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Proposition 4. О¦(О±, ОІ) is natural with respect to maps f : (B , ОІ ) в€’ (B, ОІ) in
в†’
EG .
Proof. Naturality is equivalent to the requirement that the upper square in the
diagram below must commute. Here, C is a subobject of A Г— B and C is the
inverse image of C along A Г— f .

О¦(C E EAГ—B
)
d В
d AГ—f В
d В
d
В
E EAГ—B
О¦(C)

О±Г—ОІ О±Г—ОІ
c c
E GA Г— GB
GC
В
 d
s
В  d
GA Г— Gf
В  d
cВ  dc
E GA Г— GB
GC
214 6 Permanence Properties of Toposes
The inner and outer squares are pullbacks by deп¬Ѓnition. The bottom square is
G applied to the pullback in the deп¬Ѓnition of the subobject functor and hence
is a pullback because G is left exact. It follows that the upper square composed
with the inner square is a pullback. Since the inner square is too, so is the top
one, which therefore commutes.
Let R: E в€’ EG be the right adjoint to U : EG в€’ E .
в†’ в†’
Corollary 5. There is a map О¦(О±): RPA в€’ RPA for which
в†’
Hom((B, ОІ), О¦(О±)) = О¦(О±, ОІ)
Proof. Yoneda.
We can now prove Theorem 1. Finite limits exist in EG because they are
created by the underlying functor U : EG в€’ E . To prove this you use the same
в†’
sort of easy argument as in proving Exercise 3.
The power object P(AО±) for a coalgebra (A, О±) is deп¬Ѓned to be the equalizer
of О¦(О±) and the identity map on RPA. Since
Sub(A Г— B) в€ј Hom(B, PA) в€ј Hom((B, ОІ), RPA)
= =
the theorem follows from Proposition 3 and Corollary 5.
Observe that R is a geometric morphism. Its left adjoint is easily seen to be
faithful, as well. We will see later that any geometric morphism with a faithful
left adjoint arises from a cotriple in this way.
A nice application of the theorem is a new proof, much simpler than that
in Section 2.1, that the functor category SetC is a topos for any small category
C . This follows from two observations: (i) If S is the set of objects of C , then
SetS = Set/S, which is very easily seen to be a topos. (ii) The map SetC в€’ SetS
в†’
induced by the forgetful functor is adjoint tripleable (Section 3.7), hence SetC is
equivalent to the category of coalgebras of an (evidently) left exact cotriple on
Set/S.

Exercises 6.4

1. Let G = (G, , Оґ) be a left exact cotriple and (A, О±) be a G-coalgebra. Show
that a subobject A0 of A вЂњisвЂќ a subcoalgebra if and only if there is a commutative
square
AE EA
0

c c
E GA
GA0
6.5 Left exact triples 215
where the right arrow is the coalgebra structure map, in which case that square
is a pullback. Conclude that there is at most one subcoalgebra structure on a
subobject of an algebra, namely the left arrow in this square.

2. Show that if F and G are product-preserving functors, О»: F в€’ G a natural
в†’
transformation, then for any objects A and B for which A Г— B exists, О»(A Г— B) =
О»A Г— О»B.

3. Show that if (G, , Оґ) is a left exact cotriple on a category with products and
(A, О±) and (B, ОІ) are coalgebras, then so is (A Г— B, О± Г— ОІ).

4. Verify the third sentence of Proposition 3. (Hint: Follow the map О¦(C)
в€’ GC by C.)
в†’

6.5 Left exact triples
A left exact triple in a topos induces a topology on the topos for which the
objects of the form T A are sheaves. We will use this construction and the topos of
coalgebras of a cotriple discussed in the preceding section to obtain a facotrization
theorem for geometric morphisms.
Given a left exact triple T = (T, О·Вµ) in a topos E , deп¬Ѓne for each object A a
function jA: Sub A в€’ Sub A in this way: for a subobject A0 of A, jA(A0 ) is the
в†’
inverse image of T A0 along О·A. In other words,
jA(A0E EA
)

(1)
О·A
c c
T AE E TA
0

must be a pullback. (Note the lower arrow, hence the upper, must be monic
because T is left exact.)
We will prove that these maps jA form a topology on E . The following lemmas
assume that T is a left exact triple, E is a category with п¬Ѓnite limits, and j is
deп¬Ѓned as above.
Lemma 1. Whenever
AE EA
0

(2)
c c
BE EB
0
216 6 Permanence Properties of Toposes
is a pullback, then so is
jA(A0E EA
)

(3)
c c
E EB
jB(B0 )
Proof. This can be read oп¬Ђ the following square in much the same way that the
naturality of О¦ was deduced from (3) of Section 6.4.
EA
jA(A0 )
d В
d В
d
В‚ В
jB(B0 ) E B
(4)
c c
T B0 E T B
В
 d
s
В  d
cВ  dc
E TA
T A0
In this square, the inner and outer squares are pullbacks by deп¬Ѓnition and the
bottom square because T is left exact.
Lemma 2. A0 вЉ† jA(A0 ) for any subobject A0 of an object A.
Proof. Use the universal property of pullbacks on О·A0 and the inclusion of A0 in
A.
Lemma 3. For any subobject A0 of an object A, T jA(A0 ) = jT A(T A0 ) = T A0 .
Proof. To prove that T jA(A0 ) = T A0 , apply T to (1) and follow it by Вµ, getting
ВµA0E
E T T A0
T jA(A0 ) T A0
c c
(5)
c c c
E TTA E TA
TA
T О·A ВµA
The right vertical map from T A to T A is the identity, so T jA(A0 ) в€’ T T A0
в†’
в€’ T A0 в€’ T A is the inclusion. Cancelling the top and bottom arrows then
в†’ в†’
shows that the left vertical arrow is an inclusion. This shows that T jA(A0 ) вЉ†
T A0 , while the opposite inclusion is evident from Lemma 2.
6.5 Left exact triples 217
To show that jT A(T A0 ) = T A0 , consider the following similar diagram.

О·T A0 ВµA0E
E
T A0 T T A0 T A0
c c
(6)
c c c
E TTA E TA
TA
О·T A ВµT A

In the same way as for (5), the left and right vertical arrows from top to bottom
are identities. This means the outer square is a pullback, so by Exercise 12 of
Section 2.2, the upper square is too, as required.
If A0 )в€’ A1 )в€’ A then jA(A0 ) вЉ† jA(A1 ).
Lemma 4. в†’ в†’
Proof. Easy consequence of the universal property of pullbacks.
Lemma 5. A0 )в€’ A is j-dense if and only if there is an arrow from A to T A0
в†’
making I rotated the following, to be compatible
О·A0
E
A0 T A0
c c
В

В  (7)
В
c В  c
E TA
A
О·A
commute.
Proof. If jA(A0 ) = A, then there is a pullback diagram of the form
E T A0
A
c c
id (8)
c c
E TA
A
вЂ˜О·A

(Notice the subtle point here: jA(A0 ) is deп¬Ѓned as a subobject of A, which
means that if it equals A the top arrow must be the identity). This gives the
diagonal arrow in (7) and makes the lower triangle commute; but then the upper
one does too since the bottom arrow is monic.
Conversely, if there is such a diagonal arrow, taking it as the left arrow in (8)
is easily seen to make (8) a pullback, as required.
218 6 Permanence Properties of Toposes
Theorem 6. Given a left exact triple T in a topos E , the maps jA deп¬Ѓned above
form a topology on E for which each object of the form T A is a j-sheaf.
Proof. That j is a natural transformation follows from Lemma 1 and Exercise 5 of
Section 2.3. Lemma 2 shows that j is inп¬‚ationary, Lemma 3 that it is idempotent
(because the diagrams corresponding to (1) for jA and jjA become the same) and
Lemma 4 that it is order-preserving.
We use Proposition 8 of Section 6.2 to show that T A is a sheaf. Assume that
B0 is a dense subobject of an object B and f : B0 в€’ T A is given. We must п¬Ѓnd
в†’
a unique extension B в€’ T A. This follows from the following diagram, in which
в†’
g is the arrow given by Lemma 5.
f E TA
B0
В  T
В
О·B0 ВµA О·T A (9)
B
gd
dc
В‚ c
E TTA
T B0
Tf
The required map is ВµA в—¦ T f в—¦ g. It is straightforward to show that it is the
unique map which gives f when preceded by the inclusion of B0 in B.

Factorization of geometric morphisms

Now suppose that U = Uв€— : E в€’ E is a geometric morphism with inverse
в†’
image map U в€— . Like any adjoint pair, U determines a triple T = Uв€— в—¦ U в€— , О·, Вµ)
on E . Let j be its topology induced as in Theorem 6, and Ej the category of
j-sheaves.
For any object A of E , U A is a j-sheaf.
Proposition 7.
Proof. We again use Proposition 8 of Section 6.2. Suppose that B0 )в€’ B is
в†’
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