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14 W. ¨ ¯
Rollig speculated that Gurata was perhaps identical with the city of Qarati (“Gurata,”
RLA 3.703).
15 Presumably the stolen goods are returned to the king of Ugarit.
16 Presumably the stolen goods are returned to the king of Carchemish.
187
THE HOMICIDE OF A FOREIGN CITIZEN

´
kur
u-ga-ri-it 6 id-da-a-ak 7 sum-ma sa i-du-ku-ˇ u 8 i-sa-ab-ba-tu4 9 LU
´ ˇ ˇ s .
10 meˇ 11
s 12
s´ ´ `´ ˇ s´
3-ˇ u u-ma-al-la u u-nu-te sa it-ti-ˇ u [i-]hal-li-qu 3-ˇ u-ma
s
˜
13 14
´ `ˇ ˇ s´ ´
u-ma-a[l]-la u sum-ma sa i-du-ku-ˇ u la-a im-ma-ru ZI 3-ˇ u u-
s
15 meˇ
s 16 17
´ ´´ ˇ ˇ
ma-al-lu-u u u-nu-te sa it-ti-ˇ u i-hal-li-qu ma-la sa i-hal-li-
s
˜20 u sum-ma LU kur u-ga-ri-it
´˜
´
18 19
qu SAG.DU-ˇ u-nu-ma u-ma-al-lu-u ` ˇ
´ ´
s
ˇ`
21
i-na SA kur kar-ga-miˇ 22 id-da-a-ak 23 mu-ul-la-a a-kan-na-ma ´
s
1“3
Ini-Teshub, king of Carchemish, made this treaty with the people
of Ugarit. 4“12 If a person of Carchemish is killed in Ugarit, and those
who killed him are arrested, they will pay a triple compensation per
individual, and [if] the goods which were with him [the deceased]
are missing, they will pay triple. 13“19 If those who killed him are not
seen, they [the people of Ugarit] will pay triple compensation per
person, and [if] the goods which were with him are missing, they will
pay simple compensation for whatever is missing. 20“23 If a person of
Ugarit is killed in Carchemish, the compensation is as follows . . .

RS 18.115
1I
i[-ni-d teˇ ub LUGAL KUR uru kar-ga-mis DUMU I sa-hu-ru-nu- ˇ
s
kar-ga-miˇ ] r[i-kil-ta i-na be-ri ˜sa KUR
uru 2
ˇ
wa LUGAL KUR s
uru uru 3
s` ˇ ´
kar-ga-miˇ u be-ri sa KUR u-ga-ri-it] a-kan[-na ir-ku-us
´ ˇ `
LU.MES
DAM.GAR ma-an-da-ti] 4 sa LUGAL
ˇ ˇ
ma-a sum-ma-me-e
ˇ`
ur u uru
kar-ga-miˇ i-du-ku-mi] 5 u `
kur [ u-ga-ri-it i-na SA-bi KUR s
´ ˇ
ˇ uru LU.MES 6
DUMU.MES KUR [kar-ga-miˇ s da-ku-ti-ˇ u-nu] is-sa-ba-
s ..
ˇ KUR uru u-ga-ri-it qa-du LU.MES sa ba-bi- ´ ˇˇ
±`
tum-m` u [DUMU.MES
su-nu] 7 il-la-ku-nim-ma [i-na KUR uru u-ga-ri-it li-it-mu-ma] 8 aˇ -ˇ um
ˇ ss
ˇ S.MES-ˇ u-[nu KUG.BABBAR.MES-ˇ u-nu LU.MES-ˇ u-nu gab-ba
ˇ ˇs ˇs ˇs
SE
ˇ ˇˇ ˇs ˇ
ki-i] 9 sa SES.MES-ˇ u[-nu i-qa-ab-bu-ni DUMU.MES KUR uru kar-
ˇ
ga-miˇ a-kan-na u-ˇ al-la-mu-ni] 10 u KUG.BABBAR.MES mu[-ul-la-
´ ´s `
s
ˇ ´ ˇ
a sa ZI.MES 3 ma-na sa 1-en LU 11 DUMU.MES KUR uru kar[-ga-
ˇ ˇ
miˇ u-ˇ al-la-mu-ni . . . ] u sum-ma ´
12 lu.meˇ s
s´s `ˇ [UZU ka-a-ma i-sa-ba-tu- .
ˇ
´
lu.meˇ s 13
` ±`
ni u da-ku-ti-ˇ u-nu] la i-sa-ba-tu[m-m` u DUMU.MES KUR
s .
´ ˇˇ
uru
kar-ga-miˇ qa-du LU.MES sa ba-bi- su-nu] 14 il-la-ku-nim-ma [i- ˇ
s
na KUR u-ga-ri-it i-na NAM.NE.RU li-it-mu] 15 ma-a sum-ma-mi
uru
ˇ
´ ˇ [d]a-[ku-ti-ˇ u-nu ni-di-mi] 16 u sa lu.meˇ DAM.GAR an-nu-ti `
´ s

LU.MES s
ˇ LU.MES gab-bu mim-mu su-nu i-hal-liq] 17 u
ˇ ˇ `
K[UG.BABBAR.MES
˜ LU] 18 u-
KUG.BABBAR.MES mu-ul-la-a sa ZI.[MES 3 ma-na sa 1-en ´
ˇ ˇ
ˇ ˇ ´
ˇ KUR kar-ga-[miˇ u KUG.BABBAR.MES ˇ
uru
ˇ s`
sal-la-mu-ni DUMU.MES
ˇ `
LU.MES] 19 sa lu.meˇ DAM.GAR la-a u-maˇ -ˇ a-ru[ . . . ] 20 u sum-ma
ˇ´s ´ `ˇ
ss
` sa ma-an-da-t[i sa LUGAL KUR uru kar-ga-miˇ i-
´
lu.meˇ s
DAM.GAR ˇ ˇ s
´
uru 21 lu.meˇ s
`
na KUR u-ga-ri-it] i-du-ku-ni u da-ku-ti-ˇ u-nu [i-sa-ba-
s .
ˇ KUR uru kar-ga-miˇ qa-du LU.MES s[a ´ ˇˇ
22
±`
tum-m` u] DUMU.MES s
ba-bi-ˇ u-nu il-la-ku-nim-ma] 23 i-na KUR uru u-ga-ri-it li-it-mu-ma
s
ˇˇ ˇs ˇs ˇ
[aˇ -ˇ um SES.MES-ˇ u-nu LU.MES-ˇ u-nu . . . ] 24 u DUMU.MES KUR `
ss
188 HOMICIDE IN THE BIBLICAL WORLD

ˇs ˇs
uru
u-ga-ri-it KUG.BABBAR.[MES-ˇ u-nu LU.MES-ˇ u-nu gab-ba mim-
ˇ
mu-ˇ u-nu] 25 a-kan-na u-ˇ al-la-mu-ni u [mul-la-a sa ZI.MES] 26 3
´ ´s ` ˇ
s
ˇˇ ´ ˇ
ma-na KUG.BABBAR.MES sa 1-en LU-lim [a-na DUMU.MES
ˇ
KURuru kar-ga-miˇ u-ˇ al-la-mu-ni] 27 u sum-ma DUMU.MES KUR
s´s `ˇ
s´ ˇ ˇ
uru 28
kar-ga-miˇ LU.MES [da-ku-ti-ˇ u-nu iˇ -tu DUMU.MES]
s s KUR
ˇ KUR uru u-ga-ri-it il-la-ku-
uru
´s ´
u-ga-ri-it la-a u-ˇ e-el-l[u-u DUMU.MES
´ ˇ sa ba-bi-ˇ u-nu i-na uru [nu-ba-an-na u sum-
29
nim-ma] qa-du LU.MES ˇ `ˇ
s
´
uru 30 lu.meˇ
s
´ ˇ
ma i-na gur-a- ta] li-it-mu-u ma-a sum-ma-mi da-[ku-ti-ˇ u-
s
` sa LUGAL KUR uru ka[r-ga-miˇ
´
31 lu.meˇ s
`ˇ DAM.GAR ˇ
nu ni-di-mi] u sa s
ˇ ˇ
32
´s
KUG.BABBAR.MES] LU.MES gab-bu mim-mu-u-ˇ u-nu i-[hal-liq
˜
ˇ ˇ
uru 33
` ˇ
u DUMU.MES KUR u-ga- ri-it] mu-ul-la-a sa ZI.MES 3 ma-[na
ˇˇ `

KUG.BABBAR.MES sa 1-en LU u-ˇ al-la- mu-ni] 34 u lu DAM.GAR
´s
a[-n]a? lu.meˇ s[i]-b[u-ti?] 35 . . . 36 x . . .
´ s
ˇ

1“3
Ini-Teshub, king of the land of Carchemish, son of Shahurunuwa,
king of the land of Carchemish, made a treaty between the land of
Carchemish and the land of Ugarit as follows: 3“11 If merchants in the
service of the king of Ugarit are killed in the land of Carchemish and
the citizens of land of Carchemish arrest the men who killed them,
the citizens of the land of Ugarit together with the men of their gate
will go and take an oath concerning their brothers, their silver, and
their sheep. They will ask for anything of their brother. The citizens
of the land of Carchemish will pay as follows: the full compensa-
tion per person, 3 minas of silver for one person. 12“19 If they are in
possession of the body of a man but do not arrest those who killed
them, the citizens of the land of Carchemish together with the men
of their gate will go to the land of Ugarit and will take an impre-
catory oath: “We do not know the men who killed them, and that
which belongs to those merchants, their silver, their sheep, anything
of theirs, is missing.” They shall pay the full silver per person, 3 minas
of silver per person. If the citizens of the land of Carchemish do
not release the silver and the sheep of the merchants . . . 20“26 If mer-
chants in the service of the king of Carchemish are killed in the land
of Ugarit and the men who killed them are arrested, the citizens of
the land of Carchemish together with the men of their gate will go
and take an oath in the land of Ugarit and . . . concerning their broth-
ers, their silver, their sheep . . . the citizens of Ugarit will repay in full
their silver, their sheep, and anything of theirs thus. They shall pay
the full compensation for persons, 3 minas of silver per person, to
the citizens of the land of Carchemish. 27“36 If the citizens of the land
of Carchemish do not take away the men who killed them from the
citizens of the land of Ugarit, the citizens of the land of Ugarit will go
and will take an imprecatory oath together with the men of their gate
either in Nubanna or in Gurata: “We do not know the men who killed
189
THE HOMICIDE OF A FOREIGN CITIZEN


them, and that which belongs to the merchants of the land of Car-
chemish, their silver and their sheep, whatever is theirs, is missing.”
The citizens of the land of Ugarit shall pay the full compensation
for persons, 3 minas of silver per person. The merchants . . . to the
witnesses . . .
Thus, the citizens in the country in which the homicide took place must take
the initiative to remedy the slaying. They ascertain whether a homicide in
fact took place, and if possible, they determine the identity of the killers
and apprehend them. In the event that the killers cannot be identi¬ed, they
commission a delegation of their own to appear in the victim™s country in
order to acknowledge their obligation formally and then discharge it. In
short, they do not wait for a claim to be made by the king in whose service
the merchant belonged. They are the ones who must play the active role, not
the victim™s king nor the victim™s family. They initiate the process of redressing
a homicide of a foreigner since the individuals who are responsible for the
victim, such as his superior or his family, who would otherwise assume
the initiative for remedying the killing, are not present in the place where
the unlawful death took place.
The nature of the group named as the citizens of the country is left vague.
Is it an assembly that has been already constituted, or is it specially com-
missioned by the ruler or administrator of the country? One of the treaties
between Ini-teshub and Ugarit provides more information on the composi-
tion of the delegation sent from one country to another, and it is from this
evidence that we can extrapolate the identity of the “citizens of the country.”
RS 18.115 speci¬es that the citizens of both countries act in conjunction with
´ ˇˇ
LU.MES sa ba-bi-ˇ u-nu, “the men of their gate” (lines 6, 22). The “men of
s
their gate” are elders who perform judicial functions.17 It is possible, then,
to assume with some degree of certainty that reference to the citizens of the
country re¬‚ects some sort of assembly. If they were commissioned by a ruler,
would they not have been designated, as the merchants were, as linked to
the king of their country?
Although in Ugarit there were three social classes, “servants of the king,”
“servants of the servants of the king,” and “the citizens of Ugarit,”18 besides

17 Although CAD B, 23b, translates “the people of Ugarit together with the aliens [Akk.

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. 41
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