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community 68, 70, 73, 77, 89, 90, 91, 94, participant observation
100, 118, 120, 124“5, 127 Evans, Peter 12
see also governance and form of
governance Fanselow, Frank 63, 64“5, 223, 224, 225
comparative research design 26, 28
form of governance see governance and
Constitutional Revolution 9, 235“6, 249
form of governance
cooperative hierarchy 3, 23, 30, 73, 106, foundation (bonyad) 102, 107, 108, 114,
107“8, 170, 180, 204, 206, 213, 272, 162“3, 166, 167, 168“9, 174, 258,
275, 281 265, 267
during Pahlavi era 29, 30, 76, 77, 85, 89, Foundation of the Oppressed and Disabled
99, 111, 119, 121, 125“6, 127, 138, 102, 155, 167“8
141, 145, 146, 176, 188, 195, 209,
free trade zone 108, 172, 174, 175“6, 177,
272
183, 184, 211, 218
and social movements 229“30, 261“3,
273“4
Geertz, Clifford 9“10, 63, 64“5, 90“1, 99,
see also governance and form of
223“4, 225, 270, 275
governance
governance and form of governance 3,
credit 80, 81, 82, 85“91, 99, 111“13, 121,
16“19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 28, 29“30, 73,
123, 140, 144, 166, 176, 194, 195,
75, 76, 77, 106, 109, 125“6, 127“8,
197, 209, 213, 217, 275; see also
141, 146, 157, 186, 187, 188, 206,
promissory note
221“2, 223, 225, 228, 230, 259, 261,
cross-cutting relations 3, 16, 17, 18, 21, 76,
265, 269, 271“3, 275; see also
77, 99, 106, 107“8, 116“17, 121,
cooperative hierarchy and coercive
128, 170, 173, 176, 191“2, 195, 205,
hierarchy
206, 208, 217, 221, 224, 226, 248“50,
Granovetter, Mark 24, 67“9, 72
272
Greif, Avner 76, 275
guild-elder 90, 224; see also network-makers
Dastmalchi, Karim 255
dawlati 102, 103, 115
democratization 280“2 Hajeb al-Dawleh Timcheh 43, 100,
Denoeux, Guilan 60“1 215“16, 217, 220, 223
dispute resolution 70“3, 90, 138, 194 hajji 115
Dubai, United Arab Emirates 108, 170, Hajj-Tarkhani, ˜Ali 155
172, 173, 176, 177, 183, 184, 199, Hajj-Tarkhani, Kazem 155
211, 213, 218, 276 Hamburg, Germany 56, 192“3, 201, 205, 223
300 Index

Harvey, David 129 153“4, 156“7, 163“6, 166“7, 199“204,
Hashemi-Rafsanjani, Akbar 161, 169 209“11, 213“14, 217“18, 226“7
hayat (religious association or circle) 93“4, structure of the state 153, 158“9, 171,
101, 229, 233, 243, 248“50, 252“3 175, 280
Hedayat, Sadeq 55 Islamic Republican Party 102, 153, 155,
hierarchy 17, 73, 88, 100, 115, 124, 125, 126; 169, 254“5
see also governance and form of Islamic Revolution 1, 10, 5, 9, 23, 101,
governance 102, 147, 150, 231, 240“8, 249, 250,
high modernism 3, 4, 20, 129“32, 134, 259, 261, 270, 282
135, 226, 274, 277“80
Jabbari, Mina 251
Imam Khomeini Relief Committee 155, 200 Jacobs, Jane 98
Imam Reza Shrine in Mashhad (Astan-e Javaherian, Ahmad 255
Qods-e Razavi) 137, 167, 168, 200 Jazani, Bijan 56, 57
import substitution industrialization 79, Jervis, Robert 13
139; see also economic policies
Industrial and Mining Bank of Iran 130 Keddie, Nikki 48, 229
industry and industrialists 43, 45“6, 52, 63, Khamenei, ˜Ali 158
67, 68“9, 79, 85, 98, 101, 103, 105, Khamushi, ˜Ali-Naqi 155
134, 135, 137, 143, 144, 149“50, 153, Khamushi, Taqi 155
155, 166, 167, 168, 175, 188, 218, Khatami, Mohammad 159, 169, 213, 228,
220, 226, 234, 241, 242, 246, 272, 268, 281
274, 277, 278 Khayyami, Ahmad 79
informal sector 30, 61, 104“5, 108, khiyabani 96, 137
109“10, 127, 174“6; see also smuggling Khomeini, Ruhollah 4, 158, 239, 248, 250,
information 22, 62“3, 66, 81, 82, 83, 88, 262
109, 126, 144, 145, 176, 195, 206, and anti-White Revolution revolt 238“9
215, 216, 225, 226, 272, 273; see also and Islamic Coalition Association (ICA,
commodity type Jam˜iyyat-e Motalefeh-ye Eslami) 101,
institutions 2, 3, 11, 12, 15, 16, 19, 20, 22, 63, 155“6
64“5, 70, 72, 73, 89, 91, 125, 127, 135 and Islamic revolution 101, 147“8,
interest-free credit associations (qarz 150“1, 247“8, 253“4
al-hassaneh) 159, 261 views on bazaar 1, 101, 134“5, 152,
interviewing 4, 30“4, 108 154“5, 156“7, 231
Iranian Association of China and Kish (Free Trade Zone) 108, 109“10, 170,
Glassware 114 171, 173, 174, 175
Iranian Carpet Company (Sherkat-e
Sahami-ye Farsh-e Iran) 197, 200,
Ladjevardi Family 43, 79, 98“9, 117, 143
Iran-IraqWar103,151,152“69,175,210,217
Lajevardi, Asadollah 155
Isfahan 92, 122, 131, 183, 192, 193, 217,
Lebaschi, Abolqasem 237, 246, 251, 252,
228, 243, 245, 257, 266
253
Islamic Association™s of Tehran™s Guilds
Liberation Movement of Iran 243, 246,
and Bazaar 266“7
247“8, 253
Islamic Coalition Association (ICA or
long-term relations 3, 16“17, 76, 77, 80,
Jam˜iyyat-e Motalefeh-ye Eslami) 101,
83, 84, 99, 106, 107“8, 170, 173,
102, 115, 121, 153, 155“6, 162, 231,
191“2, 204, 221, 224, 272
252, 263, 266, 267
Islamic Economy Organization 155
Islamic populism 147“8, 150“2, 157, 166, Makhmalbaf, Mohsen 55
186, 274; see also Islamic Republic Malinowski, Bronislaw 74
Islamic Propaganda Organization 155 merchant (importer or exporter, tajer) 75,
Islamic Republic 1, 2, 4, 5, 9, 115, 128, 76, 78“9, 80, 93, 101, 107“8, 110,
146“7, 187, 189, 240, 259 111, 122, 123, 124, 140, 146, 160,
economic policies 20, 65, 103“4, 106, 165, 172, 183, 184, 190, 191, 193,
107“8, 110, 111, 112, 148“50, 151, 196“7, 198, 199, 201, 202, 203,
Index 301

205“6, 209, 213, 216“17, 218, 219, and space 227
225, 232, 235, 239, 250, 258, 263 and state policy 185“6
middlemen (vaseteh) 84, 102, 110, 118, and transnational commerce 173“5
170, 172“4 and value chains 80, 84, 172, 176, 180,
Migdal, Joel 11, 13, 14 184“5, 222“3, 271, 273
Ministry of Agriculture 210, 213, 214
Ministry of Commerce 155, 166, 169, 200, Oil Nationalization Movement 236“8, 249
210, 214
Ministry of Construction Crusade 200
Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza (Shah) 141,
Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance
236, 248
113, 171, 174
and Islamic Revolution 242, 282
Ministry of Finance 166
and modernity 1, 4, 130“1, 134, 186
Ministry of Interior and Security Forces
and rule 4, 29
158, 213
views on bazaar 1, 6, 23, 133, 134, 241
minorities, ethnic and religious 45, 92,
Pahlavi, Reza 42“3, 141, 197, 207, 222,
113“14, 172, 176, 192
255“67
modernization theory 47“52, 133“4
Pahlavi monarchy (regime) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 59,
Montazeri, Hosayn-˜Ali 149
65, 127, 128, 187, 274, 277
Mosaddeq, Mohammed 9, 236“7, 252, 263
economic policies 1“2, 20, 85, 112,
mosque 49, 92“3, 98, 112, 113, 115, 169, 244
134“5, 139“40, 145“6, 198, 209, 226
mosque-bazaar alliance see clergy-bazaar
structure of the state 42“3, 91
relations
Parsa, Misagh 59, 78, 101, 126, 173, 240,
Mottahedeh, Roy 62
247, 248, 251, 259, 260
movements and mobilization 28, 30, 58,
participant observation 30, 36“7, 108, 252;
228“9, 229“30, 233, 235, 239“40,
see also ethnography, interviewing
251, 255“67, 269, 270, 280“2; see also
patronage 152, 170“3, 176, 263; see also
networks and movement
state incorporation
Mozaffari, Mehdi 255“6, 260
Podolyn, Joel 117
mozarebeh (limited partnership contract) 112
Polyani, Karl 67, 69
multifaceted relations 3, 16, 17, 18, 21, 76,
promissory note (safteh) 87, 89, 90, 111, 217
77, 98, 99, 106, 107“8, 113, 117, 120,
170, 173, 176, 191“2, 195, 205, 206,
208, 217, 221, 224, 248“50, 272 Qazvin 50, 95, 117, 134
Musavi, Mir-Hosayn 153 Qeshm (Free Trade Zone) 108, 109“10,
170, 171, 173, 174, 175
Qom 62, 193, 238, 239, 246, 247“8, 250
Naderi, Amir 55
National Front 246, 247“8, 253, 263
National Iranian Industrial Organization 166 Rafiqdust, Mohsen 102, 155
National Tea Organization (NTO) 211, Raiis-Dana, Fariborz 127
213, 214, 224 Rastakhiz (newspaper) 53
Nazemi, Nader 152 rational choice theory; see neo-classical
neo-classical economics 62, 66, 68“9, 83, economics
106, 221 rentier state 29, 127
network-makers 21, 78, 83, 127 reputation and reputation system 17, 83“4,
networks 16, 19, 21, 23“4, 37, 41, 43, 95, 100, 104, 106, 138, 141, 160, 172,
60“1, 67“9, 70, 125, 141, 147 176, 189, 191, 193, 194, 204, 219,
and credit 88, 89, 90, 99 261, 262,
and hierarchy 17, 83, 99“100 and credit 77, 84, 88“9, 91, 113, 213
and information 94, 194, 215, 225 and networks and forms of governance
and markets 47, 61, 81, 82, 91, 106 29, 63, 64, 70“3, 75, 91, 99, 115, 117,
and reputation 118, 120, 124; see also 118“23, 124, 125, 126, 138, 146,
economic sociology 205“6, 212, 224, 272
and social movements 3, 23, 28, 230, Resalat (newspaper) 231, 267
234, 260“1, 277“9, 282 retailer 81, 85, 110, 144, 250
and solidarity 103, 166 Rezaii, Mohsen 102
302 Index

Rorty, Richard 74, 271 state-society relations 5, 11“12,
Rotblatt, Howard 38, 40, 50“1, 90, 93, 95, 14“15, 16, 30, 57, 72, 103
117, 134, 251
Tabriz 114, 193, 217, 228, 243, 257, 266
safteh see promissory note Taleqani, Mahmud 246, 247
Salam (newspaper) 228, 265 Tarrow, Sidney 260“1
Sassan, Saskia 170, 173 Taylor, Michael 16“19
Scott, James 13“14, 67 tea sector 187, 188, 206, 209, 215“19, 222,
Shah see Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza, 224, 226
Pahlavi, Reza and commodity type 208
Shari˜atmadari, Mohammad Kazem 246, Islamic republic policies 209“11,
250, 255 213“14, 226“7
Shiraz 183, 217, 228, 257, 266 Pahlavi monarchy policies 207, 209, 226
short-term relations 3, 128, 147; see also Tea Wholesalers™ Trade Association (of
long-term relations Tehran) 212, 222
Shush (square and area in Tehran) 182, Tehran 25, 30, 116, 257, 266, 268
219“20, 223 growth of city 41“3, 49, 143“4, 178
Singerman, Diane 60, 185 population 114, 141, 178
single-faceted relations 3, 116“17, 118, 128, urban planning 132“3, 141“2, 169,
205; see also multifaceted relations 180“2, 184
Skocpol, Theda 12, 41, 279 Tehran Bazaar,
Smith, Benjamin 251, 256“7 see Bazaar, Tehran
Smuggling 36, 106, 108“9, 114, 118, Tessler, Mark 253
121, 122, 127, 170, 173, 176, 185, Theiss, Gustav 38, 39, 40, 76, 94, 95, 119,
211 135, 137
carpets 199, 202 Tobacco Protests 229, 234“5, 249
china and glassware 218, 219 trade association (ettehadieh) 137
tea 211“12, 212“13, 215 traffic zone, restricted 35, 136, 181“2, 220,
social capital 18, 121 226
social revolution 147, 279“80 transformative state 2“3, 4“5, 14, 128, 136,
Society of Merchants, Guilds, and Artisans 148, 152, 277“9
236, 238, 243, 247, 262 trust and trustworthiness 18, 22, 31, 74,
solidarity 3, 17, 24, 30, 59, 74, 76, 77, 91, 83, 89, 90, 94, 95, 106, 115, 118“23,
95, 99“100, 118, 125, 126, 127, 138, 125, 176, 185, 189, 191, 195, 204“5,
146, 156, 215, 250, 259, 260, 270“1, 224, 232, 239, 251“2, 261, 262, 263,
272, 273, 281 281; see also reputation
and social movement 261, 262, 263,
264, 271, 273; see also networks, unintended consequences 1“2, 186, 277“9
solidarity
space 5, 21, 30, 41, 59, 71“2, 73, 96“9,
White Revolution 9, 238“9; see also
145, 177, 180, 223, 262, 274
anti-White Revolution Protests
Spooner, Brian 231 wholesaler 79“80, 81, 88, 101, 102,
state 10“14, 103; see also rentier state, 110“11, 144, 181, 207, 219, 250
transformative state
state incorporation 3, 147, 156, 157, 161,
Yashar, Deborah 260
170
Cambridge Middle East Studies


1 Parvin Paidar, Women and the Political Process in Twentieth-Century Iran
2 Israel Gershoni and James Jankowshi, Rede¬ning the Egyptian Nation,
1930“1945
3 Annelies Moors, Women, Property and Islam: Palestinian Experiences, 1920“1990
4 Paul Kingston, Britain and the Politics of Modernization in the Middle East,
1945“1958
5 Daniel Brown, Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought
6 Nathan J. Brown, The Rule of Law in the Arab World; Courts in Egypt and the
Gulf
7 Richard Tapper, Frontier Nomads of Iran: The Political and Social History of the
Shahsevan
8 Khaled Fahmy. All the Pasha™s Men: Mehmed Ali, His Army and the Making of
Modern Egypt
9 Sheila Carapico, Civil Society in Yemen: The Political Economy of Activism in
Arabia
10 Meir Litvak, Shi™i Schlolars in Nineteenth-Century Iraq: The Ulama of Najaf
and Karbala
11 Jacob Metzer, The Divided Economy of Mandatory Palestine
12 Eugene L., Rogan, Frontiers of the State in the Late Ottoman Empire:

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