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will not happen instantaneously or unproblematically, but requires
individuals to reach out across the divide. Even under the Khatami
administration, reformists who enjoyed positions of social standing, if
not power, did not take such steps; and given that instead they returned
to a modernist ideology which compartmentalizes society into tradi-
tional and modern elements, it is not promising that they will be able to
mobilize potential allies and move away from viewing Iranian society
282 Bazaar and State in Iran

through stale sociocultural dichotomies. If the successful overthrow of
the Shah during the Islamic Revolution demonstrated the mobilizing
power of networks (including traditional, informal, and religious ones),
then the failure to date of the pro-democracy current illustrates that the
necessity to devise coalitions by expanding networks to include more
diverse constituents and nurture a sense of obligation to participate.
Until Iranians begin to see their society as theirs to mold and forge,
rather than bound to an unbending structure (be it a socioeconomic or
divinely ordained one), their political actions will remain shackled by
normative exclusion and leave political deliberation con¬ned to an
isolated few.
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283
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