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Kogan, Pavel, 439 1933), 114, 247
Kolkhoz Charter (March 1935), 252 Law for the Standardization of the Health
¨
kolkhoznik (collective farmer), 242, 252 Care System, The (Gesetz uber die
Kollektivwesen, 420 Vereinheitlichung des Gesundheitswesens,
Kollontai, Aleksandra, 107 July 3, 1934), 98
Koltsov, Mikhail, 424, 431, 433, 434, 438 law of combined and uneven development
Komsomol, Soviet, 235, 273“74, 292 (Trotsky), 253
Komsomolsk-na-Amure, 274 Law on the Head of State of the German
Konasov, V. B., 169, 170 Reich (August 1, 1934), 56
Konsensbereitschaft (readiness for consensus), See also Ehegesundheitsgesetz; marital
health law; Nuremberg Laws
248
Korchagin, Pavel, 321 leader-retinue structures, 56, 77
Kovalev, I. V., 66 SS (Schutzstaffel), as exemplary, 58
KPD (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, Lebensborn e. V. (maternity homes), 106,
German Communist Party), 105, 214, 109
Lebensraum (living space), 121, 183, 186,
238, 246, 293, 416, 423
Kraft durch Freude, 248, 327 187, 191, 245
Krakow, 193, 194 and the German struggle for survival, 151
origins of, 182
Kraval™, Ivan, 96
and racial community, 261
Krokodil, 423
Lefort, Claude, 20
Krupp, Friedrich, 73
Leibniz, Gottfried, 409
Krylenko, Nikolai, 111
Lemberg (L™vov), 194. See also L™vov
Kuban Cossacks, 158, 209
Lenin, Vladimir, 43, 45, 206, 413, 430
kulaks, 68, 139, 142, 177, 209, 214, 233, 240,
Leningrad, 162, 212
250, 252, 258, 276, 280
Kulik, Grigorii, 365 Leninism, 46
Kulturbolschewismus, 403 Levene, Mark, 175
Kultur-Tagung (Hitler™s September 1938 Lewin, Moshe, 233
speech in Nuremberg), 427 Ley, Robert, 82
¨
Kulturtragertum, 419 liberties, individual, reasons for rejecting,
Kun, Bela, 413 87
Kurds, 159, 210, 222 Lingua Tertii Imperii (Kemperer, 1947),
Kursk, Battle of (1943), 360, 383, 385 109
linguistic islands, 184, 187
labor battalions, Soviet, 168, 169 Literaturnaia gazeta, 424
Labor Defense Council, 51 Lithuania, 154
Labor Educational Centers, 83 Litvinov, Maxim, 410
labor policy, Nazi, and racism, 177 Lodz, 155
Lammers, Hans, 65, 82 Lorraine, 152, 154
Land Oberost, 413 Lublin, 154, 193
¨
Landesschutzenbataillone, 164 Ludtke, Alf, 33
¨
languages, indigenous, 234 Lutsk, 219
Index 527

Luxemburg, 152, 154 Military Council of the Western Front, Soviet,
L™vov, 194, 219. See also Lemberg 370
Lysenko, Tro¬m D., 103 Mischlinge (persons with at least one Jewish
grandparent), 246
mobilization
Machtergreifung (seizure of power), 104
Nazi, 376
Madagascar, 255
politics as, 85
Magnitogorsk, 274
political, 42
Main Administration of Political Propaganda
wartime
of the Red Army, 386
German, 83
Makarenko, Anton, 318
Soviet, 84
male supremacy, Nazi, 240
Mode, Die, 337
Malenkov, Georgii, 71, 81
Modernism and Fascism (Grif¬n, 2007), 13
Malia, Martin, 384
modernization, 34, 201
Malthus, Thomas, Essay on the Principle of
Population, 90 Moeller, Robert, 264
Mann, Heinrich, Henri Quatre, 438 Molchanov, Georgii, 212
Mann, Michael, 42 Moldavia, 259
Dark Side of Democracy, 23 Molotov, Vyacheslav, 51, 62, 70, 81, 86, 210,
Mann, Thomas, 409 212, 222
Buddenbrooks, 429 Molotov-Ribbentrop pact (August 1939),
¨
Mannerbund (comradeship of the ¬ghting 438
unit), 108. See also camaraderie Mommsen, Hans, 29
Marcuse, Herbert, 107 Moore, Barrington, 34
marital health law (Gesetz zum Schutze der Moravia, 152
Erbgesundheit des deutschen Volkes, Morocco, 255
October 18, 1935), 115 Morozov, Pavlik, 241, 284, 285, 299
marriage Moscow
law, and Minderwertigkeit, 99, 101, 113 battle of (1941“42), 360
loans, Nazi, 117“19, 123, 127 police raids in (July 1933), 141
policy, Nazi, 115, 332 Mother Homeland (Rodina mat™), 391
and racial mixing, 115 Mother Russia, 391
Martin, Terry, 50, 158, 253 motherhood
Marx, Karl, 312 rationalization of, 104
Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute (IMEL), 436 service crosses (Germany), 119, 123, 127
Maschmann, Melita, 272, 291 super¬cial glori¬cation of, 116
massacres, 366. See also atrocities; genocide; movements, labor, 287
Holocaust; murder, mass; pogroms Muhlenberger, Detlef, 238
¨
Master and Margarita, The (Bulgakov, 1967), Mukhina, Vera, 402, 419
Factory Worker and Collective Farm Girl,
437
maternal paid leave, Soviet, 116, 126 397
maternity facilities, Soviet, 116 murder, mass
May Day, Soviet, 271 Nazi, 173, 175
Mayer, Arno, 24 Soviet, 175
Mein Kampf (Hitler, 1925), 95, 151, 312, 330, during the Great Terror, 174
See also atrocities, genocide; Holocaust;
340, 426, 430, 439
Mekhlis, Lev, 387 massacres; pogroms
Mensheviks, 405, 418 Muslims, 166
Merridale, Catherine, 346, 384 Mussolini, Benito, 94
Mertens, Adolf, 334 Mutterschulungskurse (training courses for
Meskhetian Turks, 159, 222 motherhood), 332
Metro-Vicker, 418 MVD (Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del,
Meyerhold, Vsevolod, 316 Ministry of Internal Affairs), 144
Mikoian, Anastas, 81, 205 Myrdal, Alva and Gunner, 94
Index
528

Nabokov, Vladimir, 417 Nolte, Ernst, 22, 24
¨
Nahplane (short-term plans), 177 nomads, 202
Nakhichevan, 211 nomenklatura, 48, 49, 50, 59, 71, 84
nation non-Cossack peasant settlers (inogorodnie),
as a community of fate, 205 236
as a cultural community, 207 normalization, Soviet, 71
of descent, 226 Norway, 336
National Liberals, German, 236 NSADP (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche
national operations, Soviet (1937“38), 215 Arbeiterpartei/ Nazi Party), 58, 72
consequences of, 216 1930 composition of, 238
national renewal, Nazi social policy on, as an agitational mass movement), 64
early-1930s electoral successes, 237
101
National Socialism and Hitler™s skills as a propagandist, 64
expanding, 182“200 intrusiveness of, 59
similarities to Stalinist Russia, 21 membership growth between 1933“35, 58
social support for, 44 philosophic positions of, 239
unconditional allegiance to Hitler, 46 relationship to state, 54“55
See also NKVD as a vehicle for class mobilization, 238
National Socialist revolution, 72 as a Volkspartei, 238
nationality, Soviet NS-Frauenschaft, 247, 332
¨
confusion about, 206 Nuremberg Laws (Nurnberger Gesetze,
and social transformation, 231 September 1935), 115, 246, 257, 279,
Naturmenschen, 420 329, 330. See also laws
Nazaretian, A. M., 62
Nazi-Soviet War. See World War II Ober Ost (Oberbefehlshaber der gesamten
¨
NEP (New Economic Policy, Soviet deutschen Streitkrafte im Osten, Supreme
(1921“29), 97, 107, 317, 318 Command of all German Combat Forces
NEPmen, 240 in the East), 183, 410
Neues Volk, 328 Oberkommando des Heeres, High Command
Neurath, Konstantin von, 74 of the German Army (OKH), 188
New Man, the, 302“41 October Revolution, 43
commonalities in the creation of, 415 Ogonek, 424
Germanic, 313 OGPU (All-Union State Political
historical evolution of, 302 Administration), 140, 141, 241, 416
Nazi, 98, 302 On the Eve (A¬nogenov, 1940), 363
relationship to history, 314, 318 Operation Bagration (1944), 381
and social self-transformation, 34 Operation Barbarossa, 351“60
Soviet, 314“26 collateral damage implicit in, 354
as liberating all humanity, 302 escalation of violence during, 352“58
famine resultant from, 356
mechanistic construct of, 315“17
Nazi
as a mixtum compositum, 410, 421
annihilation of Jews and Bolsheviks
Night of the Long Knives (June 1934),
necessary to, 352, 355, 358
74
as a just war, 352
Nizhnii Novgorod, 71
targeted killing in, 354
NKVD (People™s Commissariat for Internal
terror as a paci¬cation principle in, 355
Affairs), 70, 71, 133, 142, 159, 167, 360,
violence implicit in, 354
366, 385
and ascribed hereditary status, 253 as war in a new key, 352
mass operations of, 70 Operation Mars (1942), 360
See also National Socialism; police Oppermanns, The (Feuchtwanger, 1933),
Noakes, Jeremy, 59 429“30
nobility, Soviet, 280 Orders, Soviet
noble savage (Rousseau), 409 Order No, 44/21 (February 2, 1930), 177
Index 529

Order No, 227 (July 28, 1941), 81 as non-European, 409
Order No, 227 (July 28, 1942), 386 as a Shaky Colossus, 410
Order No, 270 (August 16, 1941), 80, 364, of the Russian collective individual, 410
of Russian people, 409
385
Order No, 398 (March 1, 1943), 167 of Russian space, 408
Order No, 447 (July 30, 1937), 69, 177, of Soviet atrocities, 411
mutual, of Nazi Germany and the Stalinist
251
Order No, 447 (July 30, 1939), 142, 143 Soviet Union, 441
Ordzhonikidze, Grigori Konstantinovich, interwar, 416
in World War I, 413“14
62“63, 205
Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, 259 scholarship on German, of the Soviet
Organization Todt (OT), 57 Union, 408
organizations Soviet
Nazi, 271 of Germany, 422, 428, 440
Soviet, 273“74 of Nazism as the inevitable outcome of
Orgburo, 47, 48, 62, 77 capitalism, 425
orgraspred, 48 of the repressive character of the Nazi
Orientalism (Said), 407 regime, 423
Orlova, Raisa, 281 Perestroika, effect on historical scholarship,
Orthodox Church, Russian (1920s“early 41
persecution
1930s), 293, 297
Osoaviakhim (Union of Societies of Assistance Nazi, categories of persons suffering, 296
to Defence and Aviation-Chemical popular participation in, 137
Soviet, 418
Construction), 273
See also antisemitism; atrocities; genocide;
Ostarmee, 393. See also Army of the East
Great Terror; Holocaust
Ostforschung (Eastern Studies), 186
Peukert, Detlev, The Genesis of the Final
Ostrovskii, Nikolai, 321
Solution from the Spirit of Science, 120
outcasts, 102, 142, 143, 258, 296
¨
Pfarramt/amter (parish of¬ce), 330
physicians, analysis of, in 1933 Berlin, 95
Pakhomov, Alexey, 397
Pirenne, Henri, 25
Palace of the Soviets, 397, 419
Pleyer, Kleo, 338
Papen, Franz von, 74
Ploetz, Alfred, 95
parental roles, Soviet, 110
Podlubnyi, Stepen, 280
Paris Congress for the Defense of Culture
pogroms, 203, 204, 220, 255
(1935), 431, 433
Poland, 152, 153, 154, 155, 182, 191, 210,
Paris International Exposition (1937), 396,
431, 432, 440 336
parti¬cation, 82, 83 Eastern, Soviet activity in, after the
Party Chancellery, 53 Hitler-Stalin Pact (1939), 217
party-state bureaucracy, controlling, 67“76 Nazi invasion of, 189
passportization, Soviet, 139, 251, 253, Polish subhumans, Nazi, 190
police
258
paternity, importance of, 109, 110 secret, 49
patronage, Stalinist, 48, 60, 84 Soviet, 143, 159
peasants, Soviet, 241, 252, 259, 269 -state, autocratic, 46
landless (batraki), 233 See also NKVD
middle (seredniaki), 233 Polish Operation, Soviet (August 1927), 214,
poor (bedniaki), 233 216
perceptions Politburo, 47, 48, 51, 60, 62, 69, 70, 78, 112,
German 251, 428
of Jewish in¬‚uence in Russia, 410, 419 political
of the 1930s Soviet Union, 408 authority
of Russia, 418“22 Bolshevik, 47
Index
530

political (cont.) German
Nazi, 47 repatriation by Soviets, 168

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