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Third All-Union Conference on the Protection Verbitterung (embitterment), 359
¨
of Maternity and Infancy (1926), 112 Verfugungstruppe (SS military units), 189. See
Thomas, Georg, 80 also SS; Waffen-SS
Thorak, Josef, 397 Vergesellschaftung (strategies of
Thyssen, Fritz, 73 societalization), 33, 35
Timm, Annette, 29 Vertov, Dziga, 316
Timoshenko, Semyon, 365 victory of the child, Nazi, as corollary to
Tito, Joseph Broz, 413 victory of the sword, 108
Todt, Fritz, 56 Vinnitsa, 212
Tolstoi, Aleksei, 319, 321 violence, 14
Tomsk, 141 absolute, Nazi plans for, 176
Tomskii, Mikhail, 43 arguments used to demand, 172
totalitarianism essential to totalitarianism, 30
conceptual approaches to the study of, 14 extreme, distinguishing, 32
dif¬culty in conceptualizing, 20 mass
Nazi charismatic, 61 de¬ning, 138
problems of model, 154, 300 Nazi
questions to be asked in the study of, 18 as developmental, 175
Soviet ideological, 61 expansionist, 31
transformation, social social aim of, 178
difference between Soviet and Nazi popular support for, 172
objectives, 302 questions surrounding, 136
public arenas for, 269 Stalinist
treason, Soviet, 364 as developmental, 175
treaty, German-Soviet nonaggression internal, 31
against kolkhoz peasantry, 176
(August 1939), 419
plani¬cation of, 177
trenches, Nazi myth of the, 312
social aim of, 179
Tretiakov, Sergei, 431
as a social prophylactic, 213
troiki (Committees of Three), 70, 82, 141, 214
against Soviet citizens, 42
Trotsky, Leon, 206, 253, 410, 430
as normative for political struggle (Stalin),
Trotskyite, 276
Trud v SSSR (1930s), 243 366
popular participation in, 138
Tunisia, 255
reconstructing society, 32, 328
Turkey, 210
Index 535

social acclimation to, 172 War of the World (Ferguson, 2006), 13
Soviet Warsaw, 193
1930s quotas for murderous, 366 Warthegau, 195
orders to halt, 172 Wartheland, 156
vodka, 295 Was ist Rasse? 328
Vogelsang, Thilo, 430 Wasserstein, Bernard, Barbarism and
Volga Dam, 321 Civilization, 13
Volga Germans, Republic of, 222 Wehrmacht, 58, 74, 168, 189, 190, 192, 198,
Volga River, 351 219, 222, 333, 352, 355, 357, 373, 378,
Volk (race), 101, 183, 187 392
¨
volkische Flurbereinigung (ethnic cleansing), Directive 21 (18 December 1940), 351
Directive 46 (28 October 1942), 380
190
¨
Volkischer Beobachter, 123, 332 Weiner, Amir, 36, 259
Volksbeauftragte, 185 Weissberg-Cybulski, Alexander, 214
Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle, 152, 153, 155 Weltanschauungen (world views), 396
Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz, 155 Werth, Nicolas, 31
Volksgemeinschaft (ideological images of Weyrather, Irmgard, 119
living space), Nazi, 87, 109, 120, 122, What Is to Be Done? (Chernyshevsky, 1863),
124, 329 435
evocative power of, 239, 240 White Guard, 210
ideal of, 236, 245 White Russia, 197, 198, 209, 211
ideology of, 239 White Sea-Baltic Canal construction project,
and inclusion policies, 261, 293, 299, 244
Wiedersehen mit Russland (Dwinger, 1942),
301
message of, 239“40 416
as racial community, 247, 261 Willikens, Werner, 178
and social transformation, 231 Wolf, Christa, 329
Volksgesundheit (people™s health), 99 Woltscht-Kinderman incident, 418
¨
Volkskorper, 129 women
Volkstum (ideological concepts of race), 186, emancipation of
Nazi opposition to, 240
191
Soviet support of, 107, 268
Volks-und Kulturbodenforschung (Native
perceptions of the role of
Peoples and Cultures Research), 186
Nazi, 104, 240
Volkswerdung (becoming a people), 334
Soviet, 105, 117, 126
von Salomon, Ernst, 312
Weimar, 237
Voroshilov, Kliment, 86, 365
work
vory v zakone (career criminals), 296
Vossische Zeitung, 123 experience (stazh), and class consciousness,
vydvizhentsy, Soviet, 243 234, 243
Vyshinskii, Andrei, 215, 416 redemptive value of, 244
-shy, 256, 257
Waffen-SS, 189. See also SS Work Service and Land Year, The, 248
wage schemes, German, 287, 288 workers
Wagner, Richard, Die Walkyrie, 419 foreign, 172, 176
Walkyrie, Die (Wagner), 419 German, 98
Wangenheim, Gustav von, Fighters, 435 bonds among, 288
Wannsee Conference (January 1942), 199, shock, 244
Soviet, 93, 111, 207, 233, 234
377
war bonds among, 289
of annihilation, 155 preparatory schools (rabfaky) for, 234
¨
European civil (Der europaische productive, 249
¨
Burgerkrieg), 402 proletarian identity crisis of, 243
ideological (Weltanschauungskrieg), 402 women as, 112, 116, 126, 129
Index
536

military and strategic readiness for,
World War I, 362
declining birthrates due to, 92 361
soldiers taken prisoner, 383
effects on German society, 267
waging war on German terms, 368
effects on Soviet society, 335
unrestrained lethality of, 348
as the German War, 413
phases of, 191
human losses in, 91
postwar changes, 84
World War II
and sense of national inclusion, 274
analysis of German legislative acts during,
Stalinist command structure during, 77
79
See also Great Patriotic War
German and Russian
Wort, Das, 424.
attitudes during, 275
Writers Union, Soviet, 436
decision making during, 76“84
Foreign Commission of, 424
Nazi-Soviet War (1941“45)
asymmetric nature of, 350
xenophobia, Soviet, 135, 158, 211, 217
atrocities of, 350
Bolshevik part in, 217
bifocal orientation of, 348
as a state ideology, 224
as a civil war, 349
Nazi and Zionism, 225
extermination warfare (1941“42),
Young Guard (Fadeev, 1946), 325
375
goals in, 352, 395 Young Pioneers, Soviet, 273, 292
response to Soviet atrocities, 373 Yugoslavia, 153, 336
as pivotal to twentieth century Europe,
Zalka, Mate, 438
35
Soviet Zamosc, 154, 199
de-escalation, 369 zeks, 296
diversity of ¬ghting forces, 382 zemstvo physicians, 97
goal of Nazi annihilation, 360, 368 Zhdanov, Andrei, 71
Zhukov, Georgii, 365
industrialized core, 371
Zinoviev, Grigorii, 411
mental mobilization for, 362

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