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There are literally thousands of programs that you can
download and install to increase the usefulness and versatility
of your Mac OS X system; some of these programs may prove
to be essential add-ons to your system, while you may install
others simply because they are interesting or fun. The most
beneficial programs are those that either complement the tools
that you already have, or do a much better job than the tools
delivered with the OS.
For example, Mac OS X does not include a spell checker. If you
intend to do a lot of writing on your Mac system, installing
ispell provides you with a versatile spell-checking system.
Another tool, aspell, purports to be a more intelligent spell
checker, but requires some additional configuration.
Programs that need to generate character-based displays in a
terminal-independent manner require a copy of libtermcap,
another program that is not included in the standard Mac OS X
installation. You can find libtermcap at www.gnu.org.

– The Save dialog box – The Download Manager
ˇ Click Save.
appears. downloads your file.
› Select the location
where you want to save
the downloaded file.


even though they are selling software that is essentially free.

ou can download, install, and use open source
Commercial success and open source software are not
software to great advantage. Open source software is
incompatible with each other. In fact, Mac OS X is itself
free, and is developed and tested by some of the
built on an open source foundation, a core operating
most dedicated people in the industry. The intention of
system known as Darwin.
open source licensing is to encourage collaboration and
innovation while shifting the focus of control from large
Although the development of Linux has been very
companies to end-users.
important to the Open Source movement, open source
development has also brought us tools that are critical to
The Open Source movement is dedicated to quality and fair
the Internet such as BIND, sendmail, and Apache.
practice. The basic idea behind open source is that, with the
potential to have hundreds of people improving and testing
A sizable portion of open source software falls under the
code, the software development cycle is shortened and the
GNU public licensing (GPL) agreement that states that any
quality of the software improves. In addition, no individual
software incorporating GPL-based software must itself be
or company can leverage that development toward goals
licensed as GPL software. Not all open source, however, falls
that are against the interests of the overall population of
under this licensing agreement, so you need to know how
source code is licensed to know how you can use it. While
open source code is available for anyone to use, the original
Now roughly twenty years old, the Open Source movement
developers may retain some intellectual property rights.
is finally achieving a presence in the commercial world. As a
result, companies like Red Hat can achieve financial success


– The GNU General Public – Your browser displays the
„ Open Internet Explorer in ¤ Type http://www.gnu.
the Dock. org/copyleft/gpl.html into the License page appears. content of the license
URL field. agreement.
› Scroll down to view the
‹ Press Return. GNU General Public License.


performed by Open Source Initiative (OSI), assures you that

ou can find plenty of open source software on the
the source code that you are using meets all the
Web and even participate in open source
requirements that qualify it as open source.
development if it interests you. The best sites for
open source software are those that are dedicated only to
The process of compiling an application from source code
open source. These sites include www.freshmeat.org and
can range from straightforward to extremely difficult.
www.sourceforge.net. You can also find useful links and a
Fortunately, most popular tools have the development bugs
lot of additional information about open source software by
removed from them a long time before you obtain a copy
visiting www.opensource.org.
of the source code. These include bugs in the compilation
process as well as bugs in the code. If you are wary of code
You can also look for source code on the original
with bugs, you should avoid any code that is described as
development sites of software applications. For example,
Beta. Beta is a word for code that has not been fully tested.
you can go to www.apache.org to download the latest or
earlier versions of the Apache server. You can get sendmail
A useful tool that you can download first is Fink. Fink is an
from www.sendmail.com, and you can get GNU tools from
open source tool for managing software installation and can
save you a tremendous amount of time in finding,
downloading, and installing other software.
If you intend to use open source software for your business
or projects, the issue of open source certification can
become very important to you. Open source certification,


– The Web page for
„ Type http://fink. ¤ Scroll down the page to
downloading Fink appears. the link for downloading
index.php into a browser. Fink.


Mac OS X also includes an install command, which you

ou can install an application package on Mac OS X
can use to move binary files into a chosen location from
quite easily. This is because a package is a specially
where you want to run them. You can specifically avoid
formatted application file that is designed for easy
overwriting earlier versions of the software if you use a -b
installation. To let you know that a file is prepared for easy
option with the install command. With a -o option, you
installation on your system, the Finder uses an icon that
can specify who owns the application when it moves into
looks like an opened parcel.
the target directory. Similarly, a -g option allows you to
specify the group. You can use a -d option to create missing
To install an application package, you can simply double-click
directories. With a -m option, you can override the default
the icon for the package in the Finder. This initiates a process
mode of the file, restricting access as needed.
that walks you through each step in the installation. You are
asked to enter your password to authenticate yourself as a
While downloading and installing software is relatively easy,
privileged user, to accept the license agreement, and to select
managing it can be much more challenging. Mac OS X does
the disk for the installation. You can monitor the progress of
not place restrictions on where you install software, so you
the installation by watching the progress bar. When the
should maintain and enforce a convention to prevent your
installation is complete, a message appears informing you that
system from becoming disorganized.
the installation was successful. You install all software
packages in this manner.


– A window opens, – The installation window
„ Download an application ˇ Click OK.
package from the Web. displaying the contents appears, followed by an
Á Click Continue until you
of the folder. authentication window.
¤ Click the application reach the License Agreement.
‹ Double-click the package › Type your password in the
package icon to view the
contents of the folder. icon. Password or phrase field.


When you install software in many different locations on your hard
drive, it can become difficult to keep track of both where you have
installed your software and what software you have installed. This
situation is exacerbated when you frequently download new tools
and utilities.
While you can manually organize your software, you have another
option for making the software easier to find and use: You can
update your search path to include all directories into which you
install software.
You can update your search path by editing your shell configuration
file. If you are using the default shell in Mac OS X, tcsh, your shell
configuration file is defined in the .tcshrc file in the root of your
Home directory. The system reads this file every time you log on, as
well as every time you open a new shell or a new Terminal window.
To update your path in tcsh, edit your .tcshrc file by adding the line,
setenv PATH $PATH":"/usr/local/bin:/sw/bin", where
the specified paths match the locations of your new software. Each
system user needs to make this change in order to find software
without knowing the software locations.

– The Select a Destination
‡ Scroll down to read the ° Click Continue. ‚ Click Continue.
agreement. screen appears.
– The installation proceeds
· Click the appropriate and installs the software on
device to select a hard drive your disk.
for your installation.


You can use the tar -tvf command to examine the

ou can install software from a tape archive, or TAR
contents of a TAR file. For example, to extract from a file
file, by using the tar command with a -x argument.
called drawfigs.tar, you can type tar -tvf drawfigs.tar. If the
The -x argument instructs the command to extract
filenames that appear start with a /, the tar command
from a specified file. You also use the tar command to
attempts to extract the file with the path shown, starting at
create these archives, for example, in preparing applications
/. Otherwise, TAR extracts the commands into your current
for distribution. Many Unix users employ the tar command
to prepare archives of important personal files. You must
add a -f argument, making the command tar -xf, to
The command for extracting files from an archive named
indicate that you are including the TAR file in the command,


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