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autonomy, of Nazi of¬cials, 137 and cultural communities of descent, 226
auxiliaries, 143, 376. See also Askaris and ethnic homogeneity, 214
Azerbaijan, 209, 211, 212 militaristic bent of, 361
nationalizing backwardness, 207
Baberowski, Jorg, 32 as an occupying force during Civil War, 49
¨
Baku, 204 and quest for social order, 201, 204, 208
Balkars, 159, 222 and race, 226
and Russia™s historical backwardness, 204
Baltic Republics, 153, 182, 210, 254, 259
scorn for prerevolutionary class hierarchies,
Baltic-Belomor Canal, 319, 416
bandit nations, 210 268
and social transformation, 205, 214
Barbarism and Civilization (Wasserstein,
utilitarian morality of, 314
2007), 13
and xenophobia, 217, 224
barbarization, 350, 356, 394
See also Communist Party of the Soviet
Bartov, Omer, 357
Union
Bauman, Zygmunt, 32, 50, 180
Bonaparte, Napoleon, 408
Bavaria, 282
bonds
Beamteneid, 56
associational
Becher, Johannes, 323
Nazi, 293
Beck, Ludwig, 79
Soviet, 293“95, 296
Belgium, 336, 354
family, 281“87, 299
Belorussia (Belarus), 162, 254, 380
Belyi, Andrey, 418 approaches to, 281
¨
Beratungsstellen fur Erbgesundheit und Nazi, 281“82
Rassenp¬‚ege (counseling centers for Soviet, 282“87
genetic and racial health), 115 social, in the Gulag, 296
Bergson, Henri, 433 workplace, 287“92
Beria, Lavrentii, 81, 86, 159, 166, 217, 219, Nazi, 289
Soviet, 288“92
223
Berlin, 123, 371, 388, 397, 416“18, 421 books, Nazi burning of (1933), 430, 436
Ostbahnhof Europas (Schlogel), 425 Bormann, Martin, 53, 82
¨
Index 519

Central Institute of Labor, Soviet, 315
bourgeoisie, Soviet, 232, 251, 280, 314
Central Statistical Administration, Soviet, 92,
Brecht, Bertolt, 348
Brecker, Arno, 419 93, 96
centralism, Bolshevik aspirations to, 43
Brest-Litovsk, peace of, 186
centralization, Stalinist, 50“52
Broszat, Martin, 60, 85
Chaadaev, Pyotr, 409
Brown Book, 434
Charles XII, 408
Browning, Christopher, 33, 134
Chechens, 159, 210, 222, 223, 224, 260
brutalization, 350, 381
Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 20, 300 Cheka, 217
Buddenbrooks (Mann, 1901), 429 Chelmno, Wartheland (extermination camp),
Budennyi, Semen Mikhailovich, 365 157
Bukharin, Nikolai, 63, 235, 314, 416, 424 Chernyshevsky, Nikolai, 317, 326
Bulgakov, Mikhail, Master and Margarita, What Is to Be Done?, 435
The, 437 child support, Soviet, 110
Bulgarians, 222 children, Polish, kidnapped by Lebensborn,
¨
Bund deutscher Madel (Nazi Youth, BDM), 109
Chuev, Feliks, 222
291, 298, 334
¨
burgerlicher (bourgeois), 108 Chukhrai, Grigorii Naumovich, 382
Byron, George Gordon, 433 Cinema and Life, 242
byvshie (former people), 232, 243, 279, 297 Circus, The (Tsirk, Aleksandrov, 1936),
435
Cabinet, German, 55 civil rights, Soviet, for all citizens (1936), 250
camaraderie (Kameradschaft), 263. See also Civil War
¨
community of fate; Mannerbund Soviet (1918“21), 22, 47, 92, 232, 234,
camps 314, 362, 386, 411
concentration, 133, 140, 154 society declassed by, 232
Nazi, 334 Spanish (1936“39), 363, 398
lack of social bonding in, 296 civilization, history of, 403
POW deaths in, 162 Clark, Katerina, 36, 37, 398
corrective labour, 140 class
distinguishing centrality of, to Nazi and analysis, Bolshevik, 232, 280
Stalinist regimes, 42 as a universal category, 33
Soviet, 240 Soviet
POW deaths in, 163 enemy, 280
slave labor, 42 initiatives to end discrimination based
UPVI (Administration for Affairs of on, 250
Prisoners of War and Internees), Soviet, and social identity, 232
and social transformation, 231
166“69
Capek, Karel, 413 structure
Castoriadis, Cornelius, 20 Bolshevik, 204
Catholic Church, German, 298 diminution of, as a basis for legal
Caucasus, 209, 222 discrimination, 250
Soviet expulsion of persons from the, 211 German, 44
censuses, special, 250 Clausewitz, Carl von, 433
Center Party, German, 236, 238 clergy, 279, 297
Central Asia, 160, 227 collectivization, Soviet, 269, 290
Central Committee, 48, 50, 51, 53, 59, 60, 62, forced, 139, 140, 418
peasant objections to, 298
70, 79, 86
April 1929 plenum of the, 63 Comintern, 424
February“March 1937 plenum of the, 69, Commissar Order (Decree for the Treatment
of Political Commissars, Nazi, June 6,
251
Central Executive Committee (TsIK), secret 1941), 163, 198, 353
resolution of the (March 24, 1924), 140 Commissariat of Health, Soviet, 97, 102
Index
520

communal housing, 316 Croatia, 154
Communist, Lenin™s ideal, 320 crusade for Europe against Bolshevism, 155
Communist Party of Germany. See KPD culture
Communist Party of the Soviet Union, 56, 58, Hitler and oral, 426, 430
native, 196
59, 71, 253
candidates for membership in, 234 Nazi, 426, 427, 430, 432
cells of, in the workplace, 59 Soviet, 318, 425, 428
composition of, 233 appreciation for written, 426, 435“38
congresses of nurturist orientation of, 120, 121
VIII Party Congress (March 1919), 48 proletarian, 315
XII Party Congress (April 1923), 48 and reverse discrimination, 234
XVII Party Congress (January“February as a sub-function of ethnicity (Hitler), 427
Czarnowski, Gabriele, 117
1934), 50, 251
XVIII Party Congress (March 1939), 71 Czechoslovakia, 398
and urban working class, 44
See also Bolsheviks Dagestan, 209
community Danzig-West Prussia, 155, 193, 194, 195
aliens (Gemeinschaftsfremder), 255 Dark Side of Democracy (Mann, M., 2004),
of despair, 416 23
of fate (Schicksalgemeinschaft), 263, 374, Darr´ , Richard Walther, 54, 57
e
393, 402. See also camaraderie Day of the Revolution (Soviet, November 7),
companionship, redeeming grace of (Arendt), 270
Day of the Seizure of Power (German, January
266
comparison, 36 30), 270
Comrades! A History of World Communism DDP (German Democratic Party), 236, 237
(Service, 2007), 13 decentralization, Nazi, 52
con¬‚ict, intergenerational family, 286 decrees
Congress for the Defense of Culture (Paris, against dangerous habitual criminals, Nazi
(November 1933), 255
1935), 431
conquest, ideological preconditions for Nazi on the exercise of military jurisdiction, Nazi
policies of, 188 (May 13, 1941), 353
consciousness, political, value of cross-class on mass operations, Soviet (May 9, 1935),
experiences in, 313 68
Conservative Party, German, 236 Degenerate Art exhibition (Munich, 1937),
Constitution, Soviet (1936), 250 398
consumption, Soviet, hierarchy of, 244 Deineka, Aleksandr, 397
contraceptives, 105, 106 dekulakization, 136, 139, 140, 174, 178, 240
Nazi ban on (January 1941), 105 Democracy (Rosanvallon, 2006), 13
demography, 90“91
control of state apparatus
denunciations
Nazi, 52“59
individual initiative in, 276
Stalinist, 47“52
Nazi, political, 174, 258
Conversation with a Foreigner (Razgovor s
Soviet, political, 174
inostrantsem, Radek, 1935), 433
depopulation, and Franco-Prussian War, 91
cooperation, workplace, of necessity, 287
deportation, 68
Cossacks, Soviet deportation of, 212
Nazi
Council of Ministers for Reich Defense, 77
and extermination policies, 157
crime
of Jews, 194
Jewish, 260
murderous rami¬cations of, 157
Nazi, 126, 134, 257
of Poles, 154, 155
Soviet, 81, 142, 165, 252
Soviet, 178, 212, 241
state, 140
Crimea, 209 of all foreign nationals after
Criminal Code, Soviet (1926), 364 the occupation of Poland, 218
Index 521

to Central Asia (1941-44), 219, 222 DVP (German People™s Party), 236, 237
of Chechens and Ingush (1944), 223 Dwinger, Edward, Wiedersehen mit Russland,
of Cossacks, 212 416
of Crimean Bulgarians, 159, 222
of Crimean Tartars, 159 Eastern Europe, 75, 151, 153, 175, 176, 185,
ethnic, 157, 260 188
against diaspora nationalities Eastern Front (Ostfront)
(1935“36), 158 Nazi, 162, 184, 339, 346
during the Great Patriotic War, 158 density of research on, 347
of Germans, 158, 214 economy, Soviet, 47
justi¬cation for, 212 prewar, 80
of Koreans, 158, 212 war, 78, 82
of Kuban Cossacks (1933), 211 Edele, Mark, 35
of kulaks, 140, 158, 215, 259 Edelweiss-Piraten, 272
of Kurds, 212 Ehegesundheitsgesetz (Gesetz zum Schutze der
mass, 81 Erbgesundheit des deutschen Volkes,
of Polish Jews (1940), 217 marital health law, October 18, 1935),
of Polish nationals on the 115. See also laws
Soviet-German border, 218, 254 Ehegesundheitszeugnise/
from the Ukraine (1940“53), 225 Ehetauglichkeitszeugnis (health
of Volga Germans, 222 certi¬cates/certi¬cates of marital ¬tness),
See also ethnic cleansing; extermination, 115
Holocaust Ehrenburg, Ilya, 336, 392, 412, 424, 426, 431,
deserters 440
Nazi, 175 Eichmann, Adolf, 195
Soviet, 382, 385, 386 Eindeutigkeit, 201
desublimation, repressive, 107 Einsatzgruppen (task groups), 189, 192, 194,
determinism 221, 354
Nazi, biological, 121 Einwandererzentralstelle (Central Bureau for
Soviet Immigration), 152
historical, 205 Eisenstein, Sergei, 439
socio-environmental, 121 electricity, and social consciousness, 316
Deutsche Christen (DC), 297 empathy, limits of, and Nazi undesirables,
Deutsche Zentral-Zeitung, 424 328, 333
empire
Devil™s alliance, 155
and fantasies of utopian purity, 180
diaspora nationalities, 68, 252
multinational, as an expression of
dictatorship, 180
backwardness, 205
Dietrich, Otto, 65
National Socialist Germany, military
Dimanshtein, Sergei, 206
expansion to a multinational, 181
Dimitrov, Georgi, 433, 434“35
ordering principles (between societies), 191
discrimination, reverse, Soviet (in favor of
Ottoman (1908“23), 137
non-Russians), 234
quest for order in, 180, 184
disenfranchised persons (lishentsy), 139, 232,
Soviet
243, 279, 296, 322
af¬rmative action, 234
divorce
multinational, 180, 204, 216
German, 282
enemies of the people, Soviet, 251, 280
Soviet, 110, 125
Erbgesundheit (genetic health), 99
DNVP (German National People™s Party), 236,
erbkrank (hereditarily diseased), 278
237
doctors™ strikes (1920s), 98 erbunwert (hereditarily un¬t), 278
Doering-Manteuffel, Anselm, 32 Erbwerte (genetic value), 99
Don Cossacks, 235 Erickson, John, 346
dvoiki (Two-Man Committees), 215 Esperantists, 294
Index
522

Essay on the Principle of Population (Malthus, expansion, Nazi eastern, conditions for, 187
expulsion, Soviet, of Iranians and Turks, 211
1803), 90
´
etatism, Stalin™s, 253 extermination
ethnic cleansing Nazi
Nazi, 184, 187, 193, 194, 339, 439 as extension of deportation, 157

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