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11. Ibid.
12. This is the way that the argument is set up in “Appreciation and the Natural Environment.” In
“Formal Qualities in the Natural Environment,” the object paradigm and the scenery model, it
seems to me, both get assimilated under what might be called the formal-qualities model.
NOTES 441

13. Carlson,“Appreciation and the Natural Environment,” p. 268.
14. Ibid.
15. Ibid.
16. Carlson,“Formal Qualities,” pp. 108“9.
17. Carlson,“Appreciation and the Natural Environment,” p. 269.
18. See for example, Peter Bicknell, Beauty, Horror and Immensity: Picturesque Landscape in Britain
1750“1850 (Cambridge University Press, 1981).
19. Carlson,“Appreciation and the Natural Environment,” p. 271.
20. Carlson,“Formal Qualities,” p. 110.
21. Carlson,“Appreciation and the Natural Environment,” p. 273.
22. Ibid.
23. Francis Sparshott,“Figuring the Ground: Notes on Some Theoretical Problems of the Aes-
thetic Environment,” Journal of Aesthetic Education, 6.3 (July 1972).
24. C. D. Broad, “Emotion and Sentiment,” in his Critical Essays in Moral Philosophy (London:
Allen and Unwin, 1971), p. 293.
25. Ronald deSousa, “Self-Deceptive Emotions,” in Explaining Emotions ed. Amelie Okesen-
berg Rorty (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980), p. 285.
26. Carlson,“Nature,Aesthetic Judgment,” p. 25.
27. A test suggested by Robert Solomon in his “On Kitsch and Sentimentality,” The Journal of
Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 49.1 (winter 1981): 9.
28. See Immanuel Kant, The Critique of Judgment, trans. James Creed Meredith (Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1952), especially the “Analytic of the Sublime.”
29. See Carlson,“Appreciating Art,” in this volume.
30. Toward the end of “Appreciating Art,” Carlson does refer to certain responses to nature,
such as awe and wonder, which sound like the type of emotional responses I have been
discussing. He thinks that even armed with the natural environment model, we may
become aware that nature is still mysterious to us and other. And, in consequence, we
feel awe and wonder. I do not want to deny that we may come to feel awe and wonder
at nature through the process Carlson describes. However, I do not think that this is the
only way that we can be overwhelmed with awe in the face of nature. We may, for
example, be struck by the scale of nature, without any reference to scientific categories,
and be overwhelmed by awe. Thus, though there may be a route to awe through the
natural environment model, it is not the only route.There are still other ways in which
we may be moved to awe by nature sans natural history. Consequently, the account of
awe that Carlson offers does not eliminate the more naive model of emotional arousal
that I have been defending.
31. Jay Appleton, The Experience of Landscape (New York:Wiley, 1975).
32. Jay Appleton,“Prospects and Refuges Revisited,” in Environmental Aesthetics:Theory, Research
& Applications, ed. Jack L. Nasar (Cambridge University Press, 1988); and Jay Appleton,
“Pleasure and the Perception of Habitat: A Conceptual Framework,” in Environmental Aes-
thetics: Essays in Interpretation.
33. Stephen Kaplan, “Perception and landscape: conceptions and misconceptions,” in Environ-
mental Aesthetics:Theory, pp. 49“51. See also Kaplan™s “Where Cognition and Affect Meet:A
Theoretical Analysis of Preference,” in the same volume.

EMOTION, APPRECIATION, NATURE
AND

1. No«l Carroll, “On Being Moved by Nature: Between Religion and Natural History,” in
Landscape, Natural Beauty and the Arts, edited by Ivan Gaskell and Salim Kemal (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1993).That essay is included in this volume.
2. Allen Carlson,“Appreciating Art and Appreciating Nature,” in Landscape, Natural Beauty and
the Arts.
3. Allen Carlson, “On Appreciating Agricultural Landscapes,” in Journal of Aesthetics and Art
Criticism (spring, 1985), p. 134.
442 NOTES

4. Stand Godlovitch, “Icebreakers: Environmentalism and Natural Aesthetics,” in Journal of
Applied Philosophy, 11 (1994).
5. Allen Carlson, “Nature, Aesthetic Appreciation and Knowledge,” in Journal of Aesthetics and
Art Criticism, vol. 53, no. 4 (Fall, 1995).
6. Paul Ziff, Semantic Analysis (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1960), pp. 242“43.
7. That is, I think that Ziff is exactly right when it comes to the appreciation of art.To appre-
ciate art qua art, as Gregory Currie puts it, is to appreciate the heuristic pathway of a work.
In Popperian language, appreciating an artwork as a work of art involves assessing the logic
of the situation from which the artwork emerges, since the relevant situation is an art-his-
torical situation. Ziff ™s view of appreciation segues nicely with historical characterizations of
art such as Danto™s and my own view, which I have called narrativism. Thus, rather than
denying Ziff ™s account of artistic appreciation, I should like, with modification, to embrace
it. Consequently, I would not wish to block Carlson™s claims about its relevance for nature
appreciation.
8. I say “all but” here because Carlson admits that there might be a few cases of the emotional
appreciation of nature, though he says that they are minimal (adding, skeptically, “if not
nonexistent”). Carlson,“Nature,Aesthetic Appreciation and Knowledge.”
9. See the preceding note for an explanation of the caveat “not appreciably.”
10. For further defense of this, see No«l Carroll,“The Paradox of Suspense,” in Suspense: Con-
ceptualizations,Theoretical Analyses and Emprical Explorations, edited by Peter Vorderer, Hans J.
Wulff and Mike Friedrichsen (Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers,
1996).That essay is also included in this volume.
INDEX
Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein, 236, 238, Artistic Differences, 346“347
239, 253 artworld critique, 105-106
acentral imagining, 312, 316 Ascent into Hell, 159
Achebe, Chinua, 105 Asimov, Isaac, 341
Acker, Kathy, 129, 195 assimilation, 312, 315
actual intentionalism, 197“213 Assommoir, L™, 280
Addams Family,The, 236 Attack of the, 50 Ft.Woman, 252
Adorno,T.W., 2, 51, 53“58 Attack of the Killer Tomatoes, 252
Aesthetics, 35, 76 Augier, Emile, 110
aesthetic argument, the, 161, 170“180 Austen, Jane, 285, 305, 306
aesthetic experience, 1, 3, 4, 5-20, 401“402 authorism, 188
aesthetic theories of art, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5-20, 20“41, autonomism, 4, 271, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277,
44, 75, 78, 79 278, 279 280, 282, 283, 292, 293, 294, 295,
Airport, 259 296, 297, 301, 305
aisthisis, 59
Aldrich,Virgil, 361, 362 Baboon and Young, 349, 363
“Alice”, 167 Bach, Richard, 178
Alien, 422, 440 Back Street, 281
allegorical account, the, 43, 51“58 Balzac, Honore, 280
Allen, Grant, 229 Banes, Sally, 406
allusion, 178 Barchester Towers, 287
Althusserian-Lacanians, 272“273, 275 Barnes,Annette, 99, 323
Ambassadors,The, 166, 300 Barthelme, Donald, 167, 415
Ambler, Eric, 255 Barthes, Roland, 161, 162, 163, 164, 168, 169,
American Psycho, 230, 302 173, 414, 416
amplification, 40, 402, 405, 407 Baumgarten,Alexander, 28, 59
Anacker, Heinrich, 178 Bazin,Andre, 42
Animal Farm, 280 Beardsley, Monroe, xi, xii, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 14, 15,
Anna Karenina, 279 23, 30, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39“40, 76, 77, 101,
Annales school, the, 134 115, 158“170, 171, 172, 173, 190, 192, 198,
annals, 121, 126, 127, 128, 137 359, 397, 398, 399, 414, 415
anomalous suspense, 255, 268 Beast,The, 240
anti-intentionalism, 3, 4, 157“180, 182, 183, 184, Beattie, James, 247
188, 190“197, 199, 208, 413, 416, 417, 418 beauty, 20“41
antinarratives, 129 Beetlejuice, 235, 238, 251, 252
Antoine,Andre, 110 Being There, 177
Antonioni, Michelangelo, 51 Bell, Clive, 1, 3, 23, 30, 31“34, 35, 37, 40, 45,
Appleton, Jay, 383, 384 64, 83, 101, 277, 295, 397, 398, 404
Arachnophobia, 236 Beloved, 250, 293
Arcimboldo, Guiseppe, 366, 440 Benchley, Peter, 240
Aristotle, 77, 108, 216, 274, 281, 285, 286, 294, Beowulf, 279
300 301, 302, 322, 332 Bergson, Henri, 238, 247, 327, 434
arousal model, the, 373, 374, 384, 385, 386, Berkeley, George, 356
387, 388, 389 390, 391, 392, 393, 394 Beuys, Joseph, 38
arrythmia, 106 Biglan Brothers Turning the Stake, 360
Art and Illusion, 68 bildungsroman, 68
art circle, the, 22, 81 biographer™s fallacy, the, 158
art-horror, 239 Birth of a Nation,The, 16, 257


443
444 INDEX
black humor, 424 classical detection stories, 257, 258, 341
Black Quadrilateral, 10 Classicism, 69
Bleak House, 193, 287 closure, 323
Bloch, Ernest, 273 clowns, 247, 250“253
Bloch, Robert, 237 cognitive theory of emotion, 218“223, 233,
Bluest Eye,The, 280 234, 420
body art, 116 Cohen,Ted, 329
Bond, James, 189 Coles, Honi, 98
Bonfire of the Vanities,The, 175, 279 Collingwood, R.G., 7, 64, 83, 101, 217, 218, 274
Bonnie and Clyde, 338 comedy, 134, 139, 11, 152, 153, 154, 156
Bosch, Hieronymus, 353“354 common-denominator argument, 273, 277,
Bournonville,August, 192 278, 279, 280, 295, 296
Bova, Ben, 343“344 Concentration, 269, 270
Bracciolini, Poggio, 328 Conceptual Art, 38, 94, 117
Brakhage, Stan, 419 Concerning the Nature of Things, 165
Brave New World, 166 Concluding Unscientific Postscript, 177
Brecht, Bertolt, 286 Cone, Edward T., 7
Bride of Frankenstein,The, 236 configurational theories of comedy, 325
Brillo Boxes, 38 Connell, Richard, 255
Broad, C.D., 378“379 conversational interests, 174“180, 191, 196
Bronte, Emily, 165 Coralli, Jean, 68
Brothers Karamazov,The, 168, 286 Cornwall Circle, 93
Buffy the Vampire Slayer, 236 Cosby, Bill, 251
Bull™s Head, 440 Crichton, Michael, 240, 289, 335
Bunuel Luis, 115, 417 Crime and Punishment, 274, 299
Businessman,The, 236 criterial prefocusing, 227“232, 235, 421
Critical Theory, 51“58
Cage, John, 51 Critique of Judgment,The, 386, 393
Calvin, John, 419 Croce, Benedetto, 7, 64, 409
“Canterbury, Ghost,The”, 237 Crow, 260
Cantor, J.R., 425 “Cruelty in Perfection”, 99
caper films, 261 cubism, 16, 85, 105, 377
Carlson,Allen, 241, 368“384, 385-394 Cul de Sac, 424
Carney, James, 407, 408, 409 Culler, Jonathan, 177, 415, 416
Carr, David, 412 cultural studies, 346
Casablanca, 312, 313, 315 Cunningham, Merce, 402
Castle of Otranto,The, 236 Currie, Gregory, 306“316, 430, 442
Catch-22, 280 Cutrone, Ronnie, 105, 106
catharsis, 274
Cather,Willa, 208, 419 Dada, 77, 83, 93, 101, 179, 382
Cavell, Stanley, 76, 179 Dali, Salvador, 381
Cawelti, John, 336 Danto,Arthur, ix, x, 2, 34, 69, 79, 80, 83, 95,
central imagining, 312, 313, 315 98“99, 101, 395-396, 400, 405, 407, 412,
Cezanne, Paul, 106 442
Changing Places, 173 Daumier, Honore, 99
Chaplin, Charles, 439 Davidson, Donald, 365, 366
Charlotte™s Web, 280 Davies, Stephen, 101, 113, 114, 115, 406, 408
Chekhov,Anton, 287 Dead/Alive, 236, 246
Cherry Orchard,The, 287 Death Becomes Her, 236
Child™s Play, 240 death of the author, the, 161, 168, 169, 173
Chopin Waltzes, 91 deflationary account, 3, 58“62
chronicles, 121, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 133 Defoe, Daniel, 18
Chu,Tien-Wien, 207 Delsarte, Francois, 91
Cimabue, Giovanni, 69 Dejeuner sur l™herbe, Le, 108
Clancy,Tom, 25, 257, 335 De Maria,Walter, 83
clarificationism, 283“293 demonstrative criticism, 42
Clark, Mary Higgins, 335 design appreciation, 59“62
Clark, Michael, 247, 435 deSousa, Ronald, 379, 420, 436“437
INDEX 445
determinate negation, 70 Foundation, 341
Devoir de violence, Le, 105 Foundation and Empire, 341
Dewey, John, 2, 49“51 Fountain, 6, 7, 13, 15, 17“18, 38, 381
Dickens, Charles, 226, 281, 287 4™, 33”, 51
Dickie, George, 2, 3, 18, 22, 39, 40, 65, 75, 76, Frampton, Hollis, 217
77, 81, 82, 83, 86, 100, 101, 103, 104, Frankenstein, 286
190“197, 395, 402, 404 Frank-in-Steam, 236
Diderot, Denis, 218, 274 Freud, Sigmund, 238, 254, 318“322, 331, 337,
Die Hard, 255 420, 434, 435, 436
Diffey,T.J., 77, 370, 383 Friday the, 13th, 240
Dippe,A.Z., 423 Fried, Michael, 93
Disch,Tom, 236 From the Beyond, 237
Disclosure, 289 Frost-Covered Pond,The, 117
Dostoyevsky, F., 168, 274 Frye, Northtrop, 138, 139, 151, 153
Douglas, Mary, 245 Fugitive,The, 255, 268, 346
Doyle,Arthur Conan, 341 functional theories, 101
Dozens,The, 108 Futurism, 31
Dray,William, 123, 409, 410, 412
dreamwork, 319, 320, 321 Gallie,W.B., 409
Dr.Wortle™s School, 281 games, 64
Duchamp, Marcel, 6, 7, 13, 17“18, 38, 69, 80, Gardener, Martin, 325
95, 381 Gargantua, 211
Dumas,Alexandre, 110 Gauguin, Paul, 116
dummies (ventriloquist™s), 252, 253 Gaut, Berys, 422“423
Duncan, Isadora, 89“91, 406 General,The, 325
dysphoric emotions, 230 genetic fallacy, 32, 36
George, Stefan, 211
Eakins,Thomas, 360 George Washington, 438
Earthquake, 261 Gericault,Theodore, 348
“East Coker”, 359 German Expressionism, 70
Eisenstein, Sergei, 93, 95 Germinal, 280
Ekman, Paul, 433 Gerrig, Richard, 269“270, 312
Eliot,T.S., 83, 101, 359 gestalt theory of humor, 435
Ellis, Bret Easton, 230, 302 Ghostbusters, 236
Emerson, Ralph,Waldo, 90 Gibson,William, 343
Emma, 285, 289, 305, 306 Gift,The, 382
emotive focus, 228, 231, 235 Gilbert, Stuart, 212
Enfant noir, L™, 105 Ginsberg,Allen, 165
enthymeme, 332 Giselle, 68
Eugenie Grandet, 280 Godard, Jean-Luc, 177, 402
euphoric emotions, 230 Godlovitch, Stan, 385
“Exodus of the Parasites”, 178 Golden Child,The, 236
experience machine, the, 178 Golden Section, 24
Experience of Landscape,The, 363 Goldman,Alvin, 162
Exquisite Corpse,The, 169 Gold Rush,The, 439
extreme actual intentionalism, 197“198 Gombrich, E.H., 68, 69, 399
Goodman, Nelson, 37, 76, 399, 400
fabula, 126, 127 Gordon, Stuart, 236, 237
Facetiae, 328 Gorky, Maxim, 166
family resemblance method, 64, 65, 71, 75, 79, Goya, Francisco, 64
80, 81, 83, 85, 103, 108, 404, 406 Grafton, Sue, 335
Fantastic Four, 19 Grapes of Wrath,The, 279
Far Side, 236 grecian virtues, 261
Fauvism, 16 Greed, 287
fiction, 133“156 Greeley,Andrew, 159
Fields,W.C., 237 Greenberg, Clement, 85
Fleming, Ian, 189 Greene, Graham, 254, 255
formalism, 1, 20“41, 45, 46, 48, 59, 101, 294 Greenough, Horatio, 438
446 INDEX
Gremlins, 236 identifying narratives, 3, 92, 93, 94, 100, 103,
Griffith, D.W., 16, 69 104“114, 118, 404, 408“409
Grisham, John, 335 identity thesis, the, 191, 192, 193
Ground Beneath Her Feet,The, 201 Idolatry, 105, 106
Grunewald, Mathias, 70 illocutionary acts, 162, 163, 165, 166, 167, 168,
Gunsmoke, 421 182
Guns of Navarone,The, 254, 259, 264, 426 implied author, 415
impressionism, 85, 106, 117
Hailey,Arthur, 259 In Advance of a Broken Arm, 80
Hamlet, 64, 139 incongruity theory of humor, 246, 317, 325,
Hammett, Dashiell, 339 327, 328
Hampshire, Stuart, xiv Incredible Hulk,The, 19
Handelman, Don, 250 Ingres, Jean Auguste Dominique, 350
Happenings, 94 innocent jokes, 319, 320, 321

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