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PUBLICATION: ADD 164 = Johns, Assyrian Deeds and Documents:
Volume 1, number 164, pp. 97“98.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Kohler and Ungnad, As-
syrische Rechtsurkunden, number 658, p. 387; Kwasman, Neo-Assyrian
Legal Documents, number 108, pp. 128“129; Theodore Kwasman
and Simo Parpola, Legal Transactions of the Royal Court of Nin-
eveh, Part 1 (SAA 6; Helsinki: Helsinki University Press, 1991), num-
ber 264, p. 212; Jas, Neo-Assyrian Judicial Procedures, number 1,
pp. 8“11.
TRANSLITERATION: Postgate, Fifty Neo-Assyrian Legal Documents,
number 44, pp. 159“160.
DATE: eleventh3 month, twenty-seventh day, 680 b.c.e.

23. ADD 806
PUBLICATION: ADD 806 = Johns, Assyrian Deeds and Documents:
Volume 2, number 806, pp. 59“60.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: F. M. Fales and J. N. Post-
gate, Imperial Administrative Records, Part II (SAA 11; Helsinki: Helsinki
University Press, 1995), number 222, pp. 149“150; Roth, “Homicide in
the Neo-Assyrian Period,” 357 (for ll. 1 “3 ).
DATE: after the reign of Shalmaneser V (after 722 b.c.e.)4

24. Postgate Palace Archive 95
PUBLICATION, TRANSLITERATION, AND TRANSLATION: ND
219 = BM 131990 (British Museum) = J. N. Postgate, The Governor™s
Palace Archive (CTN II; London: British School of Archaeology in Iraq,
1973), pp. 123“124 and plate 44.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Roth, “Homicide in the
Neo-Assyrian Period,” 358“359; Jas, Neo-Assyrian Judicial Procedures,
number 43, pp. 66“67.
DATE: tenth month, twenty-seventh day, 740 b.c.e.


3 Kwasman reads it as twelfth month, Neo-Assyrian Legal Documents, 128.
4 Thistablet must date from after the reign of Shalmaneser V because he is the later of the two
kings mentioned in this tablet (the other king is Tiglath-Pileser III).
214 APPENDIX


25. CTH 172
PUBLICATION: Emmanuel Laroche, Catalogue des textes hittites (Etudes
et commentaires 75; Paris: Klincksieck, 1971), number 172 = KBo 1.10 +
KUB 4, p. 96b.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Horst Klengel, “Mord
¨
und Bussleistung im Spatbronzezeitlichen Syrien,” in Death in
Mesopotamia (ed. Bendt Alster; Mesopotamia, Copenhagen Studies in
Assyriology 8; Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, 1980), 190; Albertine
Hagenbuchner, Die Korrespondenz der Hethiter (Texte der Hethiter 16;
Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1989), 2.285, 291“292.
TRANSLATION: A. L. Oppenheim, Letters from Mesopotamia (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1967), 144; Gary Beckman, Hittite Diplo-
matic Texts (ed. Harry A. Hoffner, Jr.; SBL Writings from the Ancient
World 7; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1996), 136.
DATE: circa 1260 b.c.e.

26. El-Amarna 8
PUBLICATION: VAT 152 152 = H. Winckler and L. Abel, Der Thontafel-
fund von El Amarna (Mitteilungen aus den Orientalischen Sammlungen,
¨
Konigliche Museen zu Berlin 1“3; Berlin: W. Spemann, 1889“
¨
1890), number 8; O. Schroeder, Vorderasiatische Schriftdenkmaler der
¨
Koniglichen Museen zu Berlin: Heft 11 (Berlin: J. C. Hinrichs, 1915),
number 5.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: J. A. Knudtzon, Die El-
Amarna-Tafeln I (Aalen: Otto Zeller, 1964 [1915]), 84“89.
TRANSLATION: William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters (Baltimore:
The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992), 16“17.
DATE: 1349“1334 b.c.e. (the overlap between the reigns of Amenophis
IV/Akhenaten and Burnaburiyash II)5

27. RS 17.146
PUBLICATION: DO 4607 = Jean Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal d™Ugarit
IV/II: Textes Accadiens des Archives Sud (Archives Internationales) (MRS
9/II; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1956), plate XX.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Jean Nougayrol, Le Palais
Royal d™Ugarit IV/I: Textes Accadiens des Archives Sud (Archives
Internationales) (MRS 9/I; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1956), 154“
157.
DATE: mid“thirteenth century b.c.e.

5 For dates of the kings, see Moran, The Amarna Letters, xxxix.
215
CUNEIFORM SOURCES ON HOMICIDE


28. RS 17.230
PUBLICATION: DO 4623 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal d™Ugarit IV/II,
plate XXVIII; Ugaritica 3 (1956), p. 23, ¬gure 29.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais
Royal d™Ugarit IV/I, 153“154.
DATE: mid“thirteenth century b.c.e.

29. RS 18.115
PUBLICATION: DO 4833 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal d™Ugarit IV/II,
plate LXXXIII.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais
Royal d™Ugarit IV/I, 158“160.
DATE: mid“thirteenth century b.c.e.

30. RS 17.234
PUBLICATION: DO 4626 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal d™Ugarit IV/II,
plate XXIX.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais
Royal d™Ugarit IV/I, 173“174.
DATE: mid“thirteenth century b.c.e.

31. RS 17.299
PUBLICATION: DO 4653 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal d™Ugarit IV/II,
plate XXXVI.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais
Royal d™Ugarit IV/I, 182.
DATE: mid“thirteenth century b.c.e.

32. RS 17.369B + RS 17.69
PUBLICATION: DO 4709 + 4551 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal
d™Ugarit IV/II, plate LXI.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais
Royal d™Ugarit IV/I, 239“240.
DATE: mid“thirteenth century b.c.e.

33. RS 17.229
PUBLICATION: DO 4622 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal d™Ugarit IV/II,
plate XXVII; Ugaritica 3 (1956), p. 16, ¬gure 21.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais
Royal d™Ugarit IV/I, 106.
DATE: mid“thirteenth century b.c.e.
216 APPENDIX


34. RS 17.158
PUBLICATION: DO 4618 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal d™Ugarit IV/II,
plate IV.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais
Royal d™Ugarit IV/I, pp. 169“171; ANET 3 , 547.
DATE: mid“thirteenth century b.c.e.6

35. RS 17.42
PUBLICATION: DO 4538 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal d™Ugarit IV/II,
plate IV; Ugaritica 5 (1968), pp. 658“660, ¬gure 25“25A.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais
Royal d™Ugarit IV/I, 171“172.
DATE: mid“thirteenth century b.c.e.

36. RS 17.145
PUBLICATION: DO 4606 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal d™Ugarit IV/II,
plate XIX.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais
Royal d™Ugarit IV/I, 172“173.
DATE: mid“thirteenth century b.c.e.

37. RS 20.22
PUBLICATION: Jean Nougayrol, Ugaritica 5 (MRS XVI; Paris: Im-
primerie Nationale, 1968), 713ff, plates 36 and 36A.
TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Ugaritica 5,
94“97.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: P. R. Berger, “Zu den ˜akkadischen™ Briefen,” Ugarit-
Forschungen 2 (1970), 286“287.
DATE: mid“thirteenth century b.c.e.

38. RS 17.251
PUBLICATION: DO 4641 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal d™Ugarit IV/II,
plate XXXIII; Ugaritica 3 (1956), p. 41, ¬gure 55.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais
Royal d™Ugarit IV/I, 236“237.
DATE: mid“thirteenth century b.c.e.

39. RS 17.337
PUBLICATION: DO 4678 = Nougayrol, Le Palais Royal d™Ugarit IV/II,
plate XLVI.

6 H. Klengel, “Ini-Teˇ ub,” RLA 4.104“105. Ini-Teshub™s Hittite contemporary is Tudhaliya IV.
s
217
CUNEIFORM SOURCES ON HOMICIDE


TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Nougayrol, Le Palais
Royal d™Ugarit IV/I, 168“169.
DATE: mid“thirteenth century b.c.e.
40. Laws of Ur-Nammu (LU)7
PUBLICATION, TRANSLITERATION, AND TRANSLATION: Si.
277 = Fatma Yildiz, “A Tablet of Codex Ur-Nammu from Sippar,” Or
(1981): 87“97.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Martha T. Roth, Law
Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor (SBL Writings from the
Ancient World Series; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1995), 13“22.
TRANSLATION: J. J. Finkelstein in ANET 3 , 523“525; Willem H. Ph.
¨ ¨
Romer, “Aus den Gesetzen des Konigs Urnammu von Ur,” in Rechts- und
Worschaftsurkunden Historisch-chronologische Texte (TUAT, Band 1/1;
¨ ¨
Gutersloh: Gutersloher Verlagshaus Gerd Mohn, 1982), 17“23.
DATE: Ur-Nammu™s reign, 2112“circa 2095 b.c.e. (Shulgi™s reign, 2094“
2047 b.c.e.)

41. Laws of Lipit-Ishtar (LL)8
PUBLICATION, TRANSLITERATION, AND TRANSLATION: Miguel
Civil, “New Sumerian Law Fragments,” in Studies in Honor of Benno
Landsberger (Assyriological Studies 16; Chicago: University of Chicago,
1965), 1“12.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Roth, Law Collections
from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, 23“35.
TRANSLATION: S. N. Kramer in ANET3 , 159“160; Heiner Lutzmann,
¨
“Aus den Gesetzen des Konigs Lipit Eschtar von Isin,” in Rechts- und
Worschaftsurkunden Historisch-chronologische Texte, 23“31.
DATE: Lipit-Ishtar™s reign, 1934“1924 b.c.e.

7 The putative authorship of Ur-Nammu as the lawgiver of this code has been debated because
its ¬rst-person prologue is unique among the cuneiform law codes and some of the events of its
historical narrative cannot be dated to Ur-Nammu™s reign. Cf. S. N. Kramer, “The Ur-Nammu
Law Code: Who Was Its Author?” Or 52 (1983), 453“456. However, some of the events must be
ˇ
dated to his reign, and not his successor and son, Sulgi. Piotr Michalowski and C. B. F. Walker, “A
˚ ¨
New Sumerian ˜Law Code,™” in DUMU-E2 -DUB-BA-A: Studies in Honor of Ake Sjoberg (ed.
Hermann Behrens, Darlene Loding, and Martha T. Roth; Occasional Publications of the Samuel
Noah Kramer Fund 11; Philadelphia: The University Museum, 1989), 385, points out that it
ˇ
is unlikely that a war with the independent city of Anˇ an took place during the reign of Sulgi
s
because it would be dif¬cult to believe that Ur-Nammu would have allowed this city to remain
independent during his reign. In the same way, one of the kings mentioned, Namahani, was the
˜
last independent ruler of Lagash. It was unlikely that he remained independent throughout the
reign of Ur-Nammu.
8 There is a possibility that the fragment on which these statutes are found does not actually

belong to the Laws of Lipit-Ishtar.
218 APPENDIX


42. Sumerian Laws Exercise Tablet (SLEx)
PUBLICATION, TRANSLITERATION, AND TRANSLATION: YBC
2177 = A. T. Clay, “A Sumerian Prototype of the Hammurabi Code,”
Orientalische Literaturzeitung 17 (1914), 1“3; Clay, “Sumerian Prototype
of the Hammurabi Code,” in Miscellaneous Inscriptions in the Babylo-
nian Collection (Yale Oriental Series, Babylonian Texts 1; New Haven,
Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1915), 18“27.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Roth, Law Collections
from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, 42“45.
TRANSLATION: Finkelstein in ANET 3 , 525“526.

43. Laws of Eshnunna (LE)
PUBLICATION, TRANSLITERATION, AND TRANSLATION: Al-
brecht Goetze, The Laws of Eshnunna (AASOR 31; New Haven, Con-
necticut: The American Schools of Oriental Research, 1956); Farouk
N. H. Al-Rawi, “Assault and Battery,” Sumer 38 (1982), 117“20.
TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION: Roth, Law Collections
´
from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, 57“70; Emile Szlechter, Les lois
d™Eˇ nunna (Publications de l™Institut de Droit Romain de l™Universit´
s e
de Paris 12; Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scienti¬que, 1954);
Reuven Yaron, The Laws of Eshnunna (2d edition; Jerusalem: The
Magnes Press, 1988).
TRANSLATION: Rykle Borger, “Der Codex Eschnunna,” in Rechts- und
Worschaftsurkunden Historisch-chronologische Texte, 32“38; Goetze in
ANET3 , 161“163.
DATE: early eighteenth century b.c.e.

44. Laws of Hammurapi (LH)
PUBLICATION, TRANSLITERATION, AND TRANSLATION: V.
´
Scheil, Textes elamites-s´ mitiques, deuxieme s´ rie (M´ moires de la
e e e
D´ l´ gation Perse 4; Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1902); E. Bergmann, Codex

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