. 1
( 54 .)


This page intentionally left blank

In ±°, the Byzantine empire was conquered by troops from
western Europe ostensibly taking part in the Fourth Crusade. This
was a hugely signi¬cant event for the subjects of the empire, radically
altering the Byzantines™ self-image and weakening their state for the
later con¬‚ict with the Ottoman Turks. Using the theory of ethnicity “
a comparatively recent tool with regard to the pre-modern era “ Gill
Page provides fresh insight into the late Byzantine period, providing
a corrective to nationalistic interpretations of the period of Frankish
rule and more broadly to generally held assumptions of ethnic hos-
tility in the period. A systematic analysis of texts in Greek from the
period ±°°“±°, from both ends of the social spectrum, is backed
up by an in-depth study of Frankish rule in the Peloponnese to reveal
the trends in the development of Byzantine identity under the impact
of the Franks.

gill page studied Classics at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, before
beginning a career in museum education. After completing an MA in
Medieval History at the University of Manchester, Dr Page went on
to complete a doctorate at the University of Leeds.
Greek identity before the Ottomans

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo

Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK
Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York

Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521871815
© Gill Page 2008

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the
provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part
may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published in print format 2008

ISBN-13 978-0-511-45760-9 eBook (NetLibrary)

ISBN-13 978-0-521-87181-5 hardback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy
of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication,
and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain,
accurate or appropriate.
This book is dedicated to my parents, Mike and Pam,
and also to Paul

List of illustrations page ix
Acknowledgements x
A note on the use and transliteration of Greek xi
Abbreviations xii
Reference works xiii

Introduction: The Frankish conquest of Greece
Identity and the Frankish conquest: the story so far

± Ethnic identity? ±±
Subjectivity, tradition and naming
Ethnic criteria
Boundaries: us and them
Method: the historians

 Byzantine identities ·
Byzantium before the Fourth Crusade
The terminology
Before ±°: a crisis of identity ·

 Niketas Choniates ·
Choniates: the collective political identity
Choniates: the ethnic identity
Other forms of self-identi¬cation
The vocabulary of otherness

 The thirteenth century: ambition, euphoria and the
loss of illusion
George Akropolites and the rise of Nikaia
Pachymeres and the Palaiologoi
Political, territorial and ethnic identities: the story so far
Akropolites and Pachymeres: other forms of self-identi¬cation
De¬nitely not Romans . . .

viii Contents
µ The nightmare of the fourteenth century ±
Nikephoros Gregoras and John Kantakouzenos
The political Roman identity in the fourteenth century
The ethnic Roman identity in the fourteenth century
Not only Roman but also . . . ?
De¬nitely not Roman “ but why?

 Meanwhile, a long way from Constantinople . . . ±··
The Peloponnese and the Chronicle of the Morea
The Villehardouin principality
The principality after the Villehardouins
The Chronicle of the Morea: an analysis
The Chronicle in context: Franks and Romans under the Angevins
Being Roman in Frankish Morea

· The long defeat 
The sources
Romans and others at the court of Mistra
Peloponnesian identities in the later Greek Chronicle of the Morea
Being Roman in the ¬fteenth-century Peloponnese

 Roman identity and the response to the Franks ·
Questions . . .
And answers . . .

Map 1: The Aegean region
Map 2: The Peloponnese
Appendix 1: Key content items
Appendix 2: The origins of the Chronicle of the Morea

(All photographs taken by the author)

± Decorative pillars at the ruined Frankish cathedral,
page 
Glarentsa (Kyllini) in the Peloponnese
 Window on the south wall of the monastery at
Vlakherna, near Kyllini in the Peloponnese
 The earliest wing of the despot™s palace, Mistra µ
 St George, from Agios Nikolaos at Polemitas in the Inner Mani 
µ St Theodore, from Trissakia near Tsopakas in the Inner Mani ·
 Frankish soldiers featured in the arrest at Gethsemane,
from Trissakia near Tsopakas in the Inner Mani


This book began life as a doctoral thesis at the College of York St John, a
college of the University of Leeds. The doctorate was supervised by Peter
Lock of York St John and Graham Loud of Leeds, to whom thanks for
keeping me going.
I would also like to thank my examiners, Michael Angold of Edinburgh
and Ian Wood of Leeds, who encouraged me to consider reworking the
thesis with the aim of publication. Additionally, my thanks to the anony-
mous readers of the CUP, who have given me crucial and much-appreciated
guidance. Thanks also to Miriam Harriott and Paul Leigh for tramping
around the Peloponnese with me.

A note on the use and transliteration of Greek

As far as is possible without confusing the contemporary reader in English,
I have utilised direct transliterations from the Greek. Thus I have written
Kantakouzenos rather than Cantacuzenus, Palaiologos rather than Palaeolo-
gus, and Nikaia rather than Nicaea. However, I have made use of some
non-direct transliteration in the case of those names which have passed
into everyday English usage; thus, for example, I have written Constantino-
ple rather than Konstantinoupolis, Theodore rather than Theodoros, George
rather than Georgios.
The analysis of Greek texts requires that a lot of vocabulary must be
cited in Greek. Where Greek words are used more than once I have, at
the ¬rst occurrence, given the word in Greek, accompanied by a translit-
eration and a translation. For subsequent occurrences, I have given only
the transliteration. A Glossary at the end of the text lists all these words in
Greek, transliterated and translated.


ABSA Annual of the British School at Athens
AHR American Historical Review
BMGS Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies
BZ Byzantinische Zeitschrift
DAI De administrando imperio
DCAH Deltion tes Christianikes Archaiologikes Hetaireias
DOP Dumbarton Oaks Papers
EB Etudes Balkaniques
ERS Ethnic and Racial Studies
GRBS Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies
JMH Journal of Medieval History
MGH Monumenta Germanial Historica
PG Migne, J.-P. (ed.) (±µ·“) Patrologiae Graecae Cursus
Completus (± vols.). Paris
PL Migne, J.-P. (ed.) (±“µµ) Patrologiae Latinae Cursus
Completus (two series, ±· vols.). Paris
REB R´vue d™´tudes byzantines

. 1
( 54 .)