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Hemisphere colonies are discussed in Chapter 4 of Colonists in Bondage by
Abbott Emerson Smith. The purchase of freedom in ancient times was
mentioned on pages 18-19, 25, and 83 of The Slave Systems of Greek and
Roman Antiquity by William L. Westermann. Purchase of freedom later in
the Western Hemisphere is mentioned on pages 7-8, 24-26, 31-34, 63,
86, 88, 90, 91, 96,125, 225-226 of Neither Slave Nor Free: The Freedmen of
African Descent in the Slave Societies of the New World, edited by David W.
Cohen and Jack P. Greene. Lincoln's remark about every drop of blood
drawn with the lash being repaid in blood drawn by the sword is from his
second inaugural address.


CHAPTER 3: THE ECONOMICS OF MEDICAL CARE
Information on the Soviet Union's medical care system is from a front-page
story in the Wall Street Journal of August 18, 1987, titled "Soviet Health
System, Despite Early Claims, Is Riddled by Failures." Japan's shorter and
more numerous patient visits to doctor's offices, compared to such visits in
the United States, are reported on page 350 of American Health Care results
on page 352, edited by Roger D. Feldman. Similar experiences in Korea and
in Canada's Quebec province is from page 352 of the same book. Canada's
medical system's problems were discussed in BusinessWeek magazine, August
31,1998 in a story titled "Canada's Health-Care System Isn't a Model Any-
more," beginning on page 36. Information on Britain's government-run
228 Sources


medical system is from page 76 of an essay titled "Will Money Cure the
NHS?" by Paul Wallace in The World in 2003, published by The Economist.
The quoted material about France's health-care system is from an article ti-
tled "A Hypochondriac's Paradise" in the British magazine, New Statesman,
September 18, 1998, page 28. London's newspaper The Guardian reported
the story of the British girl who received a breast implant in its November 9,
1998 issue, page 6, under the title, "Girl, 12, to Get Breast Implant." The
San Francisco cardiologist who ordered unneeded bypass surgery is men-
tioned in a front page story in the San Francisco Chronicle of November 2,
2002 under the headline: "Doctors Raised Red Flags in 1997." China's med-
ical problems were reported in The Economist of November 7,1998 on page
71, in an article titled "Pharmaceuticals in China: Overdosed" and in The
China Business Review of November 1, 1998, in an article titled "Medical
Investment Alternatives," beginning on page 47. The 10,000 people in
Britain who had waited 15 months or more for surgery were reported in The
Economist magazine of London on page 55 of its April 13, 2002 issue. The
British woman whose cancer surgery was postponed until it had to be can-
celled because the cancer had become inoperable during the long delays was
mentioned in The Economist of November 24, 2001, on page 52. Bribes in
Tokyo hospitals are mentioned on page 351 of American Health Care.
China's medical problems were reported in The Economist of November 7,
1998 on page 71, in an article titled "Pharmaceuticals in China: Overdosed"
and in The China Business Review of November 1, 1998, in an article titled
"Medical Investment Alternatives," beginning on page 47. The story about
the woman who bought several pairs of eyeglasses with her medical savings
account is from page Dl of the November 2, 2002 issue of the Wall Street
Journal in a story "Getting Uncle Sam to Cover Your Massage: Rush to Use
Up Medical Savings Accounts Prompts Creative Reading of Rules." The
proportion of uninsured people in various age brackets is from the front
page of the Wall Street Journal of March 17, 2003, under the title, "A Young
Woman, An Appendectomy, and a $19,000 Debt" by Lucette Lagnado. The
problems created by high jury awards and the resulting rise in the cost of
medical malpractice insurance are discussed in the February 27, 2003 issue
of the Wall Street Journal OnLine in an article titled "Delivering Justice" by
Sources 229

Walter Olson and in a front-page article in the print edition of the same
newspaper on June 24, 2002, titled "Assigning Liability," beginning on page
A4. The quotation from the medical study of the causes of infant brain
damage and cerebral palsy was from page A12 of the February 27, 2003 is-
sue of the Wall Street Journal, under the title "Delivering Justice" by Walter
Olson. The quotation from the official of Pfizer is from page 68 of the Jan-
uary 20, 2003 issue of Fortune magazine, under the title "The $10 Billion
Pill" which began on page 58. The fact that the development of a new drug
costs hundreds of millions of dollars has been reported in many places, in-
cluding the multi-tiered pricing at such places as the UCLA Medical Cen-
ter, is covered in a front-page article in the Wall Street Journal of March 17,
2004 titled "A Young Woman, An Appendectomy, and a $19,000 debt" by
Lucette Lagnado.The same article is the source of data on the ages of unin-
sured Americans. The fact that developing a new medication costs hun-
dreds of millions of dollars has been reported in a number of places,
including page A15 of the November 11, 2001 issue of The New Yorker un-
der the title "No Profit, No Cure," by James Surowiecki in the July 22,2002
issue of the Wall Street Journal in an editorial titled "Drug Prices: A Much-
Needed Primer." The Food and Drug Administration's ban on advertising
the uses of aspirin as a heart-attack preventative is discussed on pages
285-286 of American Health Care, edited by Roger D. Feldman, in an article
titled "Ignorance is Death: The FDA's Advertising Restrictions," by Paul
Rubin. The fact that some clinical trials of new drugs add an additional
eight years to the approval process is reported on pages 6 and 7 of the Feb-
ruary 2003 issue of Fraser Forum under the title "Using Our Heads on
Head-to-Head Trials," by John H. Graham. The pharmaceutical drug test-
ing that takes eight years is discussed on pages 6 and 7 of the February 2003
issue of Fraser Forum in an article titled, "Using Our Heads on Head-to-
Head Trials," by John H. Graham Fraser.


CHAPTER 4: THE ECONOMICS OF HOUSING

The affordability of a two-bedroom apartment on a nurse's salary in various
cities was reported on page 34 of the December 7, 2002 issue of The Econo-
230 Sources


mist under the title "The Roof That Costs Too Much." The increase in the
number of commuters into the San Francisco Bay area from outlying coun-
ties was reported in the March 6, 2003 issue of the San Francisco Chronicle
on page A15 under the title "Census Sees Long Ride to Work" by Michael
Cabanatuan. The nearly four-fold rise of home prices in Palo Alto during
the 1970s, the closing of several schools there as enrollments declined, and a
decline in the city's population in general, were mentioned on pages 10, 85,
89, and 90 of a 1982 study by the Stanford Environmental Law Society ti-
tled Land Use and Housing on the San Francisco Peninsula, edited by Thomas
M. Hagler. The use of political power by affluent northern Californians to
protect the status quo in their communities is covered in many parts of this
same study. Statistics on the decline of the black population in various Cali-
fornia communities between the 1990 and 2000 censuses are from the fol-
lowing publications of the U.S. Bureau of the Census: 1990 Census of
Population: General Population Characteristics California PC”1”6 Section 1 of
3; 2000 Profiles of General Demographic Characteristics California; 2000 Pro-
files of General Demographic Characteristics California (U.S. Census Bureau
online: 2001). The fact that the rate of increase in California incomes was
below the national average during the time when California housing prices
skyrocketed is from page 238 of a 1995 book by William A. Fischel titled
Regulatory Takings: Law, Economics, and Politics. [Land use restrictions in
Loudoun County, Virginia, were described in the Washington Post of July 24,
2001, in a story beginning on page Bl, titled "Loudoun Adopts Strict Con-
trols on Development" by Michael Laris. The fact that nearly half the rent-
controlled apartments in San Francisco had only one tenant is from page 21
of San Francisco Housing DataBook, a 2001 study commissioned by the city
and produced by consultants called Bay Area Economics. The fact that Ur-
ban Renewal destroyed more housing than it created and that more than
three-fifths of the people displaced by Urban Renewal were black or Puerto
Rican can be found on pages 6-7 and 221 of The Federal Bulldozer (1964
edition) by Martin Anderson. Jacob Riis' observations on the frugality of
Jews living in the slums on the lower side of New York are from pages 71”72
and 84 of How The Other Half Lives, 1970 edition, published by The Har-
vard University Press. The fact that most Jewish immigrants came to the
United States with their fares prepaid by family members already living in
Sources 231


America is from pages 112-113 of "Immigration of Russian Jews to the
United States: Background and Structure" by Simon Kuznets in Perspectives
in American History, Vol. IX (1973). Among the Irish immigrants, as well, at
least one-third, "and possibly as many as one half," crossed the Atlantic with
their fares paid by family members already living in America, according to
page 394 of "The Irish Famine Emigration to the United States," in Per-
spectives in American History, Vol. X (1976). Overcrowding on the lower east
side of New York when it was a predominantly Jewish neighborhood was
discussed in an article in the September, 13, 1966 issue of the New York
Times Magazine titled "The Negro Today is Like the Immigrant Yesterday,"
by Irving Kristol. Improvements in the housing of Southern blacks in the
nineteenth century are discussed on pages 108-109, 111 of Competition and
Coercion by Robert Higgs. Discussions of black Philadelphians in the nine-
teenth century are from pages 7, 34-35, 316 of The Philadelphia Negro by
W. E. B. DuBois. The lesser amount of racial segregation in nineteenth
century Northern cities, compared to their twentieth century ghettos, is
mentioned in a footnote on page 176 of a 1970 book by St. Clair Drake and
Horace B. Cayton titled Black Metropolis; in Chapter 1 of Black Chicago by
Allan H. Spear; on pages 26, 55, 69, and 73 of Before the Ghetto by David
M. Katzman; on page 12 of Harlem: The Making of a Ghetto by Gilbert Os-
ofsky; on page 7 of The Philadelphia Negro by W. E. B. DuBois; and on page
127 of The Secret City by Constance Green. Official government policies
promoting racial segregation are discussed on pages 24-25 of a 1978 book
titled The Builders by Martin Mayer. Data on the continuing segregation of
the descendants of northern and southern Europeans in the United States
are from page 154 of Affirmative Discrimination by Nathan Glazer. Exam-
ples of improving race relations in Northern cities in the nineteenth century
are cited, along with the sources, on pages 70 and 71 of my Markets and Mi-
norities”and the subsequent retrogressions in race relations in the North
on pages 72 and 73. Hostile reactions to Southern migrants within the ex-
isting black communities in Northern cities have been documented in many
places, including pages 66-67 and pages 73-76 of the first volume of Black
Metropolis by Drake and Cayton; page 168 of Black Chicago by Allen Spear;
pages 284-285 of the 1971 edition of The Negro in the United States by E.
Franklin Frazier; pages 96-97 of Black Migration: Movement North,
232 Sources


1900-1920 by Florette Henri; page 44 ofHarlem: The Making of a Ghetto by
Gilbert Ososky; and in Figure 1 (after page 100) of Ethnic Enterprise in
America by Ivan H. Light. The spread of cholera through nineteenth century
Irish neighborhoods was discussed on page 114 of Boston's Immigrants by
Oscar Handlin and page 181 of To the Golden Door by George Potter. Vio-
lence in Irish neighborhoods in various cities is discussed on page 238 of To
the Golden Door by George Potter p. 238; on page 126 of Immigrant Mil-
waukee, 1836-1860 by Kathleen Neils Conzen; and on page 30 of The Irish
in America by Carl Wittke.


CHAPTER 5: RISKY BUSINESS
Information on low-income residents doing their shopping and banking in
higher-income neighborhoods is from pages 10 and 28 of The Thin Red
Line: How the Poor Still Pay More, written by David Dante Trout and pub-
lished in San Francisco in 1993 by the Western Regional Office of Con-
sumers Union. The subtitle refers to an earlier study, The Poor Pay More by
Theodore Caplovitz. Neither study explains the systemic economic causes
behind the things they describe but this was done by economics professor
Walter E. Williams in an article titled "Why the Poor Pay More: An Alter-
native Explanation" which appeared in Social Science Quarterly in September
1973, pages 372-379. The problems encountered by banks lending in "sub-
prime" markets were reported in the Wall Street Journal of August 16, 2001
in a front-page story titled "As Economy Slows, 'Subprime' Lending Looks
Even Riskier." The Federal Housing Authority's higher delinquency rates
on loans to lower income buyers from page 19 of the November 18-24,2002
issue of The Washington Post National Weekly Edition under the title "A Day
Late, a Dollar Short," by Caroline E. Mayer.
Ralph Nader's comments about automobile safety are from his book
Unsafe at Any Speed, pages vii, ix, x, 14, 18, 26, 42. Automobile fatality
rates are from pages 719 and 720 of the U. S. Bureau of the Census's 1975
publication Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970.
The results of the government study of the safety of the Corvair were re-
ported in the Congressional Record: Senate, March 27, 1973, pages 9748 to
9774. Its conclusion about the Corvair's performance is quoted from the
Sources 233

Wall Street Journal of July 23, 1971 (on-line) in an article by Charles B.
Camp titled, "Popularity of Nader Declines to Its Nadir Among Corvair
Owners." Information on New Jersey's experience under state regulation
of automobile insurance is from page 24 of The Economics of Life by Gary
Becker and Guity Nashat Becker. The quote from the Japanese pilot
about the risks of wearing parachutes in aerial combat are from page 123
of Samurai by Saburo Sakai, 1963 edition published by Ballantine Books.
The quote about re-insurance from the London magazine, The Economist
is from its June 30, 2001 issue, page 66, in an article titled "Filling A
Gap." Information on the Swiss Reinsurance Company is from An Intro-
duction to Reinsurance, a brochure published by Swiss Re. Information on
varying motor vehicle death rates by age are from page 109 of The Insur-
ance Information Institute Fact Book 2001. Per capita agricultural output
and meat consumption in the Soviet Union were discussed on page 61 of
The Turning Point by Nikolai Shmelev and Vladimir Popov. The comment
on higher death rates from natural disasters in poorer countries were
made in an article by Indian economist Batrun S. Mitra titled "Dealing
with Natural Disasters: Role of the Market" in the December 2000 issue
of Journal des Economises et des Etudes Humaine. The quotation from Paul
Samuelson in defense of social insurance schemes and the economic and
demographic data on their problems are from an article titled "Snares and
Delusions" on pages 5 and 6 of a special section within the February 16,
2002 issue of The Economist. The special section is titled "Time to Grow
Up."


CHAPTER 6: THE ECONOMICS OF DISCRIMINATION
Discrimination against black workers in public utilities was reported on
page 96 of Negro Employment in Public Utilities by Bernard E. Anderson,
published by the University of Pennsylvania Press in 1970. W. E. B.
DuBois' comments on the hiring of black workers in the nineteenth century
are from pages 323 and 395 of The Philadelphia Negro. Bias against lower-
caste people in India is discussed on page 553 of Competing Equalities by
Marc Galanter. The comment that the Chinese could do everything better
and more cheaply than Malays is from page 25 of The Malay Dilemma by
234 Sources


Mahatir bin Mohamad, published in Kuala Lumper by Federal Publications
in 1983. The comment about the more "thrusting" people of southern Nige-
ria was quoted on page 178 of Ethnic Groups in Conflict by Donald L.
Horowitz. Similar comments from various other countries are quoted on
pages 171 to 181 of the same book. The quoted paragraph about Japanese
immigrants by an advocate of restricting their immigration was quoted on
page 123 of East to America: A History of the Japanese in the United States by
Robert A. Wilson and Bill Hosokawa. Pre-World War II discrimination
against blacks and Jews by non-profit organizations is discussed on pages
695 and 705 of "Through the Back Door, Academic Racism and the Negro
Scholar" by Michael R. Winston in the Summer 1971 issue ofDaeda/us; on
page 480 of American Democracy by Harold J. Laski, and on page 323 of An
American Dilemma by Gunnar Myrdal. Violations of apartheid laws by
white employers are discussed on page 164 of Apartheid: A History by Brian
Lapping and page 41 of Capitalism and Apartheid by Merle Lipton. Expan-
sion of Jewish ghettoes during the Thirty Years' War is discussed in Chapter
V of European Jewry in the Age of Mercantilism: 1550-1750 by Jonathan I. Is-
rael. The relationship between the Jews and the Poles in Chicago in the
early twentieth century is discussed on page 229 of The Ghetto by Lewis

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