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tecture includes rapid information technology proliferation, incompatible and
non-communicating application systems, multiple networks, inaccessible data in
parts of the enterprise, piecemeal technical solutions to business problems, unco-
ordinated developments in common areas of the enterprise, un-integrated data, and
inadequate integrity and security of results.1
John Zachman is an effective spokesman for enterprise architecture. For over two
decades, he has promoted a framework that describes the content of enterprise archi-
tecture, the models used, and their purposes. The simple diagram shown in Exhibit A.1
captures his ideas.



EXHIBIT A .1 Simplified Zachman Framework
Data Function Network
Enterprise Enterprise-wide Enterprise- Enterprise
Model data model (e.g., wide business
(Conceptual) Entity/Relationship business model (e.g.,
model) process logical
model location
model)
System Logical data Data flows Geography-
Model model based
(Logical) processing
model
Technology Database design Process System
Model and task and network
(Technical) specification model




The chart states our interpretation of the purposes of the framework. While it
oversimplifies the full Zachman Framework (for example, his framework has three more
columns and several more rows), it does show some of the major components and the
levels of models.2
279
How Is EA Applied?


The federal government places great emphasis on EA. The diagram in Exhibit A.2
describes the Federal Enterprise Architecture which is in the process of development. It
is intended to guide federal agencies in the development of their technology plans and
projects.



EXHIBIT A .2 Federal Government Reference Models

Performance Reference Model (PRM)
Government-wide, LOB specific performance measures
and outcomes

Business Reference Model (BRM)
Lines of business, agencies, customers, partners

Service Component Reference Model (SRM)
Service domains, service types, components, access,
delivery channels

Data and Information Reference Model (DRM)
Business focused data standardization, cross-agency
exchange

Technical Reference Model (TRM)
Technologies, standards, specifications, component
frameworks




HOW IS EA APPLIED?
Ken Orr describes architectures as critical to managing the IT assets in large complex
companies.3
We find that companies apply EA in two basic fashions. Most fundamentally, either
the tools of EA”meaning the models that John Zachman categorizes in his framework”
or the reference models that the federal government is defining, are used to describe
the enterprise in an “as-is” and a “to-be” context.
The as-is is used in a documentation and knowledge management fashion; defin-
ing exactly how it is that the current enterprise functions and interrelates. Companies
differ as to which elements of the models will be applied; most tend to focus more on
the technology issues and much less on the business process and data aspects.
The to-be is used as a target definition for a future state. Again, companies differ
as to which elements will be defined; most tend to focus on the technology to-be.
The as-is and, if available, the to-be architecture definitions are then used as a
standards-enforcement tools for assessing proposed projects. If the to-be exists, then
the projects can be fitted into a future-looking architecture. The as-is provides current
standards and definitions. These are helpful for interoperability, interchange of informa-
tion, and integration of the business processes. Again, the EA application is a standard
or a framework with which to assess new projects and investments. See Exhibit A.3.
280 THE ROLE OF ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE IN RIGHT DECISIONS/RIGHT RESULTS


EXHIBIT A .3 Strategy-to-Bottom-Line Value Chain
Strategic IT Planning Annual IT Planning
1
The Business Enterprise: Lines of Business, Departments
Business
Strategic
7 Business Plan
Intentions
10
3 (Annual)
(Strategic Business Strategic IT Projects Budget
Plan)
Agenda
5 8
6
Strategic IT Project Plan
Action
Projects
Requirements (Annual)
11
2
4
Assessed Lights-On
Strategic IT Plan
Portfolios Budget
9 IT Plan
(Alignment, (Annual)
Service/Quality,
Technology) The IT Enterprise: Four “Lights-On” Asset Pools

Performance Measurement Metrics 12




Deliverables
Effective Planning
in the
Bottom-
Appropriate Resource Decisions
Business IT
Strategy-to-
Line
Strategies Actions
Results
Workable Budgets, Projects, and
Bottom-Line
Operational Plans
Value Chain
Performance Measurement Metrics




A second, much more dynamic use of EA is to generate better projects. In this role,
EA provides insight into what those projects should be, by doing gap analysis between
the as-is and to-be architectures. This use of EA makes it a strategic planning tool ”
in the sense that the decisions of the to-be models, particularly the data and function
models in Zachman™s terms, represent a strategic design for what the enterprise should
look like. Hopefully, this occurs in response to business drivers and strategic intentions.



WHAT IS THE ROLE OF EA
IN RIGHT DECISIONS/RIGHT RESULTS?
In the context of the Strategy-to-Bottom-Line Value Chain shown in Exhibit A.3, EA
can provide many of the key inputs into the processes that produce the deliverables.
The important objective is the consistent connection of those processes and the con-
sistency of the deliverable. What we do not want is a duplication of effort and multiple
voices about planning, projects, prioritization, and annual plans. This can happen if the
EA role isn™t considered in the context of the Value Chain deliverables.
This very much depends on the role EA plays in the IT organization. Exhibit A.4
suggests some of the considerations. As every company situation is different, there are
no absolute rules about this. But the questions about EA roles need to be answered.
Exhibit A.4 also suggests EA roles. Again, this is highly dependent on the com-
pany situation and role and capabilities of EA.
281
What Is the Role of EA in Right Decisions/Right Results?


EXHIBIT A .4 Enterprise Architecture Role Template
Deliverable Name EA” As-Is EA” To-Be EA” with EA To-Be with
Technology Technology Business Gap
Focus Focus Process and Assessment
Data Focus for Projects
1 Business Strategic
Intentions
Strategic Planning




2 Assessed
Portfolios
3 Strategic IT Agenda
for Use of IT
4 Strategic IT Plan
5 IT Strategic
Requirements

6 Projects


7 Annual Project Plan
Annual/Tactical Planning




8 Annual Business
Plan
9 Annual IT Plan
10 Annual and Capital
Projects Budgets
11 Annual Lights-On
Budget
12 Performance
Measurement
Metrics




NOTES
1. Robert J. Benson, “Enterprise Architecture,” in Blackwell Encyclopedic Dictionary of
Management Information Systems, edited by Gordon B. Davis (Oxford, UK: Blackwell,
1997), pp. 71“73.
2. There are many references to the Zachman model. Among the first is John A. Zachman,
“A Framework for Information Systems Architecture,” IBM Systems Journal, vol. 26,
no. 3, 1987.
3. For a very good discussion of EA, see Ken Orr, “Frameworks and Processes for Devel-
oping Enterprise Architectures,” Cutter Executive Report, vol. 6, no. 2, 2002.
B
APPENDIX

Management Team Roles in
Right Decisions/Right Results



T his appendix discusses the relationship of Right Decisions/Right Results to the com-
pany™s IT governance processes. It focuses on how governance processes are affected
and in particular, how they cope with the complexities of modern corporations in terms
of multiple business units and multiple lines of business. This appendix makes the basic
point that the management roles in Right Decisions/Right Results is IT governance. One
of our colleagues remarked, “It™s not portfolio management, it™s managing the place.”
The thrust of Right Decisions/Right Results is the set of goals, principles, and man-
agement processes needed to control IT spending and improve IT™s bottom-line impact.
The Strategy-to-Bottom-Line Value Chain and the NIE practices define how these goals
can be reached and how to reach them. See Exhibit B.1.


EXHIBIT B.1 Deliverables in the Strategy-to-Bottom-Line Value Chain
Strategic IT Planning Annual IT Planning
1
The Business Enterprise: Lines of Business, Departments
Business
Strategic
7 Business Plan
Intentions
10
3 (Annual)
(Strategic Business Strategic IT Projects Budget
Plan)
Agenda
5 8
6
Strategic IT Project Plan
Action
Projects
Requirements (Annual)
11
2
4
Assessed Lights-On
Strategic IT Plan
Portfolios Budget
9 IT Plan

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