provision of other non-voice services. Of these, the global system
for mobile communication (GSM) has been the most successful, with its global roaming
model. 3G leverages on the developments in cellular to date, and combines them with
complementary developments in both the ¬xed-line telecoms networks and from the world
of the Internet. The result is the development of a more general purpose network, which
offers the ¬‚exibility to provide and support access to any service, regardless of location.
These services can be voice, video or data and combinations thereof, but, as already
stated, the emphasis is on the service provision as opposed to the delivery technology.
The motivation for this development has come from a number of main sources, as follows:

• subscriber demand for non-voice services, mobile extensions to ¬xed-line services and
richer mobile content;
• operator requirements to develop new revenue sources as mobile voice services and
mobile penetration levels reach market saturation;
• operators with successful portfolios of non-voice services now unable to sustain the
volume of traf¬c within their current spectrum allocation;
• equipment vendor requirements to market new products as existing 2G networks become
mature and robust enough to meet current consumer demand.

It is arguable which of these weigh most heavily on the big push for the introduction of 3G
networks, and which of these are justi¬able. Certainly in Japan and Korea, where operators
1.3 WHY UMTS? 3

are now generating more traf¬c and revenue from non-voice services, the business case
for 3G is present. These operators are no longer able to meet the subscriber demand for
such applications, and have been a major impetus in 3G development, particularly NTT
DoCoMo, arguably the most successful, and a pioneer in non-voice services. However,
the situation in Japan and Korea is somewhat different to the rest of the world. There are
a number of key factors that led to the growth of data services there:

• low Internet penetration, due largely to language factors;
• high existing mobile penetration (in Japan, the high cost and low ef¬ciency of ¬xed-line
services has partially fuelled this);
• large urban conurbation with sizeable proportion of the working population commuting
on public transport, often for a long duration;
• low relative cost of mobile services.

This is evident in Japan, where the ¬rst driving application of DoCoMo™s iMode service
was provision of email.
However, the current situation outside of these exceptions is that thus far, consumer
demand for data services has been limited, even now when there is widespread availability
of data-capable mobile devices. Cost of new services has been a signi¬cant factor in this
poor uptake as bandwidth charges are unrealistically high when compared to ¬xed-line
equivalents, particularly now with the widespread availability of economical consumer
digital subscriber line (DSL) services.

The 3G standard proposed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute
(ETSI) with much joint work with Japanese standardization bodies is referred to as
the universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS). UMTS is one of a number
of standards rati¬ed by the International Telecommunications Union“Telecommunication
Standardization Sector (ITU-T) under the umbrella of International Mobile Telephony
2000 (IMT2000), as discussed in the next section. It is currently the dominant standard,
with the US CDMA2000 standard gaining ground, particularly with operators that have
deployed cdmaOne as their 2G technology. At the time of writing, Japan is the most
advanced in terms of 3G network deployment. The three incumbent operators there
have implemented three different technologies: J-Phone is using UMTS, KDDI has a
CDMA2000 network, and the largest operator NTT DoCoMo is using a system branded
as FOMA (Freedom of Multimedia Access). FOMA is based around the original UMTS
proposal, prior to its harmonization and standardization.
The UMTS standard is speci¬ed as a migration from the 2G GSM standard to UMTS
via the general packet radio service (GPRS) and enhanced data rates for global evolution
(EDGE), as shown in Figure 1.1. This is a sound rationale since as of December 2002,
there were over 780 million GSM subscribers worldwide,1 accounting for 71% of the
Source: GSM Association, www.gsmworld.com.



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