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can be supported in an LDAP and/or a database. Extended information
about a user pro¬le that is not supported by the default LDAP schema can
be stored in a look-aside database.
Users can administer themselves (“self-care”) or a separate administrator
can perform the administration. Registration and self-care are done using
forms that are easily modi¬ed.
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Introducing WebSphere Portal 15


WebSphere Portal supports form-based authentication (HTML user
prompted form) through WAS or a third-party authentication server such
as Tivoli Access Manager or Netegrity Siteminder. Single sign-on is also
supported through WAS, and third-party authentication servers are also
supported using LTPA tokens. WP also provides a Credential Vault service
that allows portlets to store and access securely user IDs and passwords for
applications that are accessed on remote systems.
WebSphere Portal gives the administrator the ability to control the portal
globally by setting the default language, the cache timeout, handling of new
user sessions, taking action when an unauthorized user accesses a portlet,
and mapping of URLs.
WP also enables administrators to de¬ne new mobile devices and
browsers so the portal will know what markup language to use and what
the capabilities of the device/browser are.
Of course, WP also provides the standard features that allow users and
administrators to easily install, activate, and con¬gure portlets, themes,
skins, and pages.
Tools are also provided to ease batch administration, migration, and con-
¬guration. Administrators can also enable and control tracing.



WebSphere Portal Architecture
So you now understand what WebSphere Portal does, but you would won-
der how it works. WebSphere Portal is basically a suite of J2EE Enterprise
Applications running and interacting with each other on the WAS.
In Figure 1-4, you can see the WebSphere Portal Architecture. It consists of
three components: the page aggregator, the portlet container and services,
and the J2EE engine. It starts with the page aggregator getting an HTTP
request from WAS and then performing the following tasks:

1. Determines the device and user information based on the request
2. Collects the pages and portlets requested and then ¬lters them based
on the user entitlements
3. The portal dispatches speci¬c Java Server Pages (JSPs), which issue
includes for portlet Web modules. These portlet Web modules are
invoked as servlets and are then rendered based on their service
method (edit vs. view). This process results in the layout of the rows,
columns, and graphics of the page.
4. Portlets that perform actions and execute messages such as
Click-2-Action are processed ¬rst.
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16 Chapter 1




Figure 1-4 The WebSphere Portal Architecture.


5. Portlets that support the target markup are added to the rendering
phase.

The second component is the Portlet Container and services. This com-
ponent controls the portlets and provides services for them to interact with
other applications or platforms. Portlets are simple independent HTTP
servlets that are reusable and communicate with each other or other re-
sources with well-de¬ned interface. Services, such as Search, collaboration,
and Document Manager, extend the functionality of the portlet to support
an Enterprise environment.
The standard for the portlet API is JSR 168. JSR 168 is still evolving and
as such is still a subset of the functionality of the WP Portlet API. As JSR
168 evolves, the respective WP Portlet API will be deprecated. Presently,
both API are very different, have their own containers, and are supported
independently.
The last component is the J2EE Engine under which Portal runs. J2EE or
Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition is an open standard made of components
needed to build enterprise applications. J2EE also de¬nes the application
and platform model these components run under.
The Java Application Model consists of application components: Java ap-
plication clients, applets, servlets, JSPs, and Enterprise Java Pages (EJPs).
J2EE also de¬nes the Java run-time environment each component runs
in. They are called containers and they run on Java 2 Platform, Standard
Edition. J2EE also standardizes services which enable applications to inte-
grate with Enterprise Applications. Services comprise JDBC for database
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Introducing WebSphere Portal 17


connectivity, JMS for messaging, JavaMail, JAAS for JavaMail, Java API for
XML Processing (JAXP), Java IDL, and Java Transaction Architecture for
persistent transactions. IBM WebSphere Application Server is fully J2EE
certi¬ed. Certi¬cation is obtained executing successfully the compatibility
test suite.
In the WebSphere Portal architecture, you can see that security through
authorization and authentication is supported by both the portlet container
and services component and the J2EE engine.


WebSphere Portal Packaging
IBM WebSphere Portal V5.0 has two types of packages for the enterprise and
two additional packages for small business. Table 1-1 describes the pack-
ages for the enterprise. IBM WebSphere Portal Enable for Multiplatforms,
version 5.0 is the basic package, while IBM WebSphere Portal Extend for
Multiplatforms version 5.0 is the full package.

Table 1-1 Packaging for WebSphere Portal Enable and Extend for Multiplatforms,
Version 5.0
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION ENABLE EXT-END
Portal server J2EE application running in WAS. Provides X X
portal framework consisting of
presentation, user management, security,
connectivity, and other services. Also
includes IBM Cloudscape, version 5.1; a
Java-based database.

WebSphere Provides J2EE services for WebSphere X X
Application Portal. Includes IBM HTTP Server and
Server deployment manager
Enterprise 5.0
Fix Pack 1

IBM Directory LDAP Directory Server for storing and X X
Server version retrieving user data required for
5.1 authentication

IBM DB2 Relational database required to store X X
Universal portal data
Database
Enterprise
Server Edition,
version 8.1
with Fix Pack 1

(continued)
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18 Chapter 1

Table 1-1 (continued)
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION ENABLE EXT-END
Portal toolkit WebSphere Studio plug-in that aids in the X X
5.0 development, testing, and debugging of
portlets

WebSphere Integrating development environment for X X
Studio Site building, debugging, testing, and
Developer deploying J2EE applications with HTML
version 5.0 pages, servlets, and JSPs
with Fix Pack 1

Web Content Provides complete Web content X X
Management management system, document
management, and personalization server

IBM Tivoli Web Provides information on site availability X
Site Analyzer, and performance
version 4.5

IBM Translates Web pages, e-mail messages, X X
WebSphere and chat conversations into multiple
Translation languages
server 5.0

IBM Lotus A suite of APIs and JSP tags that enables X X
Collaborative integration of Domino, Sametime,
Components QuickPlace, and Discovery Server into
your portlet

IBM Lotus Framework that integrates People Finder, X
Collaboration the Web Conference Center, QuickPlace
Center and Sametime

IBM Lotus Enables searches across distributed X
Extended structured and unstructured data through
Search version a single point of access
4.0

Sametime Instant messaging and online awareness X

QuickPlace Virtual teamrooms X




Table 1-2 describes the packages for the small business. IBM WebSphere
Portal-Express for Multiplatforms, version 5.0 is the basic package while
IBM WebSphere Portal-Express Plus for Multiplatforms version 5.0 has
some additional features. IBM WebSphere Portal-Express packages come
with a simpler installation and the option for user or processor-based li-
censing.
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Introducing WebSphere Portal 19

Table 1-2 Packaging for WebSphere Portal”Express and Express Plus for Multiplatforms,
Version 5.0
EXPRESS
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION EXPRESS PLUS
Portal server J2EE application running in WAS. Provides X X
Portal framework consisting of
presentation, user management, security,
connectivity, and other services. Also
includes IBM Cloudscape, version 5.1; a
Java-based database

WebSphere Provides J2EE services for WebSphere X X
Application Portal. Includes IBM HTTP Server and
Server-Express deployment manager
5.0 Fix Pack 1

IBM Directory LDAP Directory Server for storing and X X
Server Express retrieving user data required for
version 5.1 authentication

Portal toolkit WebSphere studio plug-in that aids in the X X
5.0 development, testing, and debugging of
portlets.

WebSphere Integrating development environment for X X
Studio Site building, debugging, testing, and
Developer deploying J2EE applications with HTML
version 5.0 pages, servlets, and JSPs
with Fix Pack 1

Web Content Provides complete Web content X X
Management management system, document
management, and personalization server

IBM Lotus A suite of APIs and JSP tags that enables X X
Collaborative integration of Domino, Sametime,
Components QuickPlace, and Discovery Server into
your portlet

IBM Lotus Framework that integrates People Finder, X
Collaboration the Web Conference Center, QuickPlace
Center and Sametime.

Sametime Instant messaging and online awareness X

QuickPlace Virtual teamrooms X



WebSphere Portal Platforms
WebSphere Portal V5.0 supports the platforms shown in Table 1-3.
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