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area-based, 206 Coherence time, 382
blind flooding, 206 Communication graph, 187
cluster-based, 211 Communication gray zone, 105“107
counter-based, 211“212 Communication range, 156
deterministic, 206 Community:
directional antennas, 222“224 characteristics of, 355
distance-based, 211 node collaboration, 356
forwarding neighbors, 208, 212 Compass routing (Cmp), 189“190, 192
global, 207 Competitive ratio, 443
“hello” message, 208, 214, 222 Computing environment, 4G networks, 11
location-based, 211“212 Confidant, 363
message content, 208 Congestion, inverse optimization, 415, 421
minimum energy, 224“226 Congestion window, TCP, 80
449
INDEX


CONNECT, 159, 161“162 Destination nodes, 276
Connected graph, 159 Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector (DSDV)
Connected MANET node, 259 protocol, 22, 24, 277“278, 281, 337
Connected Minimum Average Power (C-MAP), DHCP relay agent, MANETs, 261
161“162 Diffraction, 382
Connected Minimum Maximum Degree (C-MMD), DIFS (DCF Interframe Spacing), 145
161 Digital radio properties, 50“52
Connected MinMax Power (C-MMP), 159“163 Direct Sequence Spreading (DSS), spread-spectrum
Connectivity: technologies, 51
neighbor discovery, 156 Directed Acyclic Graph (ACG), 23
stochastic geometry, 192 Directional antenna, 141“142, 222“224
Constraints: Directional exposed terminal, 145
directional TDMA, 150 Directional hidden terminal, 146
power-based topology control, 158 Directional MAC (DMAC), 166, 170
Contention window, 145 Directional NAV (DNAV), 149
Continuous simulation models, 394 Direction threshold, 379“380
Control messaging, 276 Discrete simulation, 394
Convergence, 8 Disjoint connecting paths, 432, 442“443
Cooperation modeling: Distance effects, MANETs, 260
selfish, defined, 360 Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility
spontaneous networking, 360 (DREAM), 189
Core-Assisted Mesh Protocol (CAMP), 26 Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol
Counter-based broadcasting, 211“212 (DVMRP), 26
Counting to infinity problem, 277 Distance-vector routing, 21
Coverage: Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocol,
area, 222 IEEE802.11, 20, 72“74
modeling and, 383“384 Distributed gateways, 289
stochastic geometry, 196 Distributed simulation, 396“398
Critical power, 192 Distributed Source Routing (DSR), 269
Cross-layer interaction: Diversity combining, 143
using inverse optimization: Dominating sets:
characteristics of, generally, 413“413 dominant pruning, 213
inverse shortest-path (ISP) formulation, localized, 209
415“418 reliable broadcasts and, 207
modeling congestion in the link metric, 415 source-dependent, 212“215
motivating example, 414“415 source-independent, 215“217
simulation: SPAN, 222
a, interpretation of, 420“422 topology-based power save protocols:
, interpretation of, 420“422 characteristics of, 307“308
environment, 418 connected, 309
example scenario, 418“419 DO neighbor discovery, 163, 165“167, 171
linear programming formulation, 420 DREAM, 24
loss rate, computation of, 419“420 DTR algorithm, 191“192
packet delay, computation of, 419“420 DV-distance propagation, 245
route cache trace, 419 DV-hop propagation, 245
CSMA channels, 14 Dynamic local noise, MANETs, 260
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC), 73 Dynamic phased arrays, 143
Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), 23“24, 214,
DARPA, 14 283“285, 413, 419, 422“423
Data-link layer, security mechanisms, 352 Dynamic topology, generally:
DAWN, 58 control, 162“163
DCMA MAC protocol, 111“114 maintenance, 276
DD neighbor discovery, 163, 165“166
Deafness, antenna beamforming, 146“147 EDGE, 6
Degree, of vertex, 159 Edge connectivity, 193
Delaunay triangulation (Del), 182“184, 191 Enclosure, neighbor discovery, 162
Delivery rates, 192 Energy conservation, MANETs, 27“29
Department of Defense (DoD), 48 Energy-conserving routing protocols, 293“294
450 INDEX


Energy-efficient communication: Frequency Hopping (FH/FFH), spread-spectrum
ad hoc wireless networks, 302“303 technologies, 51“52
benefits of, 301“302 Frequency Hop Synchronization (FHS), 119
energy consumption measurement, 303“305 Fresnel zone, 97“98
power-save protocol: FSR protocol, 22“23
asynchronous, 312“313 Fully polynomial time-approximation scheme
MAC layer, 313“314 (FPTAS), 431
network layer, 305 Further-neighbor scheme, 214“215
synchronous, 306“307
topology-based, 307“312 Gabriel graph, 178“179, 182, 190
Energy consumption: Gain, 141“142
idle state, 304 Game theoretical models:
measurement of, see Measurement, energy basic, 361“362
consumption characteristics of, 360“361
Environmental effects, MANETs, 260 ERC theory, 364
E-OTD0, 12 evolutionary approach, 363
Error detection, 219 general model, 366
Euclidean distance, 191 GTFT, 365“366
Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST), 187 market model, 364“365
Euclidean propagation, 245 reputation-based model, 363“364
Europe, wireless technology development in, 6 system equilibria, 362
Event-triggered updates, 277“278 watchdogs, 362“363
Expanding ring, 283 Game theory:
Experimental analysis, IEEE802.11: basic concepts of:
indoor experiments, 84“85 equilibrium, 368“369
outdoor experiments, 85“91 Prisoner™s Dilemma, 368
overview of, 83“84 Nash equilibrium,369
Explicit Link Failure Notification (ELFN), 79“80 strategies, 369
Exposed-station problem, 74“75 models of, see Game theoretical models
Exposed-terminal problem, 19 Gateway devices:
Extended InterFrame Space (EIFS), 73“74 piconet interconnection, 121“122, 131
Extending the Littoral Battle-space Advanced scatternet formation, 126, 130
Concept Technology Demonstration (ELB Gateway nodes:
ACTD), 14 in broadcasting scheme, 208“211, 221
routing technology, generally, 261
Fading, 382 Gateway selection, BlueMesh protocol, 131“132
Fairness, 393 Gateway slaves, 118, 122
Farthest neighbor routing (FN), 190“192 General Adaptive Interaction Architecture (GAIA),
Fault tolerance, in topology control, 176“177, 193 400
FDMA, 6 General Inquiry Access Code (GIAC), 119
Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 49, Geocast, 25
231 Geocasting, 206
Fixed wireless, defined, 5 Geographical Adaptive Fidelity (GAF), 293,
Fixed-neighborhood-oriented retransmission, 219 310“312
Flat routing, 289“290 Geographical routing, location-aided routing (LAR)
Flexible QoS Model for MANET (FQMM), 32 protocol, 285“286
Flooding: Geometric dilution of precision (GDOP), 239
clustering-based, 209“211 GIFT (Global Information Full Topology),
implications of, 205“229, 285 163“164
Forwarding Group Multicast Protocol (FGMP), 26 Gilbert-Elliott Error Model, 383
Forward route, 282“283 Global broadcast protocol, 207
4G wireless: Global internetwork, MANETs and, 256
architecture and capabilities, 9“12 Global Positioning System (GPS):
historical perspective, 7 characteristics of, generally, 12, 24
Frame error rates (FER), 383 localization discovery, see Localization systems
Frames, directional TDMA, 149 scatternet formation, 127
Free Space Propagation Model, 380 topology control, 162
Frequency-division duplex (FDD), 385 Global power control (GPC), 155
451
INDEX


GloMoSim (Global Mobile Information System IEEE802.11 architecture and protocols:
Simulator), 31, 399“401 ad hoc networking support, 76“77
Gratuitous RREP, 283 common problems in wireless ad hoc networks,
Greedy-compass routing (GCmp), 190“192 74“75
Greedy routing (Grdy), 189“190, 192 distributed coordination function (DCF), 72“74
Grid Location Service (GLS), 359“360 overview of, 71“72
GSM networks, 4“6 power management, 77“67
GTE Internetworking, 14 IEEE802.11 Working Group standards:
overview of, 5“6, 20, 52
routing, 276
Hello Beacons, 270 IEEE802.11B:
Hello message, 279“280 available bandwidth, 92“95, 118
Hidden-station problem, 74 channel model, 103“105
Hidden-terminal problem, 19, 152, 208 characteristics of, generally, 92
Hierarchical routing protocol, 289“292 communication gray zone, 105“107
High-density networks, 211 evolution for ad hoc networks, 108“114
High-power systems, 236 physical carrier sensing range, 101“103
HiperLAN/HiperLAN 1/HiperLAN 2, 5“6, 52, transmission ranges, 95“98
56“57 IEEE standards:
Historical perspective, 6“7 802.11, see IEEE802.11
HomeRF, 65 802.16: Working Group on Broadband Wireless
Homogenous Poisson process, 192, 197 Access Standards, 5
Hop-by-hop forwarding, 285 Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS) protocol, 76
Hop-TERRAIN algorithm, 246 Indoor experiments, 802.11, 84“85
Hotspots, 49, 69 Infrared networks, 5“6
HSR, 24 Infrared WLANs, 57
Humidity, location discovery and, 236 Infrastructure-based networks, 4
Hybrid routing: Infrastructureless network:
characteristics of, 286“287 defined, 4
zone routing protocol (ZRP), 287“288 mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), 15
Hyperlan, 15 INSANE, 395
INSIGNIA, 32
Interference, 3, 260, 382
Id, 222 Interference Range, simulation analysis, 79
IEEE802.11: Intermediate gateways, 118, 122
ad hoc networking, see IEEE802.11 ad hoc Internet, technological benefits of, 8
networks Internet protocol (IP) layer, MANETs:
architecture and protocols, see IEEE802.11 routing technology:
architecture and protocols characteristics of, 258“259
broadcasting, 217, 220“221, 226 energy conservation, 264
IEEE802.11a, 52 energy costs, 264
IEEE802.11b, 52, 92“114, 118 networks, 259“262
IEEE802.11c, 56 nodes, 259“262
IEEE802.11d, 56 power cycling, 264
IEEE802.11e, 56 transmit power control, 264
IEEE802.11f, 56 wireless characteristics, 262“264
IEEE802.11g, 55 Internet routing, 281
IEEE802.11h, 55“56 Intersymbol interference (ISI), 50
IEEE802.11i, 56 Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP), 287
MAC protocol, 145 Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP), 287
Task Groups, 55“56 Intrusion detection system (IDS), 295“296
technological overview, 53“54, 69“70 Intrusion reaction, 342
WiFi 2.4. GHz, 54, 58 Intrusion-resistant ad hoc routing algorithms
WiFi 5.2 GHz, 54 (TIARAs), 30
IEEE802.11 ad hoc networks: Inverse shortest-path (ISP):
applications, generally, 58“59 formulation, 415“418
experimental analysis, 83“91 problem, 439“442
simulation analysis, 78“83 Isotropic antenna, 141
452 INDEX


Joint gateways, 289 Location discovery algorithms:
Joint uniform region, 193 ad hoc positioning system (APS), 245
atomic multilateration, 236“238
K connectivity, 161“163 collaborative multilateration, 247“248
k-connected, 193“198 convex position estimation (CPE), 241
Key management, authentication and public key GPS-free positioning (GPSFP), 241“242
infrastructure (PKI): GPS-less low-cost outdoor localization (GPSLC),
characteristics of, 343“344 240“241
self-organized public-key management based on implications of, generally, 234“235
PGP, 344“345 locating tiny sensors in time and space (LTSTS),
ubiquitous and robust authentication services 243“244
based on polynomial secret sharing, 345“346 robust positioning algorithm (RPAD), 245“247
Kruskal™s algorithm, 207 self-localization method (SLM), 245
K-vertex/edge connected graphy, 159 Location intelligence:
4G networks, 11“12
LANMAR protocol, 22“23 wireless technology evolution, 9
Laptop computers, 5, 144, 264 Location reference group, 243
LAR, 25 Location service, 243“243
Leave and replace model, 377 Logical processes (LPs), 397
Legacy approach, 109“111 Log-normal fading, 50
Linear programming, 417, 420 Loss in channel state, 146, 150
Link Manager Protocol (LMP), 120 Loss rate, 419“420
Link scheduling, 150 Low-cost Packet Radio (LPR) technology, 14
Link-state-based routing, 21 Low-density networks, 211
Link-state protocol, neighbor discovery, 165 Lower-layer wireless protocol behavior, 260
Local broadcast protocol, 207 Low-power systems, 236
Local coordinate system, 243“244 Low probability of detection (LPD), 139, 170
Local Information No Topology (LINT), 162“164 L2CAP, 64
Localization systems:
Active Bat, 234 MACA protocol, 20
ad hoc localization system (AHLoS), 247“252 MAC protocol interaction, 412“413
Microsoft™s RADAR system, 234 Main lobe, 142
PinPoint system, 234 Master-master piconet interconnection, 118, 122
Localized Delaunay triangle (LDel), 183, 190, 192 Master selection, in piconet formation, 121
Local Multipoint Distribution Services (LMDS), 5 Maximum-lifetime routing:
Local power control (LPC), 155 capacity-cost function, 321
Location-based broadcasting, 211“212 cost function, 324
Location-based services (LBS), 231“232 max-min metric, 320“321
Location discovery: retransmissions, 324
algorithms, see Location discovery algorithms Maximum spanning ratio, 192
characteristics of, 231“233 Max-minzPmin, 322“323
defined, 231 Measurement, energy consumption:
future directions in, 251“252 Bluetooth, 303
impact of, 232“233 Lucent IEEE 802.11, 304
measurement technologies: PC 4800B card, 304
laser ranging systems, 234 Medium-access control (MAC), beamforming
RFID tags, 233“234 antennas:
signal-strength-based methods, 233 Aggressive Collision Avoidance, 155
time-based methods, 234 goals of, 144
Ultra Wide Band (UWB) radios, 234 directional (DMAC), 145“151, 166, 170
VHF Omnidirectional Range navigation power-controlled, 151“156, 170
system (VOR), 234 MERIT framework, 436“437
sources of measurement error: Mesh-based multicast routing protocols, 26
fluctuations in signal propagation speeds, 236 Message authentication code (MAC), 295, 332
multipath fading and shadowing, 235“236 Military networks, 143“144
multiple-access interference, 236 Minimum-energy broadcast, 315, 317
non-line-of-sight (NLOS), 236 Minimum-energy routing:
transducer calibration issues, 236 adaptive, 318
453
INDEX


characteristics of, 316“317 shortest (SMP), 437“439
relay regions, 317“318 Mobility models, simulation, 385“391
Minimum mean square estimation (MMSE), 237 MONARCH Project, 58
Minimum spanning tree, 187, 196 Monitoring schemes, 295“296
Missing packets, 219 Monotone graph properties, 161
MMAC, 166 Monotone increasing graph properties, 193
Mobile ad hoc networking modeling, 374“392 Most Forward within Radius (MFR) policy, 25

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