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directory you specified.


Fink is not included in Mac OS X, but you can download it

ou can manage the installation of software on your
from www.sourceforge.net. You can visit www.fink.
system using a software package management utility
sourceforge.net/download to find links and instructions on
known as Fink. Fink is a versatile tool that allows you
how to obtain a copy.
to download, extract, configure, compile, install, update,
and remove software to and from your system, often with
Fink is a port of a tool called the Advanced Package Tool or
no more input from you than a single command. Fink works
APT from Debian. Fink allows you to install a package from
with software that is configured as a package. A package is
source code or from binary files, depending on what is
a special format that contains binary files along with source
available. Binary package files come in a format known as
code and patches that you may need to facilitate installation
dpkg and have a .deb extension.
and subsequent management of the installed software.
After you install Fink on your system, it is easy to use. The
Fink maintains a database that allows it to locate software
command fink list displays a list of available software
packages. It downloads the packages using curl and then
packages. Those that are installed on your system appear
proceeds to install your new software while giving you
with a lowercase i in the leftmost column. To install an
progress updates on-screen.
application, you can use the fink install command
followed by the name of the package you want to install.
Fink is intuitive to software dependencies, and so does not
install a software package if you have not installed
prerequisite software. It also does not remove software if
other packages on your system require it.


– Fink displays a list of
„ Type fink followed by a ‹ Type fink followed by a ˇ Type the name of a
space. packages. space. package, and press Return.
– Fink downloads the
¤ Type list and press Return. › Type install followed by a
space. package you select.


You can also use dselect to install software. This tool comes from the
To operate well, Fink needs
Debian Linux community and provides a text-based interface. The
to work with the most
dselect tool guides you through the process of choosing the access
recent data possible. If you
method you want to use, updating the list of available packages,
install Fink and fail to update
requesting the packages you want to install, configuring packages which
the inventory of available
are not yet configured, and removing unwanted software. The tool
software, your installation of
opens with the following menu.
Fink gradually becomes out
of date and unable to
recognize new releases of
Debian `dselect' package handling frontend.
To update the list and 0. [A]ccess Choose the access method to use.
descriptions of packages that 1. [U]pdate Update list of available packages, if possible.
Fink uses to find and install 2. [S]elect Request which packages you want on your system.
software, use the command 3. [I]nstall Install and upgrade wanted packages.
fink selfupdate. To 4. [C]onfig Configure any packages that are unconfigured.
update all of the packages 5. [R]emove Remove unwanted software.
that you have already 6. [Q]uit Quit dselect.
installed, type fink update-all.

– Fink continues with the Á Type fink followed by a ° Type | grep followed by
configuration, compilation, space. the name of the package you
and installation of your new just installed, and press
‡ Type list followed by a
software. Return.
– Fink confirms that the
installation is successful.

game. Description is a description of the tool. Maintainer is

ou can download software using FinkCommander, a
the name of the person who maintains the tool.
graphical interface that works with Fink.
FinkCommander provides a GUI front end to the Fink
You can also filter the list by selecting a column, such as
software package management tool. Using this front end,
Name, from the menu in the toolbar. When you select a
you can select the software that you want to install and
column, you can then type in your selection text in the field
initiate the installation by picking the software from a list of
to the right. For example, you can list the available games
available packages. Fink provides a variety of information
by selecting Category in the menu and typing games into
on each of the available packages.
the text field. You can sort by any column by clicking the
top of that column.
While using Fink, you can pick and choose which of the
information columns you want to see by selecting or
When you download software, you can watch the progress
deselecting them from the View menu. Latest is the most
of your download in the bottom window of the screen.
recent available version. Installed is the version that is
FinkCommander even allows you to provide positive or
currently installed on your system. Binary is the most recent
negative feedback to the maintainer of a package by
binary version. Stable is the most recent stable version.
selecting the green for positive or red for negative stamp
Unstable is the most recent unstable version. Status is the
icons in the menu bar.
status of your installation ” current or outdated. Category
is the software category, such as base, crypto, database, or


„ Click the FinkCommander ¤ Select Name from the › Click aspell to select it.
icon to launch the utility. drop-down menu.
– A binary format is not
‹ Type spell in the text field. available.
– The list updates to show – A stable source code
only items with the word version is available.
spell in their names.


You can also use FinkCommander to
As with Fink, FinkCommander configures, compiles, and
remove software. The Remove option
installs your software when you select Install from the Source
appears under each of the Source and
menu. The bottom left corner of the FinkCommander
Binary menus.
window displays a message describing each phase of the
installation. The message Done appears when the installation
While the software installs, you can
process is complete. At this point, the Status column for the
continue to peruse the list of available
newly installed tool contains the word current, telling you
tools. This does not interfere with the
that you now have the current release of that tool.
installation process. You can select
FinkCommander Help from the Help
While the main purpose of FinkCommander is to make
menu to better understand how to
installing software easier, it also provides a convenient way for
take full advantage of this utility.
you to take an inventory of the software on your system. It
provides a list of each package that is installed along with their
version numbers, and the current or outdated status indicator
tells you whether to install a newer version of a tool.

Install I

– The software begins to
ˇ Click Source ➪ Install. ‡ Type games in the text
download. field.
– A list of downloadable
Á Select Category from the
drop-down menu. games appears.


searches for libraries. You can read the man page for DYLD

ou can install system libraries for your personal use or
to learn more about how the dynamic linker uses
for use by software applications. While Mac OS X is
DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH as a search path for libraries.
an extremely versatile operating system, there are
numerous libraries that you can download to increase the
You can download many libraries by launching the
functionality of your system. Tools that you download and
FinkCommander utility, selecting Category from the menu
install often need some of these libraries.
in the toolbar, and typing libs in the text field;
FinkCommander displays a list of libraries that it can install
You install libraries in much the same manner as other
for you.
software except that libraries are usually single binary files.
When you place these files in the correct locations on your
When you install software through the traditional
system, other software can use them by making calls to
configure-make-make install process, you may have an
various routines. For example, if you install a library that
opportunity to install libraries as well. This is because,
contains routines for displaying graphics in the PNG format,
although the basic make-install process may install binaries
you do not have to build these routines into your own code.
in /sw/bin or /usr/local/bin, it may fail to install necessary
Instead, you can use the library routines in your code and
libraries. Read the README and INSTALL files to determine
compile your software to dynamically load the libraries
if there is an optional make install-lib step that takes
when you need them.
care of this.
System libraries are stored in /usr/lib. By convention, most
The table on the next page provides descriptions for a
third-party libraries reside in /usr/local/lib. You should be
variety of libraries that you can install on your Mac OS X
careful to install these libraries in the appropriate
system. While incomplete, this list contains many of the
directories so that the applications that need them can find
most useful libraries that you are likely to find. Like other
applications, libraries undergo changes as developers build
and test new versions.
When you install libraries on your Mac OS X system,
acquaint yourself with an environment variable called
Just as there are many locations from which you can
DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH. This variable is essential in helping


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