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cessibility Initiative. If the portal needs automatic translation, users can
incorporate WebSphere Translation Server.

Content Management
WP provides the user the ability to syndicate content or to get up-to-date
personalized and ¬ltered content and services from multiple subscriber
sources such as Financial Times, Hoovers, Factiva, and others. These sub-
scribers support the Rich Site Summary (RSS) format, so their news and
entertainment content can be displayed, managed, and edited with WP™s
built-in RSS portlet.
WebSphere Portal also enables the user to manage the creation, approval,
and publishing of Web content through the support of Web Content Man-
agement products. Integration kits are provided on how to publish RSS
content from Web Content Management vendors such as Documentum
and Vignette. WebSphere Portal also provides its own sophisticated Web
Content Management system called IBM Lotus Workplace Web Content
Management (ILWWCM).
ILWWCM (formally known as Aptrix) is an enhanced Web Content Man-
agement System that replaced WebSphere Content Publishing. ILWWCM is
a separately installed component that you need to get from your IBM repre-
sentative. In the next version, it should be totally integrated into WebSphere
Portal.
ILWWCM is designed for organizations with users that publish content
to a Web site, whether it is marketing updating product information or hu-
man resources updating information on bene¬ts. Content can be published
through templates or forms and consists of images, Word documents, Excel,
HTML, and so forth.
Through the ILWWCM administrator, users can contribute content, have
it categorized, and deployed in a controlled manner using a work¬‚ow
model. ILWWCM manages the task list of each user and through the es-
tablishment of role security enables what content can be changed, created,
or deleted by a user. With the use of the work¬‚ow model, it coordinates the
review and publishing process.
To address more sophisticated content manager requirements, use IBM
Content Manager.

Document Management
WebSphere Portal Document Manager (PDM) provides users the ability to
view, add, edit, and delete documents within a common folder hierarchy
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10 Chapter 1


that can be user-de¬ned. Documents can be made available immediately
or to go through an approval process using a de¬ned work¬‚ow model.
PDM uses WP™s access controls, so users can de¬ne who can create, read,
update, and/or delete a document based on their roles. Authorizations can
be set by folder, which will be inherited to the subfolders. PDM provides a
subscription capability that enables users to see in their Update folder, for
a speci¬ed period, a document when it is changed.
PDM supports multiple different types of documents and provides pro-
ductivity components that enable users to create and edit rich text, spread-
sheets, and presentation documents within their browser.


Search
WebSphere Portal provides the user with a vast range of search capabilities.
It is built on a sophisticated search engine that supports free-text queries
with query assistance and query word completion. Queries can be per-
formed in any language and can use wildcard, advance query operators,
synonyms, stop word lists, and ¬elded search options. The results of the
search can be summarized, clustered, and/or categorized using categories
that are prede¬ned (over 2,400 categories) or user-de¬ned. WP can index
and then search text and 200 other ¬le formats using built-in document
¬lters over the intranet or Internet. Use of the search capabilities is made
through the search portlet, the WP crawler, or the document indexer. Both
the crawler and the document indexer have a complete scheduler.
Enhanced search is also provided through IBM Lotus Extended Search
and DB2 Information Integrator. Portlets using these technologies can in-
tegrate and combine other search engines and indexes. Lotus Extended
search also allows seamless searches across a collection of Domino servers,
databases, and the Internet where the user perceives that the collection of
systems is a single server.


Collaboration
WebSphere Portal provides complete support for collaboration through the
Notes, Domino, and Domino Web Access portlets. These portlets provide ac-
cess to collaboration applications that use Lotus Notes databases on Domino
servers such as Mail, Calendar, To Do, Notes View, TeamRoom, and Discus-
sion. Additional portlets are available that integrate Domino.doc, Discovery
Server, QuickPlace (Lotus Team Workplaces), and Sametime (Lotus Instant
Messaging and Web Conferencing).
WP offers Collaboration Center, which is a framework that integrates
People Finder, the Web Conference Center, QuickPlace, and Sametime.
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Introducing WebSphere Portal 11


QuickPlace provides workspaces for sharing and organizing ideas while
Sametime provides instant messaging, shared white boards, and electronic
meeting support.
WebSphere Portal enables integration of Domino, Sametime, QuickPlace,
and Discovery Server into your portlet by providing Lotus Collaboration
Components that are a suite of APIs and JSP tags.


Personalization
WebSphere Personalization server, which is a component of WebSphere
Portal, provides the ability to display speci¬c content to site users based
on business rules. A business rule is the representation of a business re-
quirement using a coding language based on English language syntax and
semantics. The personalization server works by performing the following
tasks:

1. Creating a user pro¬le by collecting user information and classifying
it into segments
2. Creating models for the content that de¬nes it by its attributes. For
instance, a content model might contain product name, price, and
age segment.
3. Matching the user segment to the content on the basis of any
combination of ¬ltering, rules, or recommendation engine.

The personalization rules are referenced in the portlets. They are cre-
ated using Web-based tools. You use the rules to classify site visitors into
segments and then match the content to the segment.
Another method provided to match site visitors with content is through
the recommendation engine. The recommendation engine uses statistical
techniques to identify groups of users with similar interests.
WebSphere Portal also provides implicit pro¬ling services that enable
the dynamic creation of personalization business rules based on site visitor
data.
WebSphere Portal also provides campaign management tools, which en-
able a business goal to be reached by de¬ning and executing a set of business
rules. For instance, you may have a campaign to increase sales of a particular
product. To do this, you de¬ne business rules that identify likely customers
based on the attributes of site visitors or registered users. Content can be
displayed on your Web site or personalized e-mail can be sent. Campaigns
have start and stop times; they can be prioritized, and can be run in parallel
with other campaigns.
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12 Chapter 1


Performance
No matter how sophisticated your portal is, it will not be effective if it does
not meet your performance, functional, and personalization requirements.
WebSphere Portal creates logs that feed into the IBM Tivoli Web Site Ana-
lyzer. The Web Site analyzer will analyze the data and report metric in both
graphic and text formats so that you can determine the effectiveness of your
Web site and focus on areas to improve it.


The Developer Experience
WebSphere Portal allows the developer to focus on functionality devel-
opment rather than deal with look-and-feel function. Programmers cre-
ate portlets that are simple Java applications that are extensions to HTTP
servlets. Through portlets, they can access and manipulate Web-based con-
tent (such as Web pages, syndicated content feeds) and other Java appli-
cations/portlets through messaging and/or Web services and not have to
deal with issues relating to look and feel. Figure 1-3 shows the page layout
and how portlets ¬t in.




Figure 1-3 The parts of a portal page.
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Introducing WebSphere Portal 13


WebSphere Portal also provides a mechanism for portlets to communi-
cate with each other. The developer can send information through a portlet
action and a portlet message. For instance, when a portlet displays informa-
tion on a city, a second portlet can display its weather information by having
the city portlet create a portlet action and encode it into the URL that is used
for displaying weather. Upon clicking the URL, an action listener is called
and then a portlet message is sent to the city portlet for the name of the city.
This method requires an extensive design and coding work. WP pro-
vides another method to pass messages independently called cooperative
portlets. Cooperative portlets can be “Click-2-Action” or “wired.” Portlets
express their desire to interact with a broker who at runtime matches data
types between the sources of one portlet with the action of another portlet.
If a match occurs with a “Click-2-Action portlet,” a pop-up menu appears
on the page that will enable the user to transfer the data to the connected
portlet. If the portlet is wired by an administrator, then the data will be
exchanged automatically as opposed to having to wait for the user to click
the pop-up menu.
WP gives developers the ability to develop portlets very easily using
Web Clipping. This feature enables developers to visually or text select
portions of a Web page and create a portlet that displays the information
and optionally rewrite the links. Clipping portlet can support other sites™
security through the use of WP Credential Vault.
Through the portlet Application Programming Interface (API), Web-
Sphere Portal provides programmers the ability to dynamically discover
available services, thus keeping service code independent of the portlet. WP
provides discoverable services for managing the portal™s content repository,
persistent TCP/IP connections, and the Credential Vault. Other services
such as mail can be implemented by the portal developer.
WebSphere Portal provides developers with a rich set of security API. Por-
tal server supports the JAAS architecture. JAAS is a component of the stan-
dard Java security model that enables authenticating subjects and ¬ne-grain
access control. Developers can use the JAAS API to access JAAS-enabled
back-end applications and can also use the credential API to authenticate
without seeing the credential secret.
WP provides developers with support for Web Services for Remote
Portlets (WSRP) 1.0, a new standard that allows “plug-n-play” of Web Ser-
vices with Portals. WSRP enables remoting the presentation layer as op-
posed to regular Web services, which focus on remoting application data.
WSRP transmits the actual markup rendered by the remote portlet.
WP provides basic support for JSR 168 1.0 portlets. JSR 168 is a Java
Speci¬cation Request that de¬nes a common set of portlet capabilities and
API. This will allow JSR 168 compliant portlets to run in any vendor™s portlet
container that supports the JSR 168 standard.
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14 Chapter 1


If developers need to quickly access Enterprise Application Systems such
as SAP, PeopleSoft, Siebel, then they can use WebSphere Portal Application
Integrator. This tool allows rapid development of portlets through a GUI.
The developer chooses ¬elds and operation that he or she wants enabled
in the portlet from objects found by the tool through querying the back-
end system. Operations include searching, updating, deleting, and creat-
ing records. WPAI can also support integration of relational databases and
Domino applications.
Developers can easily develop, test, and debug portlets using WebSphere
Studio suite in conjunction with the portal toolkit. Wizards are available
to you for creating portlets, building the portlet deployment descriptor,
packaging it into a WAR ¬le, and then deploying it into your production or
test WP server.



The Administrator Experience
WebSphere Portal enables an administrator to have complete dynamic con-
trol over user access right for every portal resource including portlets, pages,
and user groups. Control is set by using permissions. The permissions are
de¬ned by the user role. WP has de¬ned roles (Administrator, Security Ad-
ministrator, Delegator, Manager, Editor, Privileged User, and User), which
the administrator or user associates with the resource. A role has a set of
permissions that determine whether he/she can view, update, delete, or
create the resource. If a role is assigned to a page, group, or folder, then re-
sources below the parent inherit the permissions unless they are speci¬cally
blocked. A user can also delegate his or her role to other users. Adminis-
trators can also lock pages and/or page layout, thus restricting the impact
component users can have on the company portal.
WebSphere Portal Member Services provides administration services
through portlets for creating, updating, and deleting portal users and for
managing their access rights. These services are provided at both the user
and group levels. Users can be members of one or more groups and groups
can be members of other groups. Users also have the ability to register and
manage their own account information in the language of their choice (given
that support has been implemented). Portal Administrators can de¬ne the
information about the user that will be collected. User pro¬le information

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