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Central Commission (National Socialist), used in Soviet reconstruction, 168
mortality rates of, 170
53
order Nazi
Nazi, 83 held by Soviets, 166, 167
Hitler™s centrality to, 55 no prisoner policies, 164
Stalinist, 71, 84, 86 policy toward Soviet, 161
system Polish and Finnish, Soviet disregard for the
distinctiveness of Nazi and Soviet, 45 Geneva Convention pertaining to, 166
monolithic, 29 Soviet, 170
Soviet in the German Army and Waffen-SS,
distinct features of, 30, 80 166
Soviet and Italian metaphors for liquidation on battle¬eld of, 166
participation in, 321 as Nazi servants, 165
Poltava, deportation from, 211 reasons for Nazi brutality towards, 165
Popular Front (1935), 426, 433, 434, repatriation of German, 169
starvation of, 171
437
population Poznan, 155, 193, 194, 195
as a critical national defensive resource, 91 Pravda, 423, 424, 426, 434, 436
declining prenatalism
and German race suicide, 91 ineffectiveness of Nazi and Soviet, 123“28
and mortality rates, 90 Nazi, distinguished from Soviet,
as national suicide, 94 122
effects of World War I on, 91“92, 94, 95 Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR
European decline in fertility (nineteenth decree (November 26, 1938), 160
century), 91 Pridham, Geoffrey, 59
French decline in fertility (1850“1900), 91 priests, 250
German and Russian, in the 1930s, 58 Progressive Party, German, 236
and nineteenth century fertility, 90 Proletarian Cinema, 242
policy proletariat, 232, 233
cameralist analysis of, 90 as an advantageous social identity, 233
Enlightenment thought on, 90 as a Bolshevik ideological term, 242
and international competition, 96 dictatorship of the, 268
Nazi, 107 Proletarskaia revoliutsiia, 425
Germanization, 183 Proletkul™t, 315
in Poland, 192 Promotion of the Marriage Rate (Germany,
and Nazi eugenics, 100 June 1, 1933), 117
zero sum, 109 pronatalism
and reproduction for mass warfare, 87, 91 European, 87
Russian Nazi
and economic class fertility, 93 and antinatalism, 114, 119
pre“ and post“World War I, 51 coercive, 104, 113
and settlement plans, 153 public response to, 123
Soviet Soviet, 110, 121
birthrates (1935“38), 125 distinguished from Nazi, 122
exchange (1939), 151. public response to, 124
¨
See also Bevolkerungspolitik, resettlement propaganda, 36, 112, 114, 390
Potemkin, Leonid, 325“26 Nazi, 82, 353, 366, 372
POWs (prisoners of war), 161“71, 371, 372 Soviet, 218, 365, 382, 384, 389
differences between treatment of German prostitution, Nazi, 106, 108
and Soviet, 170, 171 proverki (veri¬cations), 67
estimating German and Soviet, 170 Prut, Iosef, 365
Index 531

purges Bolshevik, 46
chistki, 67 differences between, 47, 61
Nazi, 73 Stalinist, emergent background for, 43
compared to Stalinist, 74 rehabilitation, 243
Stalinist Reich Defense Commissioners, 82
as healthy nationalism, 419 Reich Defense Council, 82
institutional, 279 Reich directorate (National Socialist), 52
Party (1937“39), 251 Reich Ministry for Food and Agriculture,
effects of, 67, 70“71, 76. 151
See also Great Terror Reich, Das, 329, 336
Pushkin, Aleksandr, 325 Reichenau, Walther von, 359
Reichorganisationsleitung I and II, 53
quota Reichsarbeitsdienst, 333
arrest, 257 Reichs¬‚uchtsteuer, 278
national, for Soviet education and Reichsgau Wartheland, 155
government institutions, 234 Reichskristallnacht (Night of the Broken
Glass, November 9“10, 1938),
race 277
Aryan master, 87 Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Head Of¬ce of
Bolshevik conceptions of, 226 Reich Security), 152, 190
¨
goal of racial state, 44 Reichsstelle fur Raumordnung (Reich Of¬ce
-mixing, 245 for Area Planning), 151
Nazi Reichstag
categorization, 220 elections (November 12, 1933), 55
certifying requirements, 261 ¬re (1933), 430, 433
community of, 245 religion
de¬ning reality, 239, 261 of National Socialism, 119, 120, 273
and eugenics, 100 political, 382
¨
fordernden (supportive policies), 101 shaping communities, 297
grooming, 328 in the Soviet Union, 209, 280, 392
hierarchy of, 196, 220 repression, Stalinist, as a convergence of
hygiene, 113 several phenomena, 135
purity as objective of social policy, 95, reproduction
Nazi
231, 245
Radek, Karl, 424, 425, 431, 433, 438 ¬nancial renumeration for, 117
radicalization, 356, 381 militaristic goals for, 101
Radom, 193 political administration of, 96“99, 332
rape, mass, Soviet, 171, 173, 263 politics of, 29
Rasse- und Siedlungshauptamts der SS social goal of, 30
(RuS-Einsatzgruppen), 192, 194, 195 Soviet
Rassenhygiene (racial hygiene), 100 and anthropometry, 111
Rassenschande (marriage between an Aryan effects of industrial labor on, 112
and non-Aryan), 246, 278, 279 ¬nancial renumeration for, 116, 121,
Rationalization, 58 124
rationing, 250 industrial production language for, 111
redemption, eschatological ideology of, 181 nondiscriminatory promotion of, 119,
regime cities, 139, 143 121
regimes state intervention in, 90, 104
bonding with, 271 resettlement
historical circumstances affecting, 44 camps, categorization of refugees in, 156
Nazi, emergent background for, 43“45 differences between Soviet and German,
Nazi and Stalinist 161
commonalities between Nazi and ethnic, 151“61
Index
532

resettlement (cont.) Russian Association of Proletarian Musicians
Greater German Reich (Reichsdeutsche), (RAPM), 242
Russian Association of Proletarian Writers
153
Hitler™s organizational prerequisites for, (RAPP), 242
Russian Question, 234
193
Nazi Russo-Japanese War (1904“05), 362
of ethnic Germans, 154 Rykov, Alexei, 51, 63
and mass murder, 177
plans for, 176 SA (Sturm Abteilung), 72, 188
non-ethnic, 157 Said, Edward, 407
principal objective of, during World War II, Samara, 48
Samokhvalov, Aleksandr, 397
151
racial screening for, 156 Schacht, Hjalmar, 73, 74
Soviet, administrative, 158 Scheffer, Paul, 418
¨
verdrangt (resettled locally), 154. Schleicher, Kurt von, 74
See also population Schlieffen Plan, 357
Restoration of the Professional Civil Service Schlogel, Karl, 36, 37, 181, 398, 405
¨
(April 7, 1933), 73 Berlin, Ostbahnhof Europas, 425
retinue structures, 58, 85 Schmitt, Carl, 336
Reuter, Ernst, 413 Schmolders, Claudia, 313
¨
revolution from above (Stalin), 362 Schonheit der Arbeit, 287
effects of, 43, 44, 269 schools, elementary, Nazi desire to control,
revolution, Bolshevik, 43 297
phases of, 269 Schubarth, Walter, Europa und die Seele des
social changes as a result of, 268, 288 Ostens, 409
and Weimar Germany, 403 Schuddekopf, Otto Ernst, 414
¨
Rhineland bastards, 255 scorched earth tactics
Ribbentrop, Joachim von, 57 Tote Zonen (dead zones), 380
¨
Right Opposition, Stalin™s defeat of, 62, 63 Verwustung (deserti¬cation), 380
Rilke, Rainer Maria, 409 SD (Sicherheitsdienst, Security Police), 119,
¨
RKF (Reichskommissar fur die Festigung 189
deutschen Volkstums (Reich Secretariat, Soviet, 52, 62, 77
Commissioner for the Strengthening of Seldte, Franz, 57
Germandom), 151“54, 193, 195 Semashko, Nikolai Aleksandrovich, 113
Rohm, Ernst, 72, 74, 108 Serbia, 154, 376
¨
Rolland, Romain, 438 Serov, Ivan, 159
Romania, 153, 256 Service, Robert, Conrades! A History of World
Communism, 13
Rosanvallon, Pierre, Democracy, 13
Rosenberg, Alfred, 55 settlement policy, Third Reich, 151
Rostov, 221 sexual freedom
Rousseau, Jean Jacques, 409 Nazi, 106“09
RSFSR (Russian Soviet Federative Socialistic Soviet, 107
Republic), principal object of 1918 Shakhty (1928 trial), 418
constitution of, 232 She Defends the Motherland (1943),
RSHA (Reich Security Main Of¬ce), 58, 384
Shearer, David, 68
194
Russia, 154, 162 Show Trial, First Moscow (August 1936), 71
historical backwardness of, 43, 318 Siberia, 48, 140, 152, 158, 252, 259, 262
as a non-European land, 351 Sicherungsdivisionen, 164
pre“World War I German in¬‚uence on, Siegelbaum, Lewis, 33
Silesia, 193, 195
412“13
space, 352 Simonov, Konstantin, 439
Russia and Germany (Laqueur, 1965), 398 Slovenia, 152, 153, 154
Index 533

Smolensk, 357 special settlers (spetspereselentsy), 172,
battle of, 360 244
Social Darwinism, 94, 101 specialist baiting, Soviet, 249
reinforced by World War I, 94 speculators, Soviet, 1934 arrests of, 141
Social Democrats, 43 Speer, Albert, 397, 402, 419
social groups, Soviet (obshchestvennye SS (Schutzstaffel), 57, 72, 75, 109, 133, 152,
gruppy), 250 155, 189, 326, 332
social hygiene, Nazi, 95 settlement racial screening by, 154
social order, classi¬cation in, 180 weapons, 58
Socialisme ou Barbarie, 20 See also Waffen-SS
¨
socialist offensive, Soviet (1920s and 1930s), SS-Ansiedlungsstabe (SS-settlement teams),
targets of, 240 199
socialist realism, Soviet, 437 Staff of the Fuhrer™s Deputy, 53
¨
socially alien elements, Soviet, 209, 227 Stakhanov, Aleksei, 320
socially harmful elements, Soviet Stakhanovite movement, 249, 290, 291, 319
(sotsvrediteli), 68, 139“44, 252 Stalin, Joseph, 166, 205, 208, 210, 212, 365,
1933 arrests of, 141 430
categorized, 142, 178 administrative competence of, 61, 64
plan to eradicate, 178 approach to leadership, 66
society approach to work, 64, 66
atomized, regimes creating belonging in an, and centrality, 45
contrasted to Hitler, 67
34
Marxism-Leninism, as advanced science of, and culture, 428, 436
as an institution-builder, 62
428
Soviet, moral-political unity of, 68 as an interventionist, 65
sodomy, Soviet, 110 as a praktik, 85
Solomon, Susan Gross, 102 Stalingrad, 385
Solovki (Soviet concentration camp), 140, battle of (1942), 360, 383
Starovskii, V. N., 226
416
Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr, 296 starvation, 31, 140, 162, 262, 358, 378
Soviet people (sovetskii narod), as Soviet Nazi
parallel to Volksgemeinschaft, 253 plans for, 176, 378
Soviet Union, 152 policy of, 162, 197
German pre-1933 and post-1933 images of, state
identifying populations, 231
419
internal concerns (1930s), 139 Nazi, foundations of, 60
as a multinational federation, 96, 180, 203 Stalinist, foundations of, 60
Stalinist welfare, precedence of, over individual
interlocking party and state committees welfare, 96
state building
in, 51
Bolshevik, phases of (1919“34), 43
racializing internal populations, 180“201
Stalinist, 46
sovietization, of annexed territories
(1939“40), 253 phases of, 45, 50
Soviets, Extraordinary Eighth Congress of State Defense Committee (GKO), Soviet, 370
(November 1936), 250 State Peasant Organizations (Nazi), 151
Sovinformbiuro, 169 Statthalter (governor), 47
sovkhozniki, 252 stereotypes
Sovnarkom (Council of People™s Commissars), Nazi, 338
Soviet, 253
51, 54, 70, 79
Spain, Republican, 438 sterilization, Nazi
SPD (Social Democratic Party), 236, 238, 240, of African-German children, 255
mandatory, 114, 247, 255, 257
246, 293
special settlements, Soviet, 139“41 Stieff, Helmuth, 374
Index
534

Stolypin reforms, 241 Two Captains (Kaverin, 1936“44), 325
Stormtroopers (Stoßtruppen), 72 Tyrol, 153
Strasser, Gregor, 53
Strumilin, S. G., 93 Uglanov, N. A., 50
Sudetenland, 74, 75 Ukraine, 48, 93, 154, 166, 197, 198, 209,
suffrage, women™s, Weimar, 237 211, 212, 221, 254, 259, 381
Swing-Youth, 272 Ukrainian Insurgent Army, 259
Syrtsov, Sergei, 49, 50 Umwandererzentralstelle (Central Bureau for
Emigration), 152
Tarnopol, 194, 337 un¬t for work, 177
Tartars, 260 Untermenschen, 419
tax in kind, 49 Urals, 140
Tehran Conference (1943), 167 Ustrialov, Nikolai, 323“24
Tendriakov, Vladimir, 389 Uzbekistan, 235, 260
Terror. See Great Terror. See also genocide;
murder, mass; purges van der Lubbe, Marinus, 434
Thalman, Ernst, 434 van der Rohe, Mies, 397
¨
The party commands the state (slogan), 54 Vareikis, Iosif, 49
theater, agitprop, 243 venereal disease, 92, 100, 106

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