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by modifying the parameters used in your .xinitrc
Windows tools. This will allow you to start X
file. The command "xterm -n xterm-
tools by entering their names without a full
pathname. X tools will usually install in the blahblahblah -bg black -fg white -
geometry 80x25+0+0 &", for example,
directory /usr/X11R6/bin. By including this path
generates a window named "xterm-blahblahblah"
in your PATH variable, you instruct your shell to
with a black background and white letters. The
look in that directory when you enter a simple
Terminal window would be 80 columns wide
name such as xeyes.
(standard width) and 25 lines long beginning
Your search path, defined in your .tcshrc file, will
in the upper-left corner of the screen.
look something like this:

setenv PATH /usr/bin:/bin:/sbin:/

– X clients launch on your – The xeyes tool opens on
‹ Type xeyes in an xterm
Aqua desktop, displaying window and press Return. your desktop.
three screens by default.


gnome-wm &

ou can install the GNOME desktop on your Mac OS X
exec gnome-session
system if you have first installed an X server such as
XFree86. The next time you start X Windows after making these
changes, your desktop will start running with GNOME. As
GNOME is one of the most popular X Window System
with XFree86 out of the box, you can run GNOME in
desktops. Developed for the Linux community, GNOME
rootless or full-screen mode. When you run rootless, your X
now runs on Solaris and Mac OS X systems as well. Because
Windows will take on the appearance of GNOME windows,
this porting effort is recent, installing Gnome can be a slow
using the GNOME window dressings. The rest of your
and somewhat problematic installation “ especially on a
windows will retain their Aqua look. You will be able to
slow dial-up connection. You can also acquire binaries on
start additional X tools from your xterm windows. For
CD-ROM. The following sites provide information on X
example, you can start the xeyes tool by typing
Windows for Mac OS X.
/usr/X11R6/bin/xeyes in an xterm window and
pressing Return.
When you start GNOME in full screen mode, as is generally
the case, GNOME will take over your desktop. All vestiges
After GNOME is installed on your system, you can use it as
of your Aqua tools and menus will disappear from view.
your X Windows desktop. To use GNOME, you should edit
GNOME menus will be available on your desktop for
your .xinitrc file and add the line exec gnome-session to
starting any of a number of X applications.
the bottom of the file. Be sure to comment out the line that
starts the default window manager, twm. The bottom of
your .xinitrc file, after editing, might look like this:


– The XDarwin welcome
„ Click XDarwin in the ¤ Click Full screen.
Dock. screen appears.


To exit the GNOME desktop, click Desktop ➪
Many of the applications available through the
Log Out.
GNOME desktop are traditional X tools such as
xterm, a terminal emulator, and xcalc, a simple
You can also start other X applications, those not
calculator. Other applications, such as xv and the
included in the GNOME menus but installed on your
GIMP are quite sophisticated tools for
system, by typing their names in an xterm window.
manipulating images.
GNOME supports the concept of virtual
desktops. The small object in the bottom left
hand corner of the screen represents each of four
virtual desktops. You can move from one desktop
to the next by clicking any of the four rectangles.
The upper left rectangle represents your default
screen. If you do not like working with a cluttered
desktop, you can start different applications on
each of the four virtual desktops and move from
one to the other as needed.

– A window appears, stating – XDarwin launches in – The GNOME desktop
‹ Click Show X11.
that full-screen mode will take full-screen mode. appears.
over your screen, and telling
you how to return to the Mac
OS X desktop.


image editing program; and xv, a program for viewing and

ou can take advantage of an impressive collection of
modifying image files. Each of these tools can be an
useful tools and applications when you run the
extremely useful addition to your desktop.
GNOME desktop.
The look of your GNOME desktop will vary quite a bit
The GNOME desktop includes a number of utilities and
depending on the window manager that you decide to use.
applications that are built into the desktop. That is, you can
Several are available to you and others can be obtained.
start up these tools by selecting them from the menus
Enlightenment and Window Maker are used in screenshots
available to you on your GNOME desktop. Some of these
in this book. These two window managers have extremely
tools are simple applications that can make your system a
different appearances, but will, of course, run the same
little nicer to use. Others will make a tremendous
applications. The third choice, twm, is also available. To alter
difference in what you are able to accomplish on your
your window manager, click Settings ➪ Desktop ➪ Window
Manager. When you change your window manager, you will
have an opportunity to save your new settings.
The GNOME Programs menu contains a number of sub-
menus, each with a variety of tools. The Applications menu
Xterm windows are similar in character and to Terminal
includes tools such as emacs ” a highly configurable editor,
windows; therefore, you should be able to use these
and Gnumeric ” a spreadsheet program. The Utilities menu
windows in the same manner that you would use the
provides access to a simple calculator, a color browser, and
Terminal application when you are running in Aqua.
other tools. The graphics menu provides access to GNOME
Ghostview, a tool for viewing PostScript files; the GIMP, an

Programs Programs


Simple Calculator

– The set of applications
„ Click Programs ➪ ¤ Click Programs ➪ Utilities ➪
Applications. available on the GNOME Simple Calculator.
desktop appears.


The Window Maker window manager gives your
If your GNOME desktop opens without
GNOME desktop an entirely different look and feel.
the panels at the top and bottom of
If you selected this desktop by clicking Settings ➪
the screen, type panel “no-xshm in an
Desktop ➪ Window Manager, your desktop will
xterm window.
change character. You can start up additional virtual
Clicking the globe in the bottom panel
desktops or workspaces by right-clicking in the
will open Mozilla, the Web browser.
background and clicking Workspaces ➪ New. You will
With this tool, you can browse the
then be able to navigate between these workspaces by
Web the same as you would using
clicking the backward and forward buttons on the icon
Internet Explorer or Safari on your Mac
in the upper-left corner of your screen.
OS X desktop.
Within each workspace, you can then start different
You can make the bottom panel slide
tools as if you had a number of work surfaces for
over to the edge of your screen by
working on different projects.
clicking either end where the small
arrow is displayed.



– The GNOME Calculator – The menu shows
‹ Click X to close the › Click Programs ➪
tool opens. calculator. Graphics. Ghostview, the GIMP, and xv.


are available. This section outlines the process of installing

ou can install the OroborOSX desktop to take
the binary file, which is downloaded as a gzipped TAR file.
advantage of X tools on your Aqua desktop.
When you double-click this file, you will walk through the
OroborOSX allows you to run X applications while
installation process. OroborOSX will be installed in a matter
maintaining the look and feel of your normal Mac OS X
of minutes and will be ready for use.
You might want to keep OroborOSX in the Dock to
The OroborOSX window manager actually provides several
facilitate its use. You will then be able to start X applications
graphical themes. One of these mimics the look of your


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