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Beyond Totalitarianism


In essays written jointly by specialists on Soviet and German history, the contrib-
utors to this book rethink and rework the nature of Stalinism and Nazism and
establish a new methodology for viewing their histories that goes well beyond the
now-outdated twentieth-century models of totalitarianism, ideology, and person-
ality. Doing the labor of comparison gives us the means to ascertain the historicity
of the two extraordinary regimes and the wreckage they have left. With the end
of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union, scholars of Europe are no
longer burdened with the political baggage that constricted research and condi-
tioned interpretation and have access to hitherto closed archives. The time is right
for a fresh look at the two gigantic dictatorships of the twentieth century and for
a return to the original intent of thought on totalitarian regimes “ understanding
the intertwined trajectories of socialism and nationalism in European and global
history.

Michael Geyer, Samuel N. Harper Professor of German and European History and
director of the Human Rights Program at the University of Chicago, has a PhD
from the Albert Ludwigs Universitat Freiburg and was a Postdoctoral Fellow at
¨
the University of Oxford. He taught at the University of Michigan and as visiting
professor in Bochum and Leipzig. He most recently wrote (with Konrad Jarausch)
Shattered Past: Reconstructing German History and edited (with Lucian Holscher)
¨
Die Gegenwart Gottes in der modernen Gesellschaft (2006). He has published
extensively on the German military, war, and genocide as well as on resistance,
terror, and religion. His current work focuses on defeat, nationalism, and self-
destruction. He has been a Fellow at the American Academy in Berlin and the
recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship and a Humboldt Forschungspreis.

Sheila Fitzpatrick, the Bernadotte E. Schmitt Distinguished Service Professor in
Modern Russian History at the University of Chicago, is the author of many books
on Soviet social, cultural, and political history, including The Russian Revolution,
Stalin™s Peasants, Everyday Stalinism, and, most recently, Tear Off the Masks! Iden-
tity and Imposture in Twentieth-Century Russia (2005). With Robert Gellately, she
edited Accusatory Practices: Denunciation in Modern European History, 1789“
1989. A past president of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic
Studies (AAASS), she is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
and the Australian Academy of the Humanities, as well as a regular contributor
to the London Review of Books. Her current research topics include displaced
persons in Europe after the Second World War. In 2008“9, she is a Fellow at the
Wissenschaftskolleg in Berlin.
Beyond Totalitarianism
Stalinism and Nazism Compared



MICHAEL GEYER
University of Chicago

SHEILA FITZPATRICK
University of Chicago
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo

Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK
Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York

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Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521897969
© Cambridge University Press 2009


This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the
provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part
may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published in print format 2008


ISBN-13 978-0-511-46355-6 eBook (EBL)

ISBN-13 978-0-521-89796-9 hardback

ISBN-13 978-0-521-72397-8 paperback



Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy
of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication,
and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain,
accurate or appropriate.
Contents




List of Contributors page vii
Acknowledgments ix

1 Introduction: After Totalitarianism “ Stalinism and Nazism
Compared 1
Michael Geyer with assistance from Sheila Fitzpatrick

part i: governance
2 The Political (Dis)Orders of Stalinism and National Socialism 41
Yoram Gorlizki and Hans Mommsen
3 Utopian Biopolitics: Reproductive Policies, Gender Roles, and
Sexuality in Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union 87
David L. Hoffmann and Annette F. Timm

part ii: violence
4 State Violence “ Violent Societies 133
Christian Gerlach and Nicolas Werth
5 The Quest for Order and the Pursuit of Terror: National
Socialist Germany and the Stalinist Soviet Union as
Multiethnic Empires 180
¨
Jorg Baberowski and Anselm Doering-Manteuffel

part iii: socialization
6 Frameworks for Social Engineering: Stalinist Schema of
Identi¬cation and the Nazi Volksgemeinschaft 231
Christopher R. Browning and Lewis H. Siegelbaum
7 Energizing the Everyday: On the Breaking and Making of
Social Bonds in Nazism and Stalinism 266
¨
Sheila Fitzpatrick and Alf Ludtke

v
Contents
vi

8 The New Man in Stalinist Russia and Nazi Germany 302
Peter Fritzsche and Jochen Hellbeck

part iv: entanglements
9 States of Exception: The Nazi-Soviet War as a System of
Violence, 1939“1945 345
Mark Edele and Michael Geyer
10 Mutual Perceptions and Projections: Stalin™s Russia in Nazi
Germany “ Nazi Germany in the Soviet Union 396
¨
Katerina Clark and Karl Schlogel

Works Cited 443
Index 517
Contributors




¨
Jorg Baberowski is Professor of Eastern European History at the Humboldt-
University Berlin. He is currently working on a book project, Stalin: Karriere
¨
eines Gewalttaters.
Christopher R. Browning is the Frank Porter Graham Professor of History at
the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Among his recent publications
is The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy,
September 1939“March 1942 (2004).
Katerina Clark is Professor of Comparative Literature and of Slavic Languages
and Literatures. She is working on a book tentatively titled Moscow: The
Fourth Rome.
Anselm Doering-Manteuffel is Professor of Contemporary History, University
of Tubingen. He is working on a book with the title Deutsche Geschichte des
¨
20. Jahrhunderts.
Mark Edele is Senior Lecturer in History at the University of Western Australia.
His book on Soviet Second World War veterans is due to appear from Oxford
University Press.
Sheila Fitzpatrick is Bernadotte E. Schmitt Distinguished Service Professor in
Modern Russian History at the University of Chicago. Her recent publications
include Tear Off the Masks! Identity and Imposture in Twentieth-Century
Russia, and she is currently working on a project on displaced persons in
Germany after the Second World War.
Peter Fritzsche is Professor of History at the University of Illinois. He has just
published Life and Death in the Third Reich (2008).
Christian Gerlach is Associate Professor of History at the University of Pitts-
burgh and in transition to the Professur fur Zeitgeschichte at the University of
¨
Bern. His current research projects include “Extremely Violent Societies: Mass

vii
Contributors
viii

Violence in the Twentieth Century” and “Making the Village Global: The
Change of International Development Policies during the World Food Crisis,
1972“1975.”
Michael Geyer is Samuel N. Harper Professor of German and European History
at the University of Chicago. He is completing a book titled Catastrophic
Nationalism: Defeat and Self-destruction in Germany, 1918 and 1945.
Yoram Gorlizki is Professor of Politics at the University of Manchester. He is
currently completing two monographs, one on the Soviet justice system from
1948 to 1964 and the other, with Oleg Khlevniuk, on Soviet regional politics
from 1945 to 1970.
Jochen Hellbeck is Associate Professor of History at Rutgers University. He is
currently working on a study of the battle of Stalingrad as it was experienced
on the ground level on both sides of the front.
David L. Hoffmann is Professor of History at The Ohio State University. He
is currently completing a monograph entitled Cultivating the Masses: Soviet
Social Interventionism in Its International Context, 1914“1939.
¨
Alf Ludtke is Professor of Historical Anthropology at the University of Erfurt
and Research Fellow of the Max-Planck-Institute for the Study of Religious
and Ethnical Diversity in Gottingen. He is currently completing a book project
¨
titled Work: Production and Destruction. Vignettes on the 20th Century.
Hans Mommsen is Professor Emeritus of Modern History at the Ruhr-
University Bochum. His numerous publications on the Weimar Republic, the
Third Reich, and Democratic Socialism include The Rise and Fall of the Weimar
Democracy, Alternatives to Hitler, and From Weimar to Auschwitz.
¨
Karl Schlogel is Professor of East European History at the Europa Univer-
sitat Viadrina in Frankfurt/Oder. Among his recent publications are the edited
¨
¨
volumes Sankt Petersburg: Schauplatze eine Stadtgeschichte and Oder-Odra:
¨
Blicke auf einen europaischen Strom and the paperback edition of Berlin Ost-
bahnhof Europas: Russen und Deutsche in ihrem Jahrhundert (all 2007).
Lewis H. Siegelbaum is Professor of History at Michigan State University.
His most recent publication is Cars for Comrades: The Life of the Soviet
Automobile.
Annette F. Timm is Assistant Professor of History at the University of Calgary,
Alberta, Canada. She is in the process of publishing a monograph tentatively
entitled The Politics of Fertility in Twentieth-Century Berlin: Sexual Citizenship
in Marriage Counseling and Venereal Disease Control.
Nicolas Werth is Directeur de recherche at the CNRS (Centre National de la
Recherche Scienti¬que) in Paris, at the Institut d™Histoire du Temps Pr´ sent.
e
He is author of Cannibal Island: Death in a Siberian Gulag, La Terreur et le
D´ sarroi: Staline et son syst` me, and Les Ann´ es Staline.
e e e
Acknowledgments




This project was originally conceived as a joint undertaking by the two editors
and Terry Martin (co-organizer 2002“3). Our plan was to gather two sets of
experts, one on German history and the other on Soviet history, and pair them
in the study of particular aspects of the Nazi-Stalinist comparison. Papers were
to be jointly written and presented to the whole group at workshops and confer-
ences to be held over a period of several years. The ¬rst two meetings were held
in Cambridge on May 3“5, 2002, and May 2“4, 2003, and the third and fourth
in Chicago on April 30“May 2, 2004, and May 20“21, 2005. The core group
of participants, authors of the studies published in this volume, attended all
four meetings. Other attendees at single meetings were Robert Gellately, Julie
Hessler, Peter Holquist, Oleg Khlevniuk, Cornelia Rauh-Kuhne, and Ronald
¨
Grigor Suny. Mark Edele joined the project as Michael Geyer™s coauthor in
2007.
The project was made possible by generous support from the Davis Center
for Russian Studies at Harvard, the University of Chicago, and the Andrew
W. Mellon Foundation, through its 2002 Distinguished Achievement Award
to Sheila Fitzpatrick. Warm thanks for organizational and practical support
are due to Helen Grigoriev and Ann Sjostedt of the Davis Center and Emma
Gilligan at the University of Chicago.
The editors thank the Modern European History Workshop of the Univer-
sity of Chicago and the Midwest Russian Historians™ Workshop, held at De
Paul University in October 2004, for helpful discussion of earlier drafts of
the Introduction. We would also like to acknowledge the research assistance
of Leah Goldberg and Barry Haneberg in translating and editing parts of the
manuscript. Kimba Tichenor did invaluable work as the main editorial and
research assistant during the last stages of the project. We are particularly
grateful for the comments of the two anonymous readers for Cambridge Uni-
versity Press and for the support of two dedicated editors at the Press, Eric
Crahan and Lewis Bateman.


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