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Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs): Most Forwarding Routing (MFR), 190, 192
address management, 262 Motion traces, in simulation, 386
ad hoc routing, 21“25 Multicast, 25
advantages of, 12“13 Multicasting, 25“26
applications, 13“15 Multichannel multipoint distribution services
autoconfiguration, 261 (MMDS), 5
characteristics of, 12“13 Multihop relaying, broadcasting schemes, 214
community-based networking, 267 Multihop routing, 276
cooperative infrastructure, 267 Multihop RTS, 165“166
defined, 12 Multilevel hierarchies, 291
design of, 15“18 Multimedia, 8
energy conservation, 27“29 Multimedia Mobile Wireless Network (MMWN), 14
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), MANET Multipath routing, 284, 292“293
Working Group: Multipoint relays (MPRs), 278“279
context-aware routing, 271
future work issues, 270“271 Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), 261
history and motivation for, 269“270 Nearest neighbor routing (NN), 190“192
interfaces, types of, 270 Nearest with Forward Progress (NFP) scheme, 25
Mobile Mesh Networking, 269 Nearfield RF effects, 264
Mobile Packet Radio, 269 Neighbor, generally:
polymorphic routing, 271 discovery:
Quality of Service, 271 topology control, 157“163
routing technology, internet layer, 256“264 topology dissemination based on reverse-path
Internet Research Task Force (IRTF), 269 forwarding (TBRPF) routing protocol,
internet routing, 258“264 279“280
related work in: power control, 141
MAC protocol interaction, 412“413 elimination, 212, 217“218, 221
protocol interaction, formal models, 413 monitoring, 342
routing protocol interaction, 413 verification, 342
sensor network, 267 Neighbor-oriented retransmission, 219
stub area, 260“261, 265 NetSim, 396
TCP performance, 27 Network Allocation Vector (NAV), 75, 111, 145
technical challenges of, 18“33 Network density, location discovery and, 240
technology applications: Network interface card (NIC), 108, 112
ad hoc conferencing, 267 Network layers, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs),
cooperative infrastructure, 268 15, 18
disaster relief, 267 Network security, see Security
disconnected autonomous operation, 264 Network topology:
homeland defense, 267 IEEE802.11, 80, 82
hybrid infrastructure extension, 265“266 mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), 15
infrastructure enhancement, 265 modeling, 383
IPv6 approaches, 268 Next-hop relaying, broadcasting schemes, 214
large-scale vs. small scale use, 267“26 No power control (NPC), 155
network application areas, 267 North America, wireless technology development in,
peer-to-peer technologies, 267 6
scaled scenarios, 264
stub network extension, 265 NP-complete, 430, 432, 442
Mobile ad hoc network simulation, 392“394 NP-hard, 430, 442
Mobile hosts (MHs), 378“383 ns-2, 31, 396, 398“399, 418
Mobile paths: Nuglets, 364“365
characteristics of, generally, 436 Nulls, 143
454 INDEX


OD neighbor discovery, 163, 165 Portability, 8“9
Off-the-shelf enablers: Portable devices, 263“264. See also specific types of
digital radio properties, 50“52 portable devices
wireless local area networks (WLANs), 47“49, Power-aware multiple access protocol with signaling
52“57 (PAMAS), 294, 313“314
wireless personal area networks (WPANs), 47“50, Power-aware routing optimization (PARO) protocol,
59“66 318
OMNeT++, 396 Power consumption, 278, 394
Omnidirectional antennas, 209 Power control:
On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP), adaptive, 319
26 medium-access control (MAC):
On-demand routing, 281 applications, 151“156
1G networks, 6“7 benefits of, 139
One-hop neighbors, broadcasting schemes, 208“209, directional communications and, 140
220 neighbor discovery and, 141, 170
One-hop network, see Piconet minimum-energy routing, 315“318
On-line route search, 442“444 topology control, 314“315
OO neighbor discovery, 163, 165“167, 171 Power Controlled Multiple Access (PCMA), 152
Open systems, host sources, 378“379 Power management, IEEE802.11, 77“78
OPNET (Optimized Network Engineering Tool), 31, Power-save protocols:
166, 395 asynchronous, 312“313
Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol, 22, MAC layer, 313“314
24, 269, 278“279 network layer, 305
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing synchronous, 306“307
(OFDM), spread-spectrum technologies, topology-based, 307“312
51“52, 54“55 Power saving (PS) strategies, IEEE802.11, 77
Outdoor experiments, 802.11, 85“91 Power transmission, 293“294
Overheads, 393 Proactive routing protocols:
Over-the-horizon (OTH) communications, 14 characteristics of, 21“22, 277
destination-sequenced distance vector (DSDV)
Packet delay, 419“420 routing, 277“278, 281
Packet Radio Networks (PRNET), 14, 48 optimized link state routing (OLSR) protocol,
Parallel discrete-event simulation (PDES) 278“279
community, 398“405 topology dissemination based on reverse-path
Parallel simulation, 396“398 forwarding (TBRPF) protocol, 279“281
Parked slave, 118, 120 Probabilistic broadcasting, 211“212
Park mode, 120 Processing cycles, 276
Partial Delaunay triangulation (PDT), 184 Processing resources, 276
Partial dominant pruning, 213 Profiles, 64
Path Metric Representation Theorem, 433“434 Project MART, 58
Peak gain, 142 Promiscuous listening, 285, 296
Pecking order protocol, 129, 131 Promiscuous mode, 304
Performance evaluation, MANETs, 30“32 Propagation, speed of, 236
Personal digital assistants (PDAs), 5, 144, 264 Protocol Data Unit (PDU), 120
Physical Carrier Sensing Range: Pseudopolynomial time, 430
IEEE802.11, simulation analysis, 79 PSTN networks, 8
IEEE802.11B, 101“103
Physical topology control, 157
Piconet: Quadtree partition, 189
defined, 61, 119 Quality guaranteed protocols, 191“192
formation, 117“118, 120“121 Quality of service (QoS):
interconnection, 118, 120“123, 132“133 in design and modeling, 391
Piggybacking technique, 147“148, 213 mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), 18, 32“33
Planar spanner, in topology control, 182“185 routing technology and, 271
Point Coordination Function (PCF) protocol, support, 33
IEEE802.11, 72 Quasiglobal broadcast protocol, 207
Polynomial time-approximation scheme (PTAS), Quasilocal broadcast protocol, 207
431 Quorum system, 189
455
INDEX


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), 65“66 reliable energy-aware routes, 323“324
Radio switch-over time, 51 self-organized, 357“358
Radio turn-over time, 51 simulation, 309
RANA (Retransmission After Negative in topology control, 157, 188“192
Acknowledgments) broadcasting, 220 Routing approaches:
Random compass routing (RCmp), 189“190, 192 clustering and, 288“290
Random uniform point process, 192 components of, 275“277
Rayleigh fading, 50, 382 energy-conserving protocols, 293“294
Reactive on-demand routing protocols, 21“22 geographical, location-aided routing (LAR)
Reactive routing protocols: protocol, 285“286
ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) hierarchical protocol, 289“292
routing, 281“283, 295, 343 hybrid:
characteristics of, 281 characteristics of, 286“287
dynamic source routing (DSR), 283“285 zone routing protocol (ZRP), 287“288
Received signal strength indicator (RSSI), 236 multipath routing, 292“293
Receiving threshold, 380 proactive:
Reference distance, 380 characteristics of, 277
Reflection, 382 destination-sequenced distance vector (DSDV)
Refraction, 382 routing, 277“278, 337
Relative Neighborhood Graph (RNG), 178, 182, 190, optimized link state routing (OLSR) protocol,
192, 222“224 278“279
Relative neighbor motion, MANETs, 260 topology dissemination based on reverse-path
Relay region, neighbor discovery, 162 forwarding (TBRPF) protocol, 279“281
Reliability: reactive:
in broadcasting, 207“208 ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV)
importance of, 393 routing, 281“283, 295, 302
in MANETs, 260 characteristics of, 281
Reportable subtree (RT), 280 dynamic source routing (DSR), 283“285, 413,
Request-Power-to-Send (RPTS), 152 419, 422
Request to Send (RTS): security-aware protocols:
IEEE802.11, 74“75, 294 characteristics of, 294
implications of, generally, 20, 145 intrusion detection, 295“296
Restoration, 398 monitoring schemes, 295“296
Restricted Delaunay graph (RDG), 183“184 secure routing, 294“295
Retransmit buffers, MANETs, 260 Routing-equivalent nodes, 293
Role selecction, BlueMesh protocol, 131“132 RREP acknowledgment (RREP-ACK), 283
Route cache, 284 RTS/CTS exchange, 86“89, 111, 147“148, 152“153,
Route coupling, 293 294
Route discovery, 205, 281
Route discovery packet (RDP), 294“295, 335“336 Satellite networks, 4, 6
Route error (RERR) message, 283 Saturation point, 394
Route reply (RREP) message, 282“284, 334, Scalability, 17, 394
414“415, 423 Scattering:
Route reply packet (REP), 294“295, 336 in broadcasting, 220
Route request (RREQ) packet, 281“282, 284“286, in design and modeling, 382
334, 414, 423 location discovery and, 244
Routers, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), 13 Scatternet:
Route salvaging, 284 applications of, generally, 63
Route systems, algorithmic challenges of, 442“444 BlueMesh protocol, 127, 131“134
Route-tree-based multicast protocols, 26 defined, 119
Routing, see specific types of routing device discovery, 120“121, 124“126, 134“135
adhoc: formation, 125“131
characteristics of, 21“25 geometric techniques, 127“131
protocol optimization, 33 implementation issues, 134“136
approaches to, see Routing approaches multi-hop networks, 124“127, 136
battery-efficient, 323 piconet formation, 117“118, 121
loops, 276 piconet interconnection, 118, 121“123, 131
maximum-lifetime, 320“323 single-hop networks, 123“124
456 INDEX


Scatternet (continued) path metrics, 431“435
specifications, 117“118 path problems, 429“431
transmission range, 135“136 Short InterFrame Space (SIFS), 73
SEAD, 337“338 Signal Stability Algorithm (SSA), 23
Secure routing protocol (SRP), 332“333 Signal Stability Routing (SSR), 23
Security: Signal-to-interference-noise ratio (SINR), 150“151,
cooperation enforcement: 383
Confidant, 341 Signal to noise ratio (SNR), 107, 383
CORE, 341“342 Simple MANET node, 259
importance of, 339“340 Simulation:
Nuglets, 340 cross-layer interaction, 418“422
token-based, 342“343 design and modeling of wireless and mobile ad
key management, 343“346 hoc networks:
mechanisms, in layers: mobile ad hoc networking modeling, 374“392
Bluetooth security mechanisms, 349“351 mobile ad hoc network simulation, 392“394
wired equivalent privacy (WEP), 347“349 introduction to, 373“374
relevance in data-link layer, 352 MANETs, 30“32, 34
mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), 17, 29“30, 34 techniques:
overview of, 329“330 characteristics of, 394“395
routing: parallel and distributed simulation, 396“398
exploits allowed by existing routing protocols, sequential network simulation testbeds, 395“396
331 wireless network simulators based on PDES,
protocols, overview of, 332“339 398“405
wormhole attack, 338“339 Slots, directional TDMA, 149“150, 153“154
Security enhanced routing protocol, 342 Small-world graphs (SWGs), 357
Security-aware routing (SAR) protocols: SNR threshold, 107
characteristics of, 294“295 Solar-operated devices, 264
intrusion detection, 295“296 Some-for-all service, 188“189
monitoring schemes, 295“296 Some-for-some service, 188
secure routing, 294“295 Source nodes, 276
Self-healing, 122 Source routing, 423
Selfishness, 360, 363 SPAN protocol, 222
Self-organized network: Span, power-save protocols, 309“310
communication in, 357“360 Spatial reuse, 143“144, 150, 156
community, defined, 355 SPIN protocol, 222“223
cooperative modeling, 360“367 Split multipath routing (SMR) protocol, 292
routing, see Self-organized routing Spread-spectrum (SS), 51
Self-organized routing: Stability, 393
anchor paths, 358“359 Static topology control, 158“163
friends nodes, 358 Steered beam system, 143
grid location service (GLS), 359“360 Stochastic geometry, 192“198
node collaboration, 356 Stretch factor, 178“179
peculiarities of, 357 Stub area, MANETs, 260“261
social model, 356 Survivable Adaptive Radio Networks (SURAN)
terminode routing, 357“358 program,48
Self-Positioning Algorithm (SPA), 242 Survivable Radio Networks (SURANs), 14
Sender-oriented retransmission, 219 SWAP (Shared Wireless Access Protocol), HomeRF,
Sensor networks, 205 65
Sensor sleep node schedule, 221“222 SwiMNET, 401“405
Separation oracle, 441 Switched beam antenna system, 143“144, 148, 169
Settling time, 278 Switched diversity, 143
Shadowing, 382 Symmetric node, 278“279
Shortest-path algorithm, 224 Synchronous Connection Oriented (SCO), 61
Shortest paths: Synthetic simulation models, 386“387
characteristics of, 428“429
F-shortest path, 435“436 Tactical Internet (TI), 14
inverse problem, 439“442 TDMA/FDMA, 52
mobile (SMP), 437“439 Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA), 23
457
INDEX


Testbeds, sequential network simulation, 395“396 Two-hop neighbors, broadcasting schemes, 213,
Threats, secure routing and, 331 220
3G networks, 6“9 Two-Ray Ground Reflection Model, 380
3GPP, 6
3GPP2, 6 Ubiquitous Computing, 266
Throughput, 393 Ultra Wide Band (UWB), spread-spectrum
TIK (TESLA with instant key disclosure), 335 technologies, 51, 57
Time dispersion, 50
Time-Division Duplex (TDD), 119, 385 Uncovered node, 288
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) networks: Undirected graphs, 159
antenna beamforming, 144“145, 149“151 Unicast, 25
applications, generally, 5“6 Unit Delaunay triangulation, 182
directional, 149“151 Unit disk graph (UDG), 120, 127, 131, 177, 186,
spatial reuse, 150 191
Time to live (TTL), 276, 283 Untethered scenario, MANETs, 266“267
Time-varying communication channels, MANETs, Update messages, 277“278
260 Up-to-date routes, 277
Time Warp simulator, 404 User Datagram Protocol (UDP), 412
Topology control: Utilization, 393
bounded node degree, 179“182 UxDMA, 151
characteristics of, 177“178
known structures, 178“179 Vertex connectivity, 193
localized routings: Virtual carrier sensing (VCS), 145
location service, 188“189 Visibility graph, 120
protocols, 189“191 Voronoi region, 182
quality guaranteed protocols, 191 VRC-99A, 14
neighbor discovery:
using beamforming antennas, 163, 165“166 WaveLAN (Lucent), 14
comparison of topologies, 168“169 W-DCMA, 6
defined, 157 Wideband acoustic ranging system, 243“244
dynamic, 162“163 Wi-Fi networks:

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