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DESKTOPS


While you will probably install only one version of X Terminal application on your Mac OS X Aqua desktop,
Windows on your system, the choice of which window except that xterm runs on an Xserver. Similarly, xclock is
manager and desktop to use is up to you. Two of the an X Windows clock. While these tools are fairly basic and
more popular desktops are GNOME and KDE, both of part of every X Windows implementation, they do not
which are popular with the Linux community and define the limits of what an installation of X Windows
increasingly available for Mac OS X users. The XonX can do for you. Many powerful applications, such
project, which refers to X Windows on Mac OS X, is a as OpenOffice, an office automation tool much
good source of information and software. like Microsoft Office, and the Gimp, a sophisticated
image-editing tool, are available to you free if you
You also have a choice of what clients to run on your first install X Windows.
server. The xterm client is a terminal tool much like the




HISTORY OF X WINDOWS


The X Windows System was originally developed at MIT version 11, sometimes referred to as X11, before a
with support from DEC. It was originally meant to general interest had developed. Control of X11 has
provide a distributed hardware-independent user since been taken over by the X Consortium which now
interface for the Athena project. The software reached maintains the standard.




DISPLAY AND THE XHOSTS COMMAND


When using X Windows, your display has an address 2) Run the xhost command on the X server to give
that is associated with the environment variable permission to the remote system to write to your
DISPLAY. If you print the value of this variable by typing screen.
echo $DISPLAY in a Terminal window while running an
The xhost command can be run in such a way that it
X server, you will notice that the value will be set to
only adds the specific client or so that it allows any
0:0.0 or simply 0.0. While this address may seem to have
system to write to its display. It is generally more secure
no significance, it actually refers to the first screen
to restrict access to your screen but this, of course,
associated with the first X server on your system. The
depends on your situation with respect to the security
address of your display from the perspective of another
of the network to which you are connected.
system on your network would be ferro:0.0 if your
hostname were ferro.
To send the output from an X client system to the X
server running on ferro, you would type setenv DISPLAY
When you are generating a display on one system and
ferro:0.0 on the client system and xhost + on ferro to
sending it to another, you need to do two things:
allow any system to update your display. Enter a specific
1) Set your DISPLAY variable on the system where the hostname instead of the plus sign (+) if you want to
client is running; this is the system generating the restrict this access.
display.




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UNIX FOR MAC




GET X SOFTWARE FOR MAC OS X
When you scroll down the page, you will find a section that

F
ree software for running X Windows is available on the
provides information on the latest file releases. This will
Web. While downloading and installing this software
provide you with the current release information you need.
takes a lot of time, the process is straightforward and
When you click the View ALL Project Files link, you will see
you are unlikely to have any problems with the basic
a list of the current files. The largest file in this list, the SIT
installation of X Windows.
file, will be the major release of XFree86. You will need to
install this release before the ZIP files, which update the
Before you begin to download X Windows, you should
major release with patch files. When there are two or more
determine which release is the latest. As of this writing,
for the same sub-release, as there are with 4.2.0.1, you will
XFree86 is available in version 4.2.1.1 and the instructions in
only need to install one of these files. You will install each
this chapter detail how to download the proper files and
of the patch releases in order. That is, you will install the
install this release on your Mac OS X system. If a newer
oldest sub-release first. After installing the major release
release is available, you should install it instead. The process
and each of the sub-releases, you will have 4.2.1.1 of
of obtaining the files and installing the software is not likely
XFree86 installed on your system.
to change, but the exact names of the files will reflect the
newer release.

To begin the process of installing XFree86 for your Mac OS
X system, enter the URL http://sourceforge.net/projects/
xonx in your browser.

GET X SOFTWARE FOR MAC OS X




– The Project: XonX:
„ In your browser window, ‹ Click View ALL Project
type http://sourceforge. Summary page appears. Files.
net/projects/xonx and
¤ Scroll down the page until
press Return.
you find information on the
latest file releases.



270
16
RUN THE X WINDOW SYSTEM




Some files, like the XFree86 XInstall_10.1.sit file are
When downloading software
large and will take a long time to download on a
such as XFree86 to your system
dial-up connection. If you are installing this
for subsequent installation, it is
software on a personal system and using a dial-up
good practice to store all of your
line, you may want to consider starting late at night
downloaded files in a single
and checking in the morning to see if the download
directory. While file systems like
completed properly. The ZIP files needed to bring
that which Unix uses are meant
this release up to the current release are relatively
to help keep your personal files
small and do not take long to download.
and application software
organized, it is easy to allow
The sourceforge.org site is a good site to bookmark.
your file holdings to become
This site is one of the major places for learning
disorganized and difficult to
about and obtaining open source software.
clean up sufficiently after the
fact.




Download Link to Disk




– A list of project files – The Save dialog box
ˇ Click Download ‡ Click Save.
appears. Link to Disk. appears.
– The file saves to the
› Right-click Á Click the drop-down location you chose in step 6.
XInstall_10.1.sit. menu to select the location
where you want to save the
file.
CONTINUED

271
UNIX FOR MAC



GET X SOFTWARE FOR MAC OS X (CONTINUED)
provided X Windows with a legitimacy that furthered its

I
f someone says the word "windows" in the context of
importance in the commercial world. At the same time, the
computers, most people today immediately think of
XFree86 Project continued development of X for the open
Microsoft Windows, but the original windowing systems
source community. The Open Group formed X.org in 1999
predate Microsoft's products by many years. XFree86 is a
to continue fostering the development of X.
direct descendant of the X11 Window System ” the first
windowing system used on Unix. X Windows was developed
Today, XFree86 is one of the most critical of the open
in the 1980s, originating as part of the Athena project at MIT
source projects. It provides X windowing support to a large
and intended to provide a hardware-independent windowing
portion of the open source Unix systems and ships with
environment. Today, X Windows runs on many types of
most Linux distributions. Currently in Release 4.2.1.1 and
systems and under many different names. Hummingbird's
available for the latest Mac OS X release, XFree86 is a solid
Exceed is an X Windows server for Intel-based systems. The
implementation of X Windows and one that will continue
CDE desktop environment used on Solaris and other Unix
to develop along with the open source community.
desktops is an X Windows environment. XFree86 is an
implementation of X Windows that has more than 12 years of The name XFree86 was first used in 1992, replacing the
development behind it. name X386 used in the preceding year of development.
By the late 1980s, the X Consortium had taken control of X
Windows development. With powerful members like Sun,
Hewlett-Packard, AT&T, DEC, and IBM, the consortium

GET X SOFTWARE FOR MAC OS X (CONTINUED)




Download Link to Disk




– The Save dialog box
° Right-click the XFree86- · Click Download Link to ” Click Save.
4.2.0.1-10.2.zip file. Disk. appears.
– The files save to the
‚ Click the drop-down location you chose in
menu to select the location step 10.
where you want to save the
file.


272
16
RUN THE X WINDOW SYSTEM




XDarwin is the name of the X server for Mac OS X
Getting XFree86 on CD-ROM
that is included in the XFree86 distribution. XonX is
If the procedure for downloading XFree86 seems
a SourceForge project used by XFree86 for Darwin
overly complex or time-consuming, you can
developers to share code.
obtain XFree86 on CD-ROM. For a modest fee,
the same version of XFree86 that you can You can get all of the XFree86 source code from
download from the Web is available on CD. www.xfree86.org.
Purchasing the CD will save you the trouble of
After your XFree86 software is installed, you start it
downloading the proper set of files from the
by double-clicking the XDarwin icon. You will
Web. Visit www.xdarwin.org for information on
probably find that keeping XDarwin in the Dock is
purchasing the CD and for other information on
the most convenient way to use the software.
the XDarwin project.




Download Link to Disk




– The Save dialog box
± Right-click the XFree-86- ¡ Click Download Link to £ Click Save.

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