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You can then open your inbox or another folder. The up-

ou can read your e-mail with pine. Using pine is not
and down-arrow keys move you between messages.
difficult after you get used to the pine commands and
You can display a message by pressing Return. To return
how pine organizes your e-mail. To start pine, you
to the message index, you can type the letter i. You can
can type pine on the command line. When in pine, you can
mark a message for deletion by typing the letter d when
access your inbox, read and delete messages, and compose
that message is highlighted. This means that pine deletes
and send e-mail.
the message when you quit the program. If you change your
mind, you can un-delete the message by moving back to it
The first screen of data that you see when you start pine is
and typing the letter u.
an upper-level menu that allows you to ask for help,
compose a message, view a message in your current folder,
While these one-letter commands may seem cryptic at first,
list your folders, update your address book, or quit pine.
pine provides a list of the most common commands at the
You can access each of these options by typing a single
bottom of the screen. You can return to the main menu by
command, such as C to compose a message. This screen is
pressing the < key one or more times. You can get help at
called the main menu. The default choice in the main menu
the main menu by pressing the ? key. To quit pine, you can
is to list your folders; if you simply press Return, pine lists
type q.
your folders.


– Pine opens, displaying the
„ Type pine and press ¤ Press Return twice.
Return. main menu.


To reply to a message using pine, you can type r when
you select the message in the message list or when you
view the message. Pine addresses your reply to the
sender of the original message and asks you whether
you want to include the original message in your reply.
You can change your pine options by editing your
.pinerc file or by selecting SETUP from the main menu.
If you elect to use SETUP, another list appears. Selecting
C brings you to a long list of configuration options over
several screens. Although these options are numerous,
if you are like most pine users, you will stay with the
default settings.
To move a message to a different folder, you can type s
when pine displays the message list or the message itself.
Pine then asks you to type in the name of the folder
where you want to place the message. It defaults to the
saved-messages folder.

– A list of messages appears – The selected message
‹ Highlight the message
in your inbox. you want to read and press appears.
– You can press the up- and
down-arrow keys to move
between messages.


Pine allows you to add carbon copy (cc) recipients to your

ou can compose and send e-mail with pine. To
messages and to include attachments. To add an attachment,
compose a message in pine, you can type c while in
you can type the name of the file, along with the pathname
the main menu. This moves you into a simple text-
if it is in a subdirectory, in the Attchmnt line. Pine attaches
editor in which pine pre-inserts message parts such as the
the file to the message when you send it. You can add
To and Subject tags. You can move around in this form by
additional attachments by pressing Ctrl + J.
using arrow keys, inserting your recipient and your message
To change the format of your message to a rich header, you
can press Control + R. This adds some additional fields to
As you type your message, the form area dedicated to the
your message header, such as Bcc and Newsgrps. If you
message text grows larger to accommodate your message.
have defined a signature, the contents of your signature file
To insert a text file into your message, you can press Ctrl +
appear at the bottom of your message text.
R. Pine then asks you to enter the name of the file that you
want to insert into your message. You must supply the name
When you are ready to send your message, you can press
of the text file, including the pathname if it is not located in
Control + X. Pine asks if you want to send your message.
your Home directory.
If you type s, pine sends the message. The Control + X
command and other options appear along the bottom of
your screen.


– Pine opens, displaying the
„ Type pine and press ¤ Press C.
Return. main menu.


To add a signature to the messages you send with
Messages that you move to other folders are
pine, you can create a .signature file in your Home
stored in files in your mail directory. For
directory. Pine reads the contents of this file and
example, if your username is sbob and your
appends your signature to the bottom of every
home directory is /Users/sbob, your mail folders
message that you compose. You can create a
are stored in /Users/sbob/mail. Each file within
signature file using any text editor or on the
this directory represents one of your mail
command line.
folders, and pine stores it as a standard UNIX
mail file. Messages begin with the string From,
followed by the e-mail address of the sender,
echo "”””””-" > .signature
and a date/time stamp.
echo "Fred T. User, Minstrel" >> .signature
If you copy a mail file to your mail directory or
remove one, pine accomodates and lists the new
set of folders. This shows that Pine does not
maintain any internal representation of your mail
folders. It simply looks at the files in your mail
directory and displays them to you as a series of
individual messages.

– Pine opens the Compose – Pine asks for confirmation
ˇ Type your message. ‡ Press Y to send your
Message form. before sending your message message, or N to cancel
– Pine adjusts the form to to the specified recipient. your message.
‹ Type an e-mail address in accommodate your text.
– Your message is sent.
the To field, and press Return.
Á Press Control + X to
› Type a subject for your send your message.


pache is the most popular Web server on the
Internet today. Accounting for roughly 60 percent of
Web servers and probably 80 percent of the available
Web-server books, Apache is one of the open source
products that has become a part of the foundation of
the Internet. It is well used, well understood, and well


The purpose of the Apache Web server is to listen for When a Web server receives such a request, it looks at
requests from Web browsers and serve up the pages certain configuration variables to determine which page
requested. Like any important Internet service, Apache it should send back to the client. For Apache servers,
runs on a dedicated port. This port is dedicated not to that page is usually called index.html, though with the
Apache, but to the HTTP protocol that Apache and prevalence of Java and other tools on the Web, it may
browsers use to communicate with each other. just as likely be mainpage.jsp. If the home page is a
static HTML file, the server transfers it to the client
After you install and run a Web service, curious visitors immediately. Many other types of pages are created
can type your URL into their Web browsers and peruse only after the request arrives on the server, with
what your site has to offer. Whenever a visitor types an information read from cookies on the computer of the
address such as www.dragonflyditch.com into a Web client or from a database on the server. This information
browser, the address is first passed on to a DNS server allows customized pages to be created for each user. In
for translation into an IP address. Then, a request is any case, when the page is ready, it is sent to the client.
made to port 80 on the remote system. This request is This all happens in a matter of seconds even when the
essentially GET / ” a request for the home page or server is halfway around the world.
default document on your site.


Apache is popular largely because it is free to any user, all of the features that anyone might expect in a Web
although this is not the only reason. Apache is also server. Configuring Apache for name-based virtual
extensible through a collection of modules and can be servers, where multiple sites all run on the same
customized for an intended use. You can add or remove machine while appearing to be independent, is easy in
modules at build time, so the resulting binary contains Apache. Configuring security and tuning the server for
only the features that you need. Apache also supports expected traffic are also simple processes.



Web servers depend on the Domain Name System one. By typing www.dragonflyditch.com, you are
(DNS) to function, just like other Internet services. identifying a particular server and relying on the services
When you type a URL such as http://www. of DNS to translate this textual name into an IP address
dragonflyditch.com, you are simultaneously specifying so that the DNS can use the IP of the address to locate
a number of things. By typing http, you are designating and communicate with that server. By typing nothing
that HTTP is the protocol “ the limited language that more, you are indicating that you want to communicate
describes communications between client and server ” with the server running on the default port for Web
used to communicate with the server. This is the servers, port 80, and you are saying that you want the
primary protocol used by the Web, but not the only home page or default document for the site.


The configuration on the server end determines which you enter a URL that does not contain a filename,
directory on the server contains the documents and Apache looks through a list of default documents for
files available for viewing. For Apache, this directory is one that matches a document in the requested
called the document root. On a properly configured directory. If the default documents list contains


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