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ˇ
´
LU.MES] living within their gates,” it seems more plausible to recognize the judicial func-
tion of these men because the gate was a place at which legal functions would take place. This
holds true for Mesopotamian material (cf. CAD B, 19b“20a) and for the Bible (cf. Ruth 4:1“12).
While for Ugarit there are few references to gates in general, there is one that clearly indicates
their role as a judicial forum. In Aqhat (KTU 1.17.6“8), Daniel sits by the gate and ensures
justice for the widow and orphan. Furthermore, one of the titles of the Ugaritic king was mlk
´
tgr, “king of the gate,” which may refer to the king in his role as dispenser of justice. Cf. Cyrus
¯H. Gordon, Ugaritic Textbook (AnOr 38; Rome: Ponti¬cal Biblical Institute, 1965), 505.
18 Michael Heltzer, The Rural Community in Ancient Ugarit (Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert,

1976), 5.
190 HOMICIDE IN THE BIBLICAL WORLD


slaves, references are made in these documents to the citizens of Ugarit or of
a particular local or rural community within the kingdom of Ugarit without
any social distinction. It is important to recognize that the citizens were
treated as a collective body in the legal arena.19
The delegation undertakes certain actions in the country to which it trav-
els. It must perform a formal legal act, the taking of an oath, for the claim
to be valid. If the killers are not identi¬ed, the citizens of the country in
which the homicide occurred must take an oath attesting to the fact that
they cannot determine the identity of the killers. If the killers are arrested,
the citizens of the victim™s country, who are claiming the property, must take
an oath.20 The delegation also acts as the of¬cial body that disburses or
accepts compensation.
The records of legal cases re¬‚ect concern with certain aspects of legal
procedure assumed by the treaties. Collective responsibility is assumed by
the place in which the victim was killed. Delegations are dispatched from
one country to another to ¬le a suit. In RS 17.234, the citizens of Shatega
lay a claim on the citizens of Ugarit because a number of citizens of Shatega
were killed in Ugarit.

RS 17.234
ˇ ˇ
[ . . . KUG.BABBAR].MES mu-ul-la-a 13 [a-na DUMU.MES uru sa-
12
ˇ
ˇ
14
´ ˇ
t]e-ga id-da-an-nu [ur-ra se-ra i-na EGIR U]D-mi DUMU.MES
ˇˇ
uru
sa-te-ga 15 [aˇ -ˇ um ZI.MES s]a i-na kur u-ga-ri-it 16 [di-i-ku a-na
ˇ ´
ss
ˇ kur u-ga-ri-it 17 [la-a i-ra-gu-mu u] DUMU.MESˇ
muh-h]i DUMU.MES ´ `
kur ˜ ˜ ˇ
u-ga-ri-it 18 [a-na muh-hi DUMU.MES uru s]a-te-ga aˇ -ˇ um mu-ul-
´ ˇ ss
˜ ˜ i-ra-gu-mu 20 [ˇ a i-ra-gu-um tup-pu] an-
19
´
li-i [ˇ a id-da-an-nu la-a]
s s .
´
nu-u i-le-™e-e-ˇ u
s
12“13
the silver as full compensation shall be given to the citizens of
Shatega. 14“19 In the future, the citizens of Shatega shall not sue the
citizens of Ugarit on account the people who were killed in Ugarit,
and the citizens of Ugarit shall not sue the citizens of Shatega on
account of the compensation which was given. 20 Whoever sues, this
tablet will prevail against him.

In RS 17.299, Qadidu brings a case against the citizens of the town in
which his brother was killed:

19 Heltzer, The Rural Community in Ancient Ugarit, 18“47. They were also considered as
collective bodies for conscription, corv´ e, and taxes by the royal authorities. Heltzer believes
e
that this evidence re¬‚ects the persistence of rural structures of authority in both Ugarit and
Carchemish.
20 If we extrapolate from the details about the oath taken when the killers are not arrested, the

oath taken when the killers are arrested probably consists of swearing to their identi¬cation as
the killers.
191
THE HOMICIDE OF A FOREIGN CITIZEN


obv.
ˇ
1
[a]-na pa-ni I ba-ba 2 [I ]qa-di-du it-ti DUMU.MES uru hal-p´-
´ ±
˜ [i]q-
3 4 I
` ´ ´
DAGAL-ˇ i [a]-na di-ni iˇ -ni-qu [u] qa-di-du [a-k]an-na
s s
ˇˇ hal-p´-DAGAL-ˇ i] d`-ik-mi [ . . . ] 7 u
5 uru 6
`
[bi] ma-a SES-ia [i-na ± s ±
˜s
ˇ uru hal-p´-DAGAL-ˇ i] 8 [ma-a] I qa-[di-du . . .
´
DUMU[.MES ±
˜
rev.
ˇ
[ . . . ] x x [ . . . ] 2 [I ]x-tah-mu [DUB.SAR]
1
˜
1“3
Before Baba, Qadidu and the citizens of Halpi-rapshi engaged
˜
in legal proceedings. 4“6 Qadidu said as follows, “My brother was
killed in Halpi-rapshi.” 7“8 The citizens of Halpi-rapshi [said:] “Qa-
didu . . .”˜ . . . . rev. 2 X-tahmu, the scribe . . . ˜
˜
Although RS 17.369B + 17.69 are in fragments, the sense that one town
is suing another because the inhabitants of the ¬rst were killed in the second
is clear:
RS 17.369B
rev.
1d
[ ]h´ -bat uru a-ri 2 [ˇ ]a-m´ .e 3 [d UTU]-ˇ i LUGAL GAL LUGAL kur ha-
e s e s
˜4 [ . . . ] lu.meˇ DAM.GAR kur [ . . . ] 5 [ . . . ] LU[ . . . ] . . . ˜
` ´
´ s
at-ti
RS 17.69
rev.
ˇ
. . . 6 [DU]MU.MES m[u . . . ] 7 [uru i-r]i-ma-aˇ DUMU[ . . . ] 8 [ . . . -
s
ˇ na[ . . . ] 9 [i-na uru ap-s]u-na i-du-ku-mi 10 [x]-ma
` ´
na] u DUMU.MES
ˇ uru ap-su-[na] 11 [ . . . ]-din a-na SU I pur-ˇ [i . . . ] 12 [ . . . ]a
ˇ
´
DUMU.MES s
ˇ I tu-ta-[ . . . ] 14 [ . . . ] SU f ia-ar-
ˇ
[ . . . S]U
d 13
ˇ
sa UTU-ˇ i LUGA[L GAL
s
[ . . . ] 15 [ . . . uru i-]ri-ma-aˇ [ . . . ]
s
obv.
´s ´
[ . . . ] x x LU iˇ -tu LU-l[um . . . ] 2 [ . . . ] mim-mu ga-mi-ir a-di
1
ˇ
da-[ri-ti] 3 [iˇ -t]u UGU DUMU.MES uru ap-su-na[ . . . ] 4 [ . . .p]a-ni
´
s
´
a-ri[ . . . ] gam-]ri-ˇ u-nu sum-ma-mi LU[ . . . ] 6 [ . . .m]i
d uru 5
ˇ
h´ -bat
e s
ˇ˜ ˇ ˇ
SES.MES[ . . . ]
Hebat of Ari . . . of the heavens. The Sun, the great
RS 17.369B rev. 1“5
˜
king, king of Hatti . . . merchants . . .
˜
citizens of Mu . . . of Irimash, son of . . . and the sons of
RS 17.69 rev. 6 “9

Na . . . killed in Apsuna . . . the citizens of Apsuna . . .

in the hand of Pur . . . of the Sun, the great king . . . hand of
10 -obv. 2

Tuta . . . hand of Iar . . . the city of Irimash . . . one from the other . . . all
is ¬nished. 3“6 In the future from the citizens of Apsuna . . . before
Hebat of Ari . . . completely. If one . . . the brothers . . .
˜
192 HOMICIDE IN THE BIBLICAL WORLD


In RS 17.158 and 17.42, the citizens of Ugarit are sued by Arshimiga,
the representative of the king of Tarhudashshi, for the death of a merchant
in the service of the king of Tarhudashshi and the concomitant loss of his
goods:
RS 17.158
1
[a-na pa-n]i I i-ni-d teˇ ub LUGAL kur kar-ga-miˇ 2 [I ar-ˇ i-]mi-ga
s s s
`´ˇ ˇ
´
lu kur 3
DAM.GAR IR sa LUGAL tar-hu-da-aˇ -ˇ i [it-ti] DUMU.MES
ss

kur 4 5
´ ´
u-ga-ri-it a-na di-ni [iˇ -ni-q]u ar-ˇ i-mi-ga a-kan-na iq-bi [ma-a
s s
` sa LUGAL kur tar-hu-da-aˇ -si 6 [DUMU.MES kur ]u-ga- ˇ
´
lu
]DAM.GAR ˇ ´
s
˜ ˇ su mi-im-ma
7 I
´ ` ´
ri-it i-du-ku-u-mi [u ]ar-ˇ i-mi-ga u-nu-te-MES-ˇ
s
` sa i-na kur u-ga-ri-it 9 d`-i-ku u-ul u-ˇ e-li u LUGAL
´
8 lu
[ˇ a ]DAM.GAR ˇ ´ ´ ´s `
s ±

´
10 I 11 lu
´
DI-ˇ u-nu a-kan-na ip-ru-us ma-a ar-ˇ a-mi-ga
s s DAM.GAR sa
ˇ
LUGAL kur tar-hu-da-aˇ -si 12 li-it-mi-ma u DUMU.MES kur u-ga-ri-it
` ´
s
˜ lu DAM.GAR sa-a-ˇ u 14 sa i-na kur u-ga-ri-it d`-i-ku

´
13
ˇ ˇ ´
mu-ul-la-a sa s ±
ˇ kur u-
15 I 16
li-ˇ al-li-mu i-na-an-na ar-ˇ a-mi-ga it-ta-ma u DUMU.MES ´ `
s s
´ KUG.BABBAR mu-ul-la-a 18 a-na I ar-ˇ a-
17
ga-ri-it 1 me-at 80 GIN s
´ sa LUGAL kur tar-hu-da-aˇ -ˇ i 19 u-ˇ al-li-mu i-na EGIR-ki
mi-ga IR ˇ ´s
ss
˜ h-hi DUMU.MES kur u-ga-ri-it aˇ -ˇ um
ˇ
I 20
´
UD-mi ar-ˇ a-mi-ga a-na mu
s ss
˜˜
` 21 sa d`-i-ku la-a i-ra-gu-um 22 u DUMU.MES kur u-ga-ri- ˇ
´
lu
DAM.GAR ˇ ± ` ´
´ 23
it aˇ -ˇ um 1 ME 80 GIN KUG.BABBAR mu-ul-li-ˇ u-nu a-na muh-hi
ss s
˜˜
I 24 25
ˇ
ar-ˇ a-mi-ga la-a i-ra-gu-um sa i-ra-gu-um [t]up-pu an-nu-u i-le-
s .
™e-e-ˇ us
1“4
Before Ini-Teshub, king of Carchemish, Arshimiga, a merchant
[and] a servant of the king of Tarhudashshi, and the citizens of Ugarit
met in trial. 4“9 Arshimiga said as follows: “The citizens of Ugarit

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. 42
( 55 .)



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