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by first clicking on OroborOSX in the Dock and then
Aqua desktop and gives your Mac OS X and your X
starting your X application through the Launch menu or by
applications a seamless appearance. OroborOSX also
entering the pathnames for the binaries in an xterm
provides a drop-down menu of applications that can be
window. When you launch OrorborOSX, it will in turn
launched from your desktop when you are running
launch XDarwin.
OroborOSX. This menu appears at the top of your
OroborOSX screen and is titled Launch. One of these tools
OroborOSX is a good choice for anyone who wants to work
is the GIMP, the impressive open source image-editing tool
in their normal Mac OS X desktop while adding some
that rivals the capabilities of PhotoShop.
applications that only run in X Windows. Installation is
trouble-free and extremely quick.
Installing OroborOSX is a smooth process after XFree86 has
been installed. The OroborOSX application can be retrieved
from any of several places “ http://oroborosx.sourceforge.
net/download.html and both binary and source distributions

INSTALL OROBOROSX




– A TAR file and a folder
„ Double-click the icon for ¤ Double-click the
the most recent version of appear. OroborOSX-Folder icon.
OroborOSX.




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When you are running OroborOSX, all of the
After OroborOSX is started, you can keep it in
windows that you have open will be listed at the
the Dock to make it easier to start when you
bottom of your Windows menu. To move from one
want to use it again. Because OroborOSX works
to the next, you can click the window of your
so well with your Mac OS X desktop, you may
choice as you would normally do, or you can
sometimes forget that you are running X
choose the window that you want to make active
Windows simultaneously with your Mac desktop.
by clicking Windows and the name of the window
If you would like your inactive windows to
that you want to make active.
appear dimmed, you can accomplish this by
clicking Options ➪ Dim Inactive Windows. OroborOSX is an Aqua-like window manager based
on a window manager named Oroborus.
OroborOSX does not make use of your .xinitrc
file. However, you can get it to read and execute
the commands in this file if you click Launch ➪
xinitrc.




– The folder opens, revealing – OroborOSX launches
‹ Double-click the
the new OroborOSX OroborOSX icon. XDarwin.
application.




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UNIX FOR MAC




VIEW IMAGES WITH XV
click OK. You can use the options under the Image Size

Y
ou can use xv, an interactive image manipulation
button to control the size of the image on your screen.
program for X Windows, to display, crop, stretch,
The algorithms included in the Algorithms menu include a
and dither images of many different types. To start xv,
number of image manipulation routines that you can apply
type xv in an xterm window. If you are using GNOME, you
to the image. These include blur, sharpen, edge detect,
will find the program in the Graphics menu. A colorful fish-
emboss, oil painting, and copy and clear that rotate the
out-of-the-water banner will greet you. Near the bottom of
image with and without blanking out the corners, pixelize,
the page, you will see the message Press <right> mouse
spread, and despeckle. For dabblers, there is also an
button for menu. To view the control panel for xv, press
Undo All option that reverses any changes you have made,
Control + click.
bringing you back to the original image. xv operates on GIF,
JPEG, TIFF, PBM, PGM, XPM, X11 Bitmap, Sun rasterfile,
To load an image, click the Load button. This will open a file
Targa, RLE, RGB, BMP, PCX, FITS, and PM image files. It can
browse window that allows you to select the image that you
also generate postscript.
want to load. The image will load on your screen after you




VIEW IMAGES WITH XV




– The xv welcome page – The xv controls panel
„ Type xv in an xterm ¤ Command-click inside the
window and press Return. appears. welcome page. appears.
‹ Click Load.



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INSTALL X WINDOW SYSTEM SOFTWARE




After you have modified an image, you can save it
The program can be downloaded from
using the Save button. The Format menu in the
www.trilon.com/xv/downloads.html in source
upper-right corner allows you to select the format
form and is included in binary format in the
for your saved image and, depending on the
Darwin Collection: Free Software for Darwin OS
image type you select, asks if you want to use
and Mac OS X CD set for those who don't want
compression.
to compile their own code. The program is
available in binary form on the trilon site, but
You can load a number of images and flip through
not for Mac OS X. Manuals are available in
them using the Next and Prev buttons.
PostScript, PDF, and HTML format.
You can crop an image by first selecting the area
You can close the xv controls panel any time you
you want to retain using your left mouse button and
like. To get it back again, press ” + click in the
then pressing Crop in the xv controls.
displayed image.




– The xv file load window › Select an image file. Á The image file displays
opens. on-screen.
ˇ Click Ok.




287
UNIX FOR MAC


EDIT IMAGES WITH GIMP
The toolbox also contains the File menu that provides for

Y
ou can use the GIMP to manipulate photo quality
opening and saving images. It also allows you to modify
images. The GIMP, which stands for GNU Image
preferences, such as the default image size and resolution,
Manipulation Program, is a freely distributed software
that apply each time you use GIMP. The toolbox is like a
tool that allows you to retouch photos and compose
toolbar that lies along the top of most applications.
interesting images using a massive set of features. The tool
Because it is a separate window, you can open and close
is available from www.gimp.org/download.html and is often
it as needed.
loaded when you install an X desktop, such as GNOME.
GIMP is also included on the CD that accompanies this
For serious image work, you will probably find layers
book.
essential. The best way to think of layers is to picture your
image as composed of a number of transparencies, each
In an X windowing environment such as OroborOSX or
which contributes a portion of the overall image, and
GNOME, you can launch the GIMP through a menu. To
yourself as looking through all of them at once. As you work
launch the GIMP in OroborOSX, you click Launch ➪
with your images, the layers that you create will display in
MacGimp.
the Layers, Channels & Paths window that opened when
you first started the GIMP. The active layer will always
Unlike most of the tools that you will use in X Windows,
appear highlighted.
the GIMP opens a number of windows on your desktop.
The toolbox provides the main controls by offering a grid of
icons, each of which represents a different function, such as
selecting a portion of the image, zooming in or out, and
painting on top of the image with brush strokes.

EDIT IMAGES WITH GIMP
Launch




MacGimp




– The GIMP window
„ Click Launch ➪ MacGimp ¤ Click File ➪ Open from
in OroborOSX. appears on your screen. the GIMP menu.




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INSTALL X WINDOW SYSTEM SOFTWARE




You can delete a layer by pressing and holding To save an image, press ” + click within the image
window and click File ➪ Save As from the pop-up
down the right mouse button in the Layers,
Channels & Paths window and sliding down to menu. If you want to save an image in the original
Delete Layer. The ability to delete a layer is one format, you can leave the option for Determine
of the best reasons to work with layers in the File Type by Extension as is and type in your new
first place. They allow you to easily remove filename. GIMP's format is called XCF.
elements that you add to an image if they do
If your image has layers, you will have to collapse
not look as you had intended.
the layers using the Layers ➪ Flatten Image option
If you have many layers, you can switch between or export the image to save it in a format that does
them, determining which layer you are editing at not support image layers. You can preserve the
any point in time, by selecting the layer in the layers by using GIMP's xcf format.
Layers, Channels & Paths window. When you are
completely satisfied with the overall image that
you have created, you can collapse your image
into a single layer. After performing this step, you
cannot manipulate layers separately.




Background

oldhouse.jpg




– The Load Image window – A thumbnail of the – The image file opens and Á Click the Text Tool in your
opens. selected image appears. appears as a layer. toolbox and then click the
image.
‹ Select the name of a file. › Double-click the name of ˇ In the Layers, Channels &
the image file you want to Paths window, click the New

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