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of Jews, 36, 198 forced marches, 163
in Poland, 190 of Jews, 194, 199, 358
Soviet, 42, 159, 160, 203, 216 legitimizing, 420
at the core of the Stalinist regime, 216 multicausal policies for, 135
of diaspora minorities, 159 selective, toward Soviet POWs, 162
distinguished from Nazi, 213 systemic, 376
as a violent homogenization strategy, war of, against Soviet Union, 22
policies of Nazis and Soviets, 181
216
Tsarist, 202, 203 Soviet, of Nazi soldiers, 259
See also atrocities; deportation; eugenics; war of, 350, 351, 368, 369, 372, 376, 378
Holocaust Ezhov, Nicholai, 214, 215
ethnic Germans (Volksdeutsche), 153, 155, ezhovshchina, 174
199, 262
ethnic groups, enemy, Soviet (1915), 203 face to the countryside campaign (mid-1920s),
ethnic order, Nazi goal of new, in Eastern 235
Europe, 151 Factory Worker and Collective Farm Girl
ethnicization, Soviet, 207 (Mukhina, 1937), 397
eugenics Fadeev, Aleksandr, Young Guard, 325
appeal of, 103 family
Bureau of, Soviet, 102 Nazi emphasis on, 106, 108
fascist, 103 Soviet, campaign to strengthen, 110
International Commission of, 102 famine, Soviet (1932“33), 93, 140
International Congress of (Milan, 1924), Far North, 140
fascism, 423
102
Lamarckian, favored by Marxism, 102 and homosexuality, 110
lebenswert(en) (genetically valuable and interpreted by Soviet ideologues, 321
healthy Germans), 101 Italian, 318, 421
Minderwertigkeit (genetic inferiority), 99, and Soviet eugenics, 103
and the written word, 433
101, 113
and Nazi racial hygiene, 95, 99, 327 Feiler, Arthur, 418
Russian Eugenics Journal, 102 Ferguson, Niall, War of the World, 13
Russian Eugenics Society, 102 fertility
Soviet and national power, 94
demise of, 103 indicating ideological superiority, 96
perspective on, 101 rates, Soviet, in the republics, 96
and the social environment, 102 Feuchtwanger, Leon, 429“30
Europa und die Seele des Ostens (Schubarth, Oppermanns, The, 429
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb, 431
1938), 409
Europe, contextualizing (1914“45), 421 ¬fth column, 68
¨
exclusion, 275“81, 299 Fighters (Kampfer, Wangenheim, 1936), 435
and classi¬cation, 180 Final Solution of the Jewish Question, 192,
legislative and administrative regimes of, 195
Finland, 210, 364
275
Nazi, 245, 254 Fitzpatrick, Sheila, 33, 107
of Jews, 276“79, 293 Five-Year Plan, First, 50, 63, 242, 249, 290
from the project of national revolution, Fleisher, Vera, 283
Forster, Albert, 155
276
Soviet France, 154, 336
based on class, 279 Franco, Francisco, 94
in the late 1920s, 254 Frankfurt School, 20
Index 523

as a program of mass murder and ethnic
Freikorps (volunteer units), 184“87
Frick, Wilhelm, 54, 55, 83 reconstruction, 192
Friedrich, Carl, 20, 22, 24, 300 Germanness, de¬ning, 427
Fritsch, Werner von, 74, 79, 188 Germans, Think of Your and Your Children™s
Fritzsche, Peter, 34 Health, Handbook for the German
frontline brotherhood, 292, 390 Family, and Advice for Mothers, 332
¨ ¨
Fuhrerherrschaft (leadership principal), Gesundheitsamt/amter (regional health
of¬ces), 99
185
Fuhst, Herbert, 331 Geyer, Michael, 35
Funk, Walter, 80 ghettos, 194
Furet, Fran§ois, 24 Gikalo, Nikolai, 210
Gilman, Sander L., 313
Galicia, 193, 376 GKO (State Defense Committee), 77, 78, 79
gas chambers, and the conscience of reorganized (December 8, 1942), 81
perpetrators, 173 Stalin™s management of the war economy
Gastev, Aleksei, 315, 317 through the, 78
Gaue/Gau organizations, 57, 74, 75, 83 Glantz, David, 346
Gauleiter, 53, 54, 57, 82 Gleichschaltung (co-optation), 56, 99, 293
¨
Geachteten, Die (von Salomon, 1930), 312 Goebbels, Joseph, 82, 329
Gellately, Robert, 257 Goethe, Joann Wolfgang von, 325
gender roles, 107 Gofshtein, A. S., 111
Genealogische Plauderei (Achenbach), 330 Goring, Hermann, 57, 65, 72, 73, 74, 77, 80,
¨
genealogy, Nazi, 226, 323, 330 195, 255, 377, 434
General Council for the Four Year Plan, 57 Gorky, Maxim, 110, 318
General Government, 154, 156, 194 On the Old and the New Man, 318
composition of, 193 Gorky Research Institute of Medical Genetics,
death rate in, 165 103
Gorlitzki, Yoram, 29
for Occupied Polish Territories (October
Gosplan (State Planning Committee), 79, 226
12, 1939), 193
¨
Gottglaubigkeit (religiosity disconnected from
Generalplan Ost (General Plan for the East),
churches), 297
152, 177, 198, 262
Gourevich, Peter, 26
Generalsiedlungsplan (General Plan for
Settlement), 152, 198 governance, 29
Genesis of the Final Solution from the Spirit of Nazi, 29
Science, The (Peukert, 1993), 120 Stalinist-stabilized, 29
genetics, Bolshevik revolutionary Graf, Oskar Maria, 431
transformation of Mendelian, 102 Great Break, Stalinist, 317
Geneva Convention (1929), 166 Great Patriotic War (Velikaia Otechestvennaia
genocide, 22, 36, 135, 138, 175, 180, 188, voina), Soviet, 158, 346, 363
Great Slump, effects of, on German society,
192, 197, 225, 262
de¬ning, 138 268
Soviet, 366 Great Terror, Soviet (1937“38), 84, 215, 216,
See also atrocities; deportation; ethnic 398
cleansing; eugenics; Holocaust causes of, 135
Gerasimov, Mikhail, 315 centralization of, 69
Gerlach, Christian, 31 contributory elements of, 67
German blood, 427 familial repudiation during, 284, 286
registering persons of, 199 political purpose of, 69
German Labor Front, 247, 327 secret execution quotas of the, 139
German Operation, Soviet, 214 Greeks, 159, 222
German People™s List, 154 Greiser, Arthur, 155
Germania (future name for Berlin), 397, 419 Grif¬n, Roger, 13
Germanization, 156, 188, 189, 193, 262 Gross, Walter, 316, 328
¨
Eindeutschungsfahige (persons ¬t to Grotjahn, Alfred, 95
Germanize), 153 group piece-work (Gruppenakkord), 288
Index
524

Grundel, E. Guenther, 313 histoire crois´ e (entangled history), 26, 35
e
¨
Gudov, Ivan, 290 Historikerstreit, 403
Guidelines for interruption of pregnancy and history
sterilization on health grounds (Germany, comparative, 18, 136, 399“402
aspects of, 27, 90
1936), 114
Guidelines for the Behavior of Troops in case and theme sensitive, 27
Russia, Nazi (May 1941), 354 diachronic context of, 19
Gulag, 30, 133, 141, 169 internal analysis of, 18
Gutt, Arthur, 99, 100 levels of, 18“19
¨
Gypsies Hitler, Adolf
German, 257 alliances of, 73
Central Of¬ce for the Fight Against the approach to leadership, 65, 66
Gypsy Nuisance, 257 approach to work, 65, 66
Roma, 257, 262, 296 and big business, 73
Sinti, 256, 262, 296 contrasted to Stalin, 61“67
Soviet, 65 cult of the Fuhrer, 42, 58, 85
¨
as Fuhrer and Reich Chancellor, 56
¨
Haffner, Sabastian, 330 Fuhrer™s List, The, 55
¨
Hague Convention (1907), 166 and the Fuhrer™s will, 64
¨
Halder, Franz, 79 image as a Fuhrer, 55, 64
¨
Harrison, Mark, 81 and Jewish Bolshevik internationalists, 426
Haupttreuhandstelle Ost, 195 loyalty statement to, 56
Head Of¬ce for Race and Settlement, 152 Mein Kampf, 426
Healey, Dan, 110 as a propagandist, 64
health care socio-Darwinist obsessions of, 66
Nazi, 98 Hitler myth, 248
and reproductive policy administration, 54 Hitler orders, 82
Russian, pre- and postrevolutionary, 97 Hitler salute, 55
Soviet Hitler-Stalin Pact (August 23, 1939), 193
postrevolutionary, 97 Hitler Youth, 298, 327, 333
around World War II, 97 Hoeschen, Hans, 337
universal Hoffmann, David, 29
Russian, 97 Holocaust, 30, 36, 128, 134, 176, 350, 381,
Soviet, 97 395
Heart¬eld, John, 435 as a derivative act, 22
Heer, Hannes, 338 eliminationist policies (ausmerzenden) in,
Hegewald, 199 101
Hellbeck, Jochen, 34 See also deportation; ethnic cleansing;
helot status, 262 genocide; murder, mass; pogroms
Henri Quatre (Mann, H., 1935“38), 438 Holquist, Peter, 361
Herder, Johann Gottfried, 409 homosexuality, 108, 296
and fascism, 110
heroism, de¬ned by Leninism and Nazism, 60
Hess, Rudolf, 65 Nazi
Heydrich, Reinhard, 190, 195, 257, 379 as a military threat, 108
hierarchies, Soviet perception of, 256
centralized, 50 Soviet, 110
integrated, 85 hooligans, Soviet, 141
Hilfswillige or Hiwis (auxiliaries), 166 House, Jonathan, 346
Himmler, Heinrich, 58, 65, 74, 83, 105, 108, Hugenberg, Alfred, 73
humanism, 428
173, 189, 193, 195, 257, 261, 263, 316,
Humboldt, Wilhelm von, 431
377, 380
Hindenburg, Paul von, 55, 188
Hirsch, Francine, 160 Iagoda, Genrikh, 110
Index 525

Ianushkevich, Nicholas N., 202 Italy, fascist, 402
idealism ITR (Soviet engineering-technical personnel),
Nazi, 240, 263 249
Soviet, 274 Iusupov, Prince, 417
identi¬cation, Soviet Ivan Susanin (opera, 1836), 419
and social transformation, 231, Izvestiia, 424, 436
264
wartime and postwar, 260 Jean Christophe (Rolland, 1904“12), 438
identity Jehovah™s Witnesses, 296
national Jews
Soviet, 253, 320 aryanization of property belonging to, 255
Weimar, 236 as Bolshevik internationalists, condemned
social by Hitler, 426
Aryan, 331 civic and social death of (1933“35), 246
assumed right of a regime to impose, 264 con¬scated assets and property of, 278
during the Kaiserreich, 236 conspiracies of, 245
meaning of, displaced during World War deportation of, 195
II, 221 as a diaspora nationality, 260
Nazi, wartime, 261 economic boycott of (1933), 276
Soviet, 232“36, 276 economic death of (1938), 254
Weimar, 236 German, de¬ning, 246
ideology Hitler™s 1919 call for the removal of, 246
grounding and projecting action, 28 ideological construction of, by Nazis, 196
Leninist, compared to Marxist, 59 Nazi
Nazi, 60 extermination of, 199, 376
Stalinist, class-based, 59 perception of, 190
If Tomorrow Brings War (1938), 363 as threat to Volksgemeinshaft, 245
Illustrierter Beobachter, 328, 330 See also Holocaust
imprisonment, Soviet, of Soviet citizens, 176 Johnson, Eric, 258
inclusion, 269“75 Jowitt, Kenneth, 86
and classi¬cation, 180 judenfrei (free of Jews), 246
practices of, 267 Junger, Ernst, 311, 315
¨
incorporated territory, German, categories of,
Kabo, Vladimir, 270
76
Independent Socialist Party, German, 236 Kaganovich, Lazar, 48, 49, 62, 66, 86, 205,
indigenization, Soviet, 207 208, 212, 226, 411
industrialization, 34, 44 Kalmyks, 159, 222, 260
Soviet Kamenev, Lev, 411
forced, 139 Kampfgemeinschaft, 185, 262
promoted by Germany, 413 Kampfzeit, 82
in¬‚ation, hyper-, effects on German society Karachai, 159, 222
(1923), 267 Karaev, Alu Heider, 208
Ingush, 159, 222, 223, 224, 260 Katyn Forest, Soviet execution of Polish
insurance, German compulsory sickness, 98 of¬cers at, 218, 366
intelligentsia Kaverin, Veniamin, Two Captains, 325
Soviet, 250, 281, 322 Kazakhstan, 158, 160, 212, 217, 222, 254,
classifying, 233 259, 260
hostility toward (late 1920s), 243 Keimzelle (germ cell), 100
International Red Cross, 166 Keitel, Wilhelm, 82, 109
¨
Internationale Literatur (Deutsche Blatter), Kershaw, Ian, 178, 248
Khemshils, 159
424
Iofan, Boris, 397, 419 Khlevniuk, Oleg, 70, 71
Iran/Iranians, 159, 210 Khrushchev, Nikita, 71, 86
Index
526

Laqueur, Walter, 403
Kiehn, Fritz, 294
Russia and Germany, 398
Kiev, 212
Kireevskii, Ivan, 409 Latzel, Klaus, 334, 337
Kirgizia, 260 laws
Kirillov, Vladimir, 315 discriminatory, Nazi (1933), 246, 276
Kirov, Sergei, 49, 212, 243 Law for Ensuring the Unity of Party and
Kittelbach-Piraten, 272 State, German (December 1, 1933), 54
Klemperer, Victor, 277, 279, 330 Law for the Ordering of National Labor,
Lingua Tertii Imperii, 277 German (January 20, 1934), 73
Kobulov, Bogdan, 159 Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily
Koch, Eric, 155 Diseased Offspring (Germany, July 14,

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