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Wirth. The fact that black young men from homes with newspapers, maga-
zines, and library cards had the same incomes as white young men of the
same description when they had the same education is from Chapter 4 Black
Elites by Richard Freeman. The similarity of blacks, whites, and Hispanics
of the same age with the same IQs is reported on page 323 of The Bell Curve
by Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray. The fact that single women
who had worked continuously into their thirties had slightly higher incomes
than single men of the same description is from page 203 of The Economic
Report of the President, 1973. The non-comparability of untouchable and
caste Hindu students who seemed at first to be comparable is from pages
357, 366, 391, 396, 406, 414, and 418 of a doctoral dissertation at the Tata
Institute of Social Science in Bombay (Mumbai) 1982 titled "Inequality in
Higher Education: A Study of Scheduled Caste Students in Medical Col-
leges of Bombay by Padma RamKrishna Velaskar. The non-comparability of
black and white faculty members in the United States is from pages 81 to 89
Sources 235


of a study of mine titled "Affirmative Action in Faculty Hiring," reprinted
in Education: Assumptions versus History. Qualitative differences between
students from different social groups in Malaysia, Israel, Sri Lanka, India,
and the United States are documented in the following studies: Mohamed
Suffian bin Hashim, "Problems and Issues of Higher Education Develop-
ment in Malaysia," Development of Higher Education in Southeast Asia: Prob-
lems and Issues (Singapore: Regional Institute of Higher Education and
Development, 1973), pp. 56”78; Chandra Richard de Silva, "Sinhala-Tamil
Relations and Education in Sri Lanka: The University Admissions Issue”
The First Phase, 1971-7," From Independence to Statehood: Managing Ethnic
Conflict in Five African and Asian States, edited by R. B. Goldmann and A. J.
Wilson (London: Frances Pinter, 1984), pp. 125-146; Sammy Smooha and
Yochanan Peres, "The Dynamics of Ethnic Equality: the Case of Israel,"
Studies of Israeli Society, edited by Ernest Krausz, (New Brunswick: Transac-
tion Books, 1980), p. 173; Suma Chitnis, "Positive Discrimination in India
With Reference to Education," From Independence to Statehood, pp. 31-43;
Thomas Sowell, "Ethnicity in A Changing America," Daedalus, Winter
1978, pp. 231”232. The study claiming racial discrimination in mortgage
lending was reported in many places, including the front page of the Wash-
ington Post of June 6, 1993 under the title, "A Pattern of Bias in Mortgage
Loans" by Joel Glenn Brenner and on page Al of the March 31,1992 issue
of the Wall Street Journal in a story titled "Behind the Figures: Federal Re-
serve Detail Pervasive Racial Gap in Mortgage Lending," by Paulette
Thomas. The fact that whites were turned down for mortgage loans more
often than Asians was reported on page A8 of the November 30,1992 issue
of The Wall Street Journal in a story titled "Blacks Can Face a Host of Trying
Conditions in Getting Mortgages," by Paulette Thomas. The differing qual-
ifications of black and other mortgage loan applicants is discussed in Chap-
ter 15 of Backfire by Bob Zelnick. The attribution of residual differences in
mortgage loan approval rates was attributed to discrimination by Alicia H.
Munnell in Mortgage Lending in Boston: Interpreting HMDA Data, Working
Paper No. 92-7, October 1992, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, pages 2,24,
25. Differences in wealth by blacks and whites in the same income brackets
are shown on page 20 of the Census Bureau publication Current Population
236 Sources

Reports, Series P-23, No. 173. Documented details on the many ways that
women and men with the "same" education differ can be found on pages
38-40 of my The Vision of the Anointed. The great over-representation of peo-
ple of German ancestry in the St. Petersburg Academy of Science is discussed
on page 195 of The Volga Germans by Fred C. Koch; the over-representation
of Jews among physicians in Poland and Hungary between the two World
Wars is discussed on page 339 of Diaspora by Howard M. Sachar and on
page 27 of The Jews of East Central Europe between the World Wars by Ezra
Mendelsohn; and the over-representation of southern Nigerians in the pro-
fessions in northern Nigeria was discussed on pages 40 and 41 of Nigeria's
Statistical Yearbook 1965, published by the Ministry of Economic Planning in
Kaduna. The statement by an Illinois state official condemning the use of
tests that were harder to "disadvantaged" minorities to pass is quoted from
pages 3133 and 3134 of a compendium compiled by the U. S. Equal Employ-
ment Opportunity Commission under the title, Legislative History of Titles
VII and XI of Civil Rights Act ofl 964.


CHAPTER 7: THE ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONS

The epigraph at the beginning of the chapter is from page 79 of From Sub-
sistence to Exchange and Other Essays by Peter Bauer, published in 2000 by
Princeton University Press. Comparisons between Argentina's economic
standing in the world in the early twentieth century and in the early
twenty-first century are from page 26 of The Economist of March 2, 2002,
under the title, "A Decline Without Parallel." Changes in the relative posi-
tions of India and China were reported on page 28 of a study conducted by
McKinsey consultants titled "India”From Emerging to Surging." The in-
formation that the United States, with less than 5 percent of the world's
population, produces more than 30 percent of the world's output is from
page 4 of a special section titled "Present at the Creation" in The Economist
of June 29, 2002. The tenuousness of property rights in many Third World
countries was discovered in an international study reported in The Mystery
of Capital by Peruvian economist Hernando de Soto, published in 2000 by
Sources 237

Basic Books. The lengthy processes required to get legal title to real estate
in Egypt and Haiti are from page 20 to 21 of that book. The illegal buses,
taxis and food vendors in Third World countries are discussed on page 28.
The enormous value of legally unrecognized economic assets in various
poor countries is discussed on page 32 to 35. The role of property rights in
enabling strangers to combine their assets for corporate ventures beyond
the reach of any given individual is discussed on pages 56 and 61. Another
analysis of the same phenomenon appeared in The Economist of March 31,
2001 under the title "Poverty and Property Rights," pages 20 to 22. The
greater accessibility of San Francisco from China than from the banks of
the Missouri was mentioned on page 65 of The Chinese of America by Jack
Chen, published by Harper & Row in 1980. The importation of kerosene
by the city of Tiflis from Texas was discussed on page 60 of The Prize: The
Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power, by Daniel Yergin, published by Si-
mon & Schuster in 1990. Similarly huge disparities in costs between land
transport and water transport in Africa, Japan, and England are mentioned
on page 5 of The Geography of Modern Africa by William A. Hance, pub-
lished by Columbia University Press in 1964; page 515 of East Asia: Tradi-
tion & Transformation, revised edition, by John K. Fairbank, Edwin O.
Reischauer, and Albert M. Craig, published by Houghton Mifflin Co. in
1989; and on page 72 of "Coal and Steam Power," by Nick von Tunzel-
mann in Atlas of Industrializing Britain 1790-1914 published by Methuen
& Co., Ltd., in 1986. The cost of shipping wheat in the Ottoman Empire
is from page 184 of "Imperial Borderlands or Capitalist Periphery? Re-
defining Balkan Backwardness," by John R. Lampe, in The Origins of Back-
wardness in Eastern Europe, edited by Daniel Chirot. The relative costs of
shipping oil by various modes is from page 124 of Walker Connor, Eth-
nonationalism: The Quest for Understanding by Walker Connor, published
by Princeton University Press in 1994. Samarkand's role as a crossroads of
desert routes is mentioned on pages 176 and 178 of Before European by
Janet L. Abu-Lughod. The manpower used to carry cocoa by porters and
by train is discussed on page 54 of The Economic Revolution in British West
Africa by Allan McPhee published by Frank Cass & Co., Ltd., 1971. The
fact that every one of the early industrial regions in Europe had the benefit
238 Sources


of navigable waterways was discussed on pages 492”593 of An Historical
Geography of Europe: 1800-1914 by N. J. G. Pounds, published by Cam-
bridge University Press. The lack of fossil fuels, urbanization, railroads, and
rivers in the Balkans, and its cultural fracturing, are mentioned on pages 43,
132,178-179, 430, 459, and 485 of the same book. The characterization of
the Balkans as "self-sufficient" is from page 488 of the same work. The lo-
cations of Russian rivers are discussed on page 2 of The Industrialization of
Russia: A Historical Perspective, third edition, by William L. Blackwell, pub-
lished by Arlington Heights, Illinois: Harland Davidson in 1994. The role
of waterways in Genoa and Mombasa as sole outlets for productive regions
was discussed on pages 263 and 283 of Influences of Geographic Environment
by Ellen Churchill Semple, published by Henry Holt and Co. in 1911. On
the role of the port of Dubrovnik, see page 147 of "The Geographical Set-
ting of Medieval Dubrovnik," by Josip Roglic in Geographical Essays on
Eastern Europe, edited by Norman J. G. Pounds, published by Indiana Uni-
versity. The role of the Gulf stream in Europe's weather is discussed on
pages 14, 92 of Europe: A Geographical Survey of the Continent by Roy E. H.
Mellor and E. Alistair Smith, published by Columbia University Press in
1979. The dearth of rain in Spain is mentioned on page 365 of An Economic
History of Spain by James Vicens Vives, published by Princeton University
Press in 1969 and the dearth of rainfall in Sicily is mentioned on page 35 of
The Sting of Change: Sicilians in Sicily and Australia by Constance Cronin,
published by the University of Chicago Press in 1970. The incomes of im-
migrants from Southern and Eastern Europe in the United States are dis-
cussed on page 15 of U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, The Economic
Status of Americans of Southern and Eastern European Ancestry, published by
the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights in 1986. These immigrants also took
more years to reach the average income of native-born Americans. See
Barry R. Chiswick, "The Economic Progress of Immigrants: Some Appar-
ently Universal Patterns," The Gateway: U. S. Immigration Issues and Policies
(Washington: The American Enterprise Institute, 1982), page 147. Illiter-
acy among these immigrants is discussed on page 72 of Ethnic Patterns in
American Cities by Stanley Lieberson, published by the Free Press of Glen-
coe in 1963. The lag of their children in education and IQ_are discussed in
Sources 239


Peter Fox, The Poles in America (New York: Arno Press, 1970), p. 96;
Leonard P. Ayres, Laggards in Our Schools: A Study of Retardation and Elim-
ination in City School Systems (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1909),
pp. 107-108; Reports of the Immigration Commission, 61st Congress, 3rd
Session, Vol. I: The Children of Immigrants in Schools (Washington: Gov-
ernment Printing Office, 1911), p. 48-49, 89, 90; Thomas Sowell, "Race
and I.Q. Reconsidered," Essays and Data on American Ethnic Groups, edited
by Thomas Sowell (Washington: The Urban Institute, 1978), p. 207. That
many Southern Europeans tended to speak local dialects, rather than the
official languages of their respective countries was discussed on page 58 of
Southern Europeans in Australia by Charles A. Price, published by the Aus-
tralian National University, 1979), p. 58. Their geographic origins are men-
tioned on pages 16, 17n, and 24 of the same book. The earnings and
occupations of various Southern European groups in Australia are dis-
cussed on pages 47, 63, and 68 of A Profile of the Italian Community in Aus-
tralia, by Helen Ware, published by the Australian Institute of
Multicultural Affairs in 1981. Differences in rainfall on different sides of
mountain ranges are discussed on page 31 of The Mountains of the Mediter-
ranean by J. R. McNeill and on page 132 to 133 of Physical Geography of the
Global Environment by H. J. de Blij and Peter O. Mueller, published by
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The ratio of people to land in India is from page
72 of Asian Drama by Gunnar Myrdal, abridged edition, published in 1972
by Vintage Press. The fact that Germans ate dogs and cats to avoid starva-
tion during the blockade in the First World War is mentioned on page 79
of Against the Dead Hand: The Uncertain Struggle for Global Capitalism by
Brink Lindsey. The classic study of Stalin's man-made famine in the Soviet
Union is Harvest of Sorrow by Robert Conquest. Horrifying as Dr. Con-
quest's estimate”in the millions”of the deaths during this famine were,
when the Soviet archives were eventually opened in the last years of the
Soviet Union, it turned out that he had under-estimated how many had
died.
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INDEX



Baseball, 173-174
Academia, 37-38,44-46,169,174,
180,183,184 Basic Economics, ix
Advertising, 84, 87-89 Basketball, 161,168,191
Affirmative Action, 166,168,186, Bauer, Peter T., 14,39,193
187,189 Bias, 165-167,168,185
Africa and Africans, 14,15, 55, 61, Black Markets, 75,114
62,63,176,193,199,202,203, Blacks, 20,24-25, 51, 56,108-109,
204,206,207,209,212,214, 119-125,126,150,161,163,
219 164,168,169,171,172-174,
Age, 34,150,181 175-176,176,179,180,183,
Agriculture, 22-23,28,195-196, 184,185,187,191,211
212-214,216-217,218 Bribes, 75
AIDS, 83,136 Britain, 38, 39, 41,47, 48,49, 61,
Alcohol, 162 64, 72, 73,74, 76,, 195,197,
Argentina, 148,193,194,211 205
Alsace-Lorraine, 209 Broadway, 161,173
Asian Americans, 184”185 Burglars, 33, 47
Aspirin, 88-89
Australia, 9, 48, 79,113,148,196, Caesarian-section Births, 80, 92
202,211,212 Canada, 38, 48, 69, 72, 73, 83, 86,
Automobiles, 28-29,130-131,137, 114,180,213
140,141-145,146,149-151, Canary Islands, 196,202
156 Capital, (see Human Capital)
Central Planning, 17-23
Balkans, 66,13,205,208,210 Check-cashing agencies, 132,
Banco Popular, 133-134 133-134
Banks, 132,133,134 Chernobyl, 26

241
Index
242




Children, 32, 38, 98, 108, 137, 145 Economic Development, 148,
193-222
Chinese, 163, 185
Economics, ix, 126-127
Cholera, 163
The Economist, 9, 22, 43, 72, 108,
Civil War, 119
148, 199
Climate, 210-215
Economists, 22, 28, 128, 175-176
Clinton, Bill, 5
Coal, 9 Education, 8-9, 57, 211
Consumers, 130, 142, 144 Elections, ix, 19
Corvair, 141-144 Electricity, 11-12, 140-141, 216,
Costs, 10-11, 12, 28, 41, 69, 70, 72, 218
Emergencies, 10
74, 77, 78, 82-83, 84, 86, 87,
88, 92, 94, 99, 115, 116, Environment, 26, 116
126-127, 130, 131, 132, 133, Ethnic Minorities, 108, 111, 133
137, 138, 140, 141, 142, Europe, 20, 42, 61, 91, 113, 117,
118, 121, 161, 163, 176, 177,
146-147, 148, 150, 152-154,
195, 197, 202-203, 205, 206,
155, 168, 169-179, 181,188,
218 209,210,211,212,213,215,
Credit-Rating Agencies, 159 217, 220
Crime, 46-49, 126, 131, 132, 162, Evidence, 115
Exploitation, 42, 219-221
163
Eyeglasses, 77
Decisions,
categorical: 3, 127, 141, 153, 155, Families, 26-27, 63, 129,135-136,
156 145, 146

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