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TRANSLATION: Jerrold S. Cooper, Sumerian and Akkadian Royal
Inscriptions: Pre-Sargonic Inscriptions (AOS Translation Series I; Winona
Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1986), 73.
DATE: circa 2350 b.c.e.1

2. NSG 41
PUBLICATION: ITT 2789 = Henri de Genouillac, Inventaire des
Tablettes de Tello, volume II/1 (Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1910), number 2789.

General note: Text 8 in O. R. Gurney, “Texts from Dur-Kurigalzu,” Iraq 11 (1949), 138,
apparently describes a slaying, but the text is too fragmentary for any conclusions to be drawn
from it. ARM XIII 109 (G. Dossin et al., Textes divers [ARM XIII; Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1964],
116) might describe a parricide, but the text is dif¬cult.
1 Cf. Am´ lie Kuhrt, The Ancient Near East, c. 3000“330 B.C. (London: Routledge, 1995), 27.
e


207
208 APPENDIX


TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: NSG 41 = Adam Falken-
stein, Die neusumerischen Gerichtsurkunden (Bayerische Akademie der
Wissenschaften, philosophisch-historisch Klasse 40; Munich: Bayerische
Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1956), 2.67“69; Bernard J. Siegel, “Slavery
During the Third Dynasty of Ur,” American Anthropologist 40, issue 1,
part 2 (1947), 24“25.
DATE: Neo-Sumerian period (twenty-¬rst century b.c.e.)

3. NSG 202
PUBLICATION: TEO 6168 = Henri de Genouillac, Textes economiques
´
d™Oumma de l™´ poque d™Our (TCL 5; Paris: Librairie Orientaliste/Paul
e
Geuthner, 1922), number 6168.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: NSG 202 = Falkenstein,
Die neusumerischen Gerichtsurkunden, number 202, 2.331“333.
DATE: Neo-Sumerian period (twenty-¬rst century b.c.e.)
NSG 202 is a Sammeltafel from Umma, recording a number of cases, one of
which involves homicide.

4. NSG 121
PUBLICATION: TEO 6165 = de Genouillac, Textes economiques
´
d™Oumma de l™´ poque d™Our, number 6165.
e
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: NSG 121 = Falkenstein,
Die neusumerischen Gerichtsurkunden, number 121, 2.206“208.
DATE: Neo-Sumerian period (twenty-¬rst century b.c.e.)

5. The Nippur Murder Trial
PUBLICATION: 2 N-T.54; duplicates: PBS VIII 173, 3N-T.340 + 3N-
T.403 + 3N-T.273, 3N-T.426 = Edward Chiera, Legal and Adminis-
trative Documents from Nippur (Publications from the Babylonian Sec-
tion VIII; Philadelphia: University Museum, 1914), number 173.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Thorkild Jacobsen, “An
Ancient Mesopotamian Trial for Homicide,” in Toward the Image of
Tammuz and Other Essays on Mesopotamian History and Culture (ed.
William L. Moran; HSS 21; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Uni-
versity Press, 1970; originally published in Analecta Biblica 12 [1959]),
198“201.
TRANSLATION: Samuel Noah Kramer, From the Tablets of Sumer (3d
edition; Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981 [1st edition,
1956]), 57“58; Martha T. Roth, “Gender and Law: A Case Study from
Ancient Mesopotamia,” in Gender and Law in the Hebrew Bible and the
Ancient Near East (ed. Victor H. Matthews, Bernard M. Levinson, and
Tikva Frymer-Kensky; JSOTSup 262; Shef¬eld: Shef¬eld Academic Press,
1998), 173“184.
209
CUNEIFORM SOURCES ON HOMICIDE


DATE:2 reign of Ur-Ninurta of Isin (1923“1896 b.c.e.)
The so-called Nippur Murder Trial is recorded in Sumerian on a number of
tablets. The homicide itself took place in the very late 1900s b.c.e. Two
copies date from the reign of Rim-Sin of Larsa (1822“1763 b.c.e.). Four
copies date from the reign of Samsiliuna and later (no earlier than 1749
b.c.e.). On these later copies, a number of trials are recorded.

6. CT 29 42
PUBLICATION: BM 78184 = Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets
in the British Museum 29 (London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1971
[1910]), plates 42, 43, 41.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: P. Dhorme, “M´ langes,” e
RA 8 (1914), 102“105; Arthur Ungnad, Babylonische Briefe aus der Zeit
der Hammurapi-Dynastie (Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1914), 180“184.
˜
DATE: Old Babylonian period, reign of Samsiliuna (1749“1712 b.c.e.)

7. Riftin 46
PUBLICATION, TRANSLITERATION, AND TRANSLATION: A. P.
Riftin, “Iz vavilonskogo prava,” in Sergeju Fedoroviˇ u Oldenburgu k
c

pjatidesjatiletiju nauˇ no-obˇ cestvennoj dejatelnosti 1882“1932 [To Sergei
c
Fedorovich Oldenburg on the Fiftieth Anniversary of his Scholarly En-
deavors 1882“1932] (Leningrad: Izdatelstvo Akademii Nauk, 1934),
437“442.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: A. P. Riftin, Staro-Vavi-
lonskie iuridicheskie i administrativnye dokumenty y sobraniiakh SSSR
[Old Babylonian Judicial and Administrative Documents] (Moscow:
Izdatelstvo Akademii Nauk, 1937), 91“94; B. Landsberger, “Gerichtspro-
¨
tokoll uber einen Mordprozess,” ZA 43 (1936): 315“316; John David
Fortner, “Adjudicating Entities and Levels of Judicial Authority in Law-
suit Records of the Old Babylonian Period” (Ph.D. dissertation, Hebrew
Union College, 1996), 749“751.
DATE: 1792 b.c.e. (year 30 of Rim-Sin, 1822“1763)

8. CCT 4 30a
PUBLICATION: Sidney Smith, Cuneiform Texts from Cappadocian
Tablets in the British Museum IV (London: British Museum, 1927), num-
ber 30a.

2 The tablets themselves date to the late nineteenth century b.c.e. based on the stratigraphy of
the site and the particular layer in which 2N-T.54 was excavated. The writing on PBS VIII
173 indicates that it is of approximately the same age as 2N-T.54. The duplicates appear to
be at least from the reign of Samsiliuna (1749“1712 b.c.e.) or later. See Jacobsen, “An Ancient
Mesopotamian Trial for Homicide,” 196.
210 APPENDIX


TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Louis Lawrence Orlin,
Assyrian Colonies in Cappadocia (The Hague: Mouton, 1970), 123“125.
DATE: Old Assyrian period

9. ARM III 18
PUBLICATION: ARM III 18 = J. R. Kupper, Lettres (TCL 24; ARM III;
Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1948), plate 20, number 18.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: J. R. Kupper, Correspon-
dance de Kibri-Dagan (ARMT III; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1950),
34“37.
DATE: Old Babylonian period

10. ARM VIII 1
PUBLICATION: ARM VIII 1 = Georges Boyer, Textes juridiques et ad-
ministratifs (TCL 29; ARM VIII; Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1957), number 1.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Georges Boyer, Textes ju-
ridiques (ARMT VIII; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1958), 2“7.
TRANSLATION: J. J. Finkelstein, in ANET 3 , 545.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Boyer, Textes juridiques, 167“168, 178“182; Reuven
Yaron, “Varia on Adoption,” Journal of Juristic Papyrology 15 (1965):
171“183, esp. 173“175.
DATE: Old Babylonian period

11. ARM XIII 145
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: G. Dossin, J. Bott´ ro, M. e
Birot, et al., Textes divers (ARM XIII; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1964),
151“152, number 145.
DATE: Old Babylonian period

12. ARM VI 43
PUBLICATION: ARM VI 43 = J. R. Kupper, Lettres (TCL 27; ARM VI;
Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1953), 43.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: J. R. Kupper, Correspon-
dance de Bahdi-Lim (ARMT VI; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1954), 66“
˜
69.
TRANSLATION: A. Leo Oppenheim, Letters from Mesopotamia
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967), 103“104.
DATE: Old Babylonian period

13. ARM VI 37
PUBLICATION: ARM VI 37 = Kupper, Lettres (TCL 27; ARM VI; Paris:
Paul Geuthner, 1953), 37.
211
CUNEIFORM SOURCES ON HOMICIDE


TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Kupper, Correspondance
de Bahdi-Lim (ARMT VI; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1954), 58“61.
˜
DATE: Old Babylonian period

14. ARM II 123
PUBLICATION: ARM II 123 = Charles-F. Jean, Lettres (TCL 23; ARM
II; Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1941), 123.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: J. R. Kupper, Correspon-
dance de Bahdi-Lim (ARMT II; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1950), 204“
˜
207.
DATE: Old Babylonian period

15. ARM V 35
PUBLICATION: G. Dossin, Lettres (ARM V; Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1951),
number 35.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: G. Dossin, Correspon-
dance de Iasmah-addu (ARMT V; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1952),
˜
56“59.
DATE: Old Babylonian period

16. Wiseman Alalakh 17
PUBLICATION, TRANSCRIPTION, AND TRANSLATION: D. J.
Wiseman, The Alalakh Tablets (London: British Institute of Archaeology
at Ankara, 1953), number 17.
DATE: mid“¬fteenth century b.c.e.

17. BBSt 9
PUBLICATION: BBSt 9 = L. W. King, Babylonian Boundary-Stones
and Memorial Tablets in the British Museum (London: British Museum,
1912), plate 79.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: King, Babylonian
Boundary-Stones, 51“69.
DATE: The kudurru was inscribed during the reign of Nabu-mukin-apli
(978“943 b.c.e.). The homicide recounted in the kudurru occurred in the
second year of Ninurta-kudurri-usur (986/985 b.c.e.).
.
18. TCL 12 117
PUBLICATION: TCL 12 117 = G. Contenau, Contrats n´ o-babyloniens
e
I (TCL 12; Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1927), plate LVI.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Ellen Whitney Moore,
Neo-Babylonian Business and Administrative Documents (Ann Arbor:
University of Michigan Press, 1935), 112“113.
DATE: Neo-Babylonian period
212 APPENDIX


19. ABL 753
PUBLICATION: ABL 753 = Robert Francis Harper, Assyrian and Baby-
lonian Letters Belonging to the Kouyunyik Collections of the British
Museum (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1902), 7.808.
TEXT, TRANSLITERATION, AND TRANSLATION: T. G. Pinches, An
Outline of Assyrian Grammar (London: H. J. Glaisher, 1910), 44.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Manfried Dietrich, Die
¨ ¨
Aramaer Sudbabyloniens in der Sargonidenzeit (AOAT 7; Kevelaer:
Butzon & Bercker, 1970), 184“185.
DATE: Neo-Assyrian period
20. ADD 618
PUBLICATION: ADD 618 = C. H. W. Johns, Assyrian Deeds and
Documents: Volume 1 (2d edition; Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, and Co.,
1924), number 618, pp. 470“471.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: J. Kohler and A. Ungnad,
Assyrische Rechtsurkunden (Leipzig: Eduard Pfeiffer, 1913), num-
ber 660, pp. 388“389; Martha T. Roth, “Homicide in the Neo-Assyrian
Period,” in Language, Literature, and History: Philological and His-
torical Studies Presented to Erica Reiner (ed. by Francesca Rochberg-
Halton; AOS 67; New Haven, Connecticut: American Oriental Society,
1987), 352“354; Theodore Kwasman, Neo-Assyrian Legal Documents
in the Kouyunjik Collection of the British Museum (Studia Pohl, Se-
ries Maior 14; Rome: Ponti¬cio Istituto Biblico, 1988), number 334,
pp. 386“387; Remko Jas, Neo-Assyrian Judicial Procedures (SAA 5;
Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 1996), number 41,
pp. 63“65.
TRANSLITERATION: J. N. Postgate, Fifty Neo-Assyrian Legal Docu-
ments (Warminster, England: Aris & Phillips, 1976), number 50, pp. 170“
171.
TRANSLATION: Theophile J. Meek, “Mesopotamian Legal Docu-
ments,” in Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament,
221.
DATE: eighth month, third day, 657 b.c.e.
21. ADD 321
PUBLICATION: ADD 321 = Johns, Assyrian Deeds and Documents:
Volume 1, number 321, pp. 238“239.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Kohler and Ungnad, As-
syrische Rechtsurkunden, number 659, p. 388; Roth, “Homicide in the
Neo-Assyrian Period,” 357; Kwasman, Neo-Assyrian Legal Documents,
number 341, p. 393; Jas, Neo-Assyrian Judicial Procedures, 65“66.
213
CUNEIFORM SOURCES ON HOMICIDE


COLLATION: Simo Parpola, “Collations to Neo-Assyrian Legal Texts
from Nineveh,” Assur 2/5 (1979), 49.
DATE: reign of Assurbanipal (668“627 b.c.e.)

22. ADD 164

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