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period. Only in Neo-Babylonian is the semantic ¬eld of s-k-l equivalent to that of the corre-
¯
sponding Hebrew root. Otherwise, the verb sakalu means “to appropriate.”
39
BLOOD FEUD AND STATE CONTROL


Sin-aham-idinnam of the king[™s court] . . . x of the king, Adad-
mansum . . . -ibni, son of . . . annazi-Marduk, Belanum . . . son of Etel-
lum. These are their witnesses before the River [ordeal].


A number of Mari texts38 recount the investigation launched when a
corpse was found.

ARM VI 43
`
1
a-na be-l´-ia 2 [q]i-b´-ma 3 [um]-ma ba-ah-di-li-im 4 [IR]-ka-a ma
± ±
˜
5 6
ˇˇ
[1 DU]MU.GABA sa sa-ad-da-ag-di-im wa-al-du [i-na] me-eh-
˜
re-et za-ka-nim BAD 7 [ˇ a] e-le-nu p´-a-tim sa-p´-il-tim 8 [i-na a]-ah
ˇ±
s ±
˜
´ ´
ID na-di-ma lu TUR su-u 9 [i-na q]a-ab-li-ˇ u na-ki-`s-ma 10 [x x] x
ˇ´ s ±
ir-ti-ˇ u a-na qa-qa-di-ˇ u sa-ki-in 11 [u iˇ -tu] qa-qa-di-ˇ u a-di se-p´-
sˇ `s ˇ±
s s
12 13 14
ˇ ´ ´
su [x x x] lu-u zi-ka-ar [lu-u si]-in-ni-iˇ ma-an-nu-[um] [lu- s
u i-d]e iˇ -tu qa-ab-li-ti-ˇ [u] [a-di sa-a]p-li-iˇ u-ul i-ba-aˇ -ˇ i 16 [i-na
15
´ ˇ s´
s s ss
17
ˇ ´
u4 ]-mi-ˇ u-ma ki-ma te4 -ma-am sa-a-tu [eˇ -mu]-u dan-na-tim aˇ -ku-
s s s
.
´ ˇ UGULA ba-ba-tim DUMU.MES um-me-ni 19 [u ˇ
18
`
un-ma [LU.ME]S
´
20 lu
´` ´ ˇ
DU]MU.MES TE.A.AB(?) u-sa-an-ni-iq-ma [u-ul be]-el TUR sa-
21 22
´ ´ s `ˇ . ˇ ´
a-tu u-ul a-bu-ˇ u [u-ul um]-ma-ˇ u u sa te4 -ma-am sa-a-tu [i-du-u]
s
23 24 I
´ ` ˇ
u-ul i-le-em [u i-na] u4 -mi-ˇ u-ma te4 -ma-am sa-a-tu [ b]e-l´-lu-da-
s ±
25 26
´s ˇ
ri a-na se-er b[e-l´-i]a aˇ -pu-ra-am u iˇ -tu UD 7 KAM sa be-l´-
± s ±
.
27 28
´ ´ ´` `
lu-da-ri aˇ -pu-ra-am su-un-nu-qu-um-ma u-sa-an-ni-iq u a[n]-x
s
[...} x [...]
29

1“4
To my lord, say: thus says Bahdi-Lim, your servant. 5“8 [The body
˜
of] a child, who was born last year, was found lying on the river bank
opposite the zak¯ num which is above the opening of the lower dike.
a
This child is cut through his waist, and . . . his middle is placed on
8“15

his head. From his head to his feet . . . whether male or female, I do
not know, [because] from his middle on down there is nothing left
[of the child™s body]. 16“22 The same day on which I heard this news,
I gave strict orders and I interrogated the mayors of the quarters,
the artisans, and the . . . , but neither the child™s master nor his father
nor his mother nor anyone else who knows of this matter has come
forward. 23“28 The same day I sent this news via B¯ li-l¯ -d¯ ri to my
e ua
lord, and in the seven days since I sent B¯ li-l¯ -d¯ ri I have continued
e ua
to investigate . . .
ARM VI 37
`
1
[a-n]a be-l´-ia q´-b´-ma 2 [u]m-ma ba-ah-di-li-im IR-ka-a-ma 3 a-lum
± ±±
˜ˇ
ma-riki e-kal-lum u ha-al-sum sa-lim 4 a-na se-im za-ku-tum su-ru-bi-
´´ ` ˇ ˇ
.
˜
´
im a-hu-um u-ul na-di
˜
38 Another text from Mari, ARM V 35, indicates that a killer was put on parole, but what this
actually signi¬es is unclear.
40 HOMICIDE IN THE BIBLICAL WORLD

ˇ ˇ ˇ
5
[ˇ ]a-ni-tam ha-ab-du-ISTAR I ba-zi-ISTAR 6 u ia-an-zi-ib-d ISKUR
`
s
˜
´ ˇ´ k[i] 7 I

3 LU.MES KA-na-ah-lim [ˇ ]a i-nu-ma dan-nu-ta-ha-az a-na es-
s
˜u-nu-ti iˇ -tu ma-ha-ar a-tam-ri-im˜ 9 in-na-bi-tu-
k[i] 8
nun-na it-ba-lu-ˇ
s s
˜´ ´
nim u e-ri-iˇ -ˇ i-ˇ u-nu-ma il-li-ku-nim 10 tug na-ah-ra-mi 1 i-na E-GAL-
` ss s
˜±
[lim a]d-di-in-ˇ u-nu-ˇ i-im 11 [a-na s]e-er b[e-l]´-[i]a at-ta-a[r-da-ˇ u-
. .`
s s s
.
nu]-ti [ . . . . ]-ˇ u-nu-ti [ . . . ] x x x x
12 13
s

rev.
ˇ ˇ
1
[x x s]a-ha-ri-im 2 a-na ia-aq-q´-im-d ISKUR u zi-im-ri-d ISKUR
` `
±
˜ aˇ -ku-un u `s-hu-ru-ma 4 sa-la-am-ta-ˇ u u-ul i-mu-ru u
3
`± ˇ s´ `
dan-na-tim s
˜ sa-la!-am-ta-ˇ u i-na TUGha u-qa-ab-ru-
´ ´´
5
ki-a-am eˇ -me um-ma-a-mi ˇ
s s ˜
´d
6 ± 7
ˇ s´ ´
ma a-na ha-bu-ur i-zi-bu i-na-an-na sa-la-am-t[a-ˇ ]u u-ul u-ta
8˜ ki 9
´ ˇ ´ `
u qa-qa-su i-na qa-at-tu-na-a sa-ki-in qa-qa-su iq-qa-ab-bi-ir u
10 11
`s
i-na a-i-im a-lim iq-qa-ab-bi-ir u a-ˇ ar iq-qa-ab-bi-ru i-na ki-di-
im i-na li-ib-bi a-lim iq-qa-ab-bi-ir 12 u i-nu-ma nu-qa-ab-ba-ar-ˇ u
` s
13 14
i-na te-er-s´-im nu-qa-ab-ba-ru-ma a-sa-hi-im
`
.± an-ni-tam la an-
˜
ni-tam be-l´ li-iˇ -pu-ra-am
±s
15
u e-nu-ut-su sa i-na qa-at-tu-na-aki 16 [u] i-na sa-ga-ra-timki -ma sa
` ´ˇ ` ˇ
17 ki 18
be-l´
± [i]ˇ -pu-ra-am a-na li-ib-bi ter-qa
s [l]u-ˇ e-ri-ib
s
1“4
To my lord, say: Thus says Bahdi-lim, your servant. The city of
˜
Mari, the palace, and the district are well. There has been no negli-
gence with regard to bringing in the cleaned barley.
5“13
Another matter: Habdu-Ishtar, Bazi-Istar, and Ianzib-Addu, three
men of B¯ b-nahlim, ˜whom Dannutahaz has now brought to Esh-
a
nunna, have run away from the house˜of Atamrum and have arrived
˜
completely naked. I have given each one a n¯ ramu-garment39 from
a
the palace. I have sent them to my lord. . . .
1 “14
I have given strict orders to Iaqqim-Addu and Zimri-Addu to
search . . . , but they have searched and have not seen his body. I heard
thus: “They have rolled his body in a cloth and abandoned it in the
Habur river.” Now, I have not recovered his body, but his head is in
Qattunan. Should his head be buried, and in which village should it
be buried, and where should it be buried, whether inside or outside
the village, and whenever we bury it, should we bury it in the regular
way? I am concerned. Whether this way or that way, let my lord write
to me.
15 “18
The baggage that is in Qattunan and Sagar¯ tim about which
a
my lord wrote, let me bring it to Terqa.

39 Cf. CAD/N I, 346.
41
BLOOD FEUD AND STATE CONTROL


In a Neo-Babylonian case, TCL 12 117, the city assembly of Uruk in-
vestigated an attempted homicide on the royal commissioner of the Eanna
temple then turned the case over to the crown judges:
´ ´
´
1 lu
ba-ni-imeˇ sa i-na pa-ni-ˇ u-nu 2 I DU-d 15 A-ˇ u sa I LU-d na-na-
s
ˇ s´ s´ ˇ
´
a 3 GIR AN.BAR ul-tu MURUB4 -ˇ u a-na muh-hi 4 I AN-ri-man-ni

˜ ´˜
´ ´
lu
SAG LUGAL EN pi-qit-tum E-an-[na] 5 ina KA.GAL-i sa E-an-na
lu
ˇ

is-su-hu GIR AN.BAR ul-tu MURUB4 -ˇ u a-na muh-hi ´ UKKIN 7 lu

˜ u u ik-nu-ku ˜˜
iˇ -ku-ˇ ´
s s
1“7
The citizens before whom [was presented the case of] Ibni-Ishtar,
ˆ
son of Am¯ l-Nana, [who] removed an iron dagger from his belt
e
against Ilu-rˆmanni, a chief of¬cial of the king, an appointed of¬-
±
cer of Eanna, at the great gate of Eanna. The assembly bound and
sealed the iron dagger which he drew from his belt.
The actual judgment was at the jurisdiction of royal judges, while the
assembly was limited to the preliminary investigation. In a ¬fteenth-century
case from Alalakh, Wiseman Alalakh 17, the slayer™s property has been con-
¬scated by the palace:

ˇ
1 na 4
KISIB I niq-me-pa (seal of Idrimi) 2 I sa-tu-wa DUMU su-wa
ˇ
´
DUMU lu-ba DUMU.SAL-ˇ u sa ap-ra 4 a-na E.GI.A-ˇ u iˇ -al-ˇ u
uru 3 I
sˇ sss
5 uru ki 6 7I
`
u ki-ma pa-ra-as ha-la-ab ni-id-na i-za-ab-bil-ˇ u ap-ra a-na
s
˜
8
EN ma-ˇ i-ik-ti it-tu-ur
s
rev.
` ´s ´

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