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business benefits from CSR, 78 83
importance of, 38 39, 167 169, 181, See
business case for CSR, 166
also Nuffield Foundation study,
Nuffield Foundation study, 121 122
implementation problems,
business interest groups, 157
country-specific/context-specific
contractors, as stakeholders, 57 59
Catholic Relief Services, 60
Convention on Civil Liability for Oil
CDRA (Consortium for Development
Pollution Damage, 93
and Relief in Angola), 104
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
Chad
181. See CSR (Corporate Social
Revenue Management Program, 143,
Responsibility)
144, 152 153
corruption, 123, 161
World Bank and, 55
crude oil, 40 41
Chávez, Hugo, 105 108
CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility)
Chevron, 74, 75 76
and oil companies, 6 9
climate change strategies, 28
definitions, 2 6
EITI support, 142
perspectives on, 12 14
Kyoto treaty, 27
potential and limitations, 165 167
Nigeria community development
recommendations for future, 173 176
projects, 123
vs regulatory compliance, 53
paying undisclosed sums to Chad
CSR strategies
government, 152
Austrian economics perspective,
replacing US government funding in
Angola, 104 18 21, 35 36
social development spending, 105, 111 emerging-economy companies, 30 34
stakeholder pressure, 24 25 institutional pressures and, 27 28,
use of CSR for competitive 32 34, 35
advantage, 116 117 market forecasts and, 29
China, falsification of labour monitoring multi-level theoretical perspective
records, 59 requirement, 35 37
chrome tubes, vs steel, 79 stakeholder pressure and, 21 25, 30 32, 35
Cicero, 3 stakeholders vs. institutions, 15 17
Citizens International, 112
Civil Liability Convention (1992), 94 Deby, Idriss, 152
civil society, and transparency, Department for International
Development (DfID), 102, 103 104
148, 149
climate change policy, BP, 24 dependency mentality, 125 126
CNOOC, 74, 85 development wells, 44
coercive isomorphism, 16 17 DfID (Department for International
Colombia, BP and human rights Development), 102, 103 104
abuses, 23 DiMaggio, Paul, 16
Index 203
*




oil spills, 75 76
downstream activities, 46
social development spending, 105
drilling, 44
transparency, 25
dry finds, 41
Exxon Valdez (tanker), 24
dry gas, 41 42
dry holes, 44
Dutch disease, 134, 136 FDI (Foreign Direct Investment),
replacing Official Development
eco-efficiency, and sustainable Assistance, 104 105
development, 97 98 financial institutions, as stakeholders, 53 56
EC-X formula, ARCO, 89 flowstations, 45
EITI (Extractive Industry™s Freedom House, 149
Transparency Initiative), 61, Friends of the Earth, 60
Future Generations Fund, 152
141 143
benefits to member countries, futures market, 47
149 151
limitations, 154 156, 181, See also gas flaring, 75, 94 96
transparency gasoline, 41
EITI++ (Extractive Industries Gazprom, social development spending,
Transparency Initiative Plus 105 108
Plus), 163 Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), 69,
emissions trading, BP internal system, 71, 167 168
Global Witness, 60, 141
80 81, 91 92
environmental impacts Gouldson, Andy, 84
exploration, 46 governance
hydrocarbon products, 42 BP™s transparency initiative, 138
overview, 64 65 challenge of, 134 138
environmental performance, 75 78 definitions, 136
environmental reporting, 68 74, overview, 162 164
resource curse and, 136
99 101
limitations of, 83 87 undermining through corporate
Equator Principles, 56 activity, 157 162
exploration, 42 46 government deficits, and transparency, 147
exploration drilling, 44 government oil sales, 47 48
Exxon governments
clashes with stakeholders, 24 as stakeholders, 50 53
climate change position, 28 importance of, 169 171
climate change strategies, 28 29 regulation by, 87 96
EITI support, 142 shifting development responsibility to
environmental performance, 76 private sector, 104
environmental reporting, 74 greenhouse gas emissions, 71 74, 75, 181,
See also gas flaring
improvements in CSR, 8
Kyoto treaty, 27 greenhouse gas emissions reduction, BP,
mosquito nets in Equatorial 80 82
Greenpeace, 60, 181, See also Brent Spar
Guinea, 121
Nigerian agricultural local community GRI (Global Reporting Initiative), 69,
development project, 112 71, 167 168
204 Index
*




International Petroleum Industry
Halliburton, 57
Environmental Conservation
Hayward, Tony, 98 99
Association, 68
health initiatives, 109
international treaties, 175
health services, transparency, 146
ISO (International Organization for
hydrocarbons, 40 42
Standardization), 158
I. G. Farben, 3
Justi, Luis, 32
ICMM (International Council on
Mining and Metals), 171, 172
Kautilya, 3
IITA (International Institute of
Kazakhstan Revenue Watch, 60
Tropical Agriculture), 112
kerosene, 41
income-generating projects, support for,
Kolo Creek flowstation, 119
109 110
Kuwait Petroleum
Indian Oil
code of conduct, 32
embracing CSR, 7, 8
control over major portion of world™s
government ownership, 30
oil, 8
government pressure, 31 32
embracing CSR, 7
international expansion, 33
government ownership, 30
indirect carbon emissions, 96
international expansion, 32 33
innovation advantages of CSR, 79
leadership pressure, 32
institutional isomorphism, 16 17, 27
passive reactions vs entrepreneurial
institutional pressures, CSR
initiatives, 34
strategies and, 27 28,
social responsibility, 30 31
32 34, 35
unleaded petrol campaign, 34
institutional theory, 13, 16 17
Kyoto treaty, differing reactions
International Convention on Marine
to, 27
Pollution, 93
International Convention on the
Establishment of an International lobbying, 24
Fund for Compensation for Oil local involvement, 124 126
Pollution Damage, 93 local sourcing, 109, 136
International Council on Mining and local-level outcomes, 84 85
Metals (ICMM), 171, 172
international development Malaysia, CSR definition, 3, 4
and CSR, 102 103, 113 115 managerial skills, and CSR,
definitions, 103 79 80
focus areas, 108 110 mangrove swamps, 65
reporting on, 110 111 Marcel, Valerie, 87
social development spending by oil market forecasts and, CSR
companies, 105 108 strategies, 29
marketing, 46 49
transfer of responsibility from
Marvin, Michael, 28
government, 103 105
use of NGOs, 111 113, 181, See also media freedom, and transparency,
Nuffield Foundation study 147 148, 149
International Institute of Tropical Meyer, John, 16
Agriculture (IITA), 112 mimetic isomorphism, 16 17
Index 205
*




lack of integration into a larger
MOL Group
plan, 129 130
CSR to manage external perceptions,
social attitudes of oil company staff,
119
environmental reporting, 74 128 129
Moody-Stuart, Sir Mark, 23 motives/drivers for community
MOSOP (Movement for the Survival of development projects, 116
the Ogoni People), 22 23, 60 competitive advantage, 116 117
employee happiness, 120 121
National Coast Anti-Pollution League, 60 external perceptions, 118 120
maintaining ˜licence to operate™,
National Iranian Oil Company, 8
natural gas, 41 117 118
New Nigeria Foundation (NNF), 112 overview, 115, 131 133
NGOs (non-governmental
organizations) Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, Teodoro,
as stakeholders, 59 62 55, 153
use for international development, ODA (Official Development Assistance),
being replaced by FDI, 104 105
111 113
Nigeria offshore oil production, 45 46
Chevron™s community development Offshore Pollution Liability Agreement
projects, 123 (OPOL), 67
effectiveness of Shell development Ogoni, Shell™s presence, 22 23
projects, 121 122 Oil and Gas Industry Guidance on
Exxon agricultural local community Voluntary Sustainability
development project, 112 Reporting, 68 69, 71, 97
gas flaring, 95 96 oil products, 40 42
government pressure on oil companies oil spills, 75 76
to provide public goods, 52 and government pressure, 92 93
resource curse, 136 and government regulation, 93 94
Shell™s PRAs (participatory rural Okoroba, village hospital, 119
appraisals), 129 OPOL (Offshore Pollution Liability
NNF (New Nigeria Foundation), 112 Agreement), 67
non-associated gas, 41
non-governmental organisations (NGOs) paraffin, 41
as stakeholders, 59 62 PDVSA, 86
use for international development, government ownership, 30
international credibility, 32
111 113
normative isomorphism, 16 17 international expansion, 33
North, Douglass, 16 lack of stakeholder pressure, 32
Nuffield Foundation study learning sustainability from Shell, 33
business case for CSR, 121 122 social development spending,
implementation problems, 122 105 108
country-specific/context-specific, social responsibility, 31
Pemex
123 124
failure to involve the beneficiaries, EITI support, 142
gas flaring, 75
124 126
lack of human resources, 126 128 social development spending, 106
206 Index
*




Ruggie, John, 170
Petrobras
Russia, attitude to foreign oil
drilling in the Yasuni National Park, 101

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